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Neospora caninum is a commonly diagnosed cause of reproductive losses in farmed ruminants worldwide. This study examined 495 and 308 samples (brain, heart and placenta) which were collected from 455 and 119 aborted cattle and sheep fetuses, respectively. DNA was extracted and a nested Neospora ITS1 PCR was performed on all samples. The results showed that for bovine fetuses 79/449 brain [17.6% (14.2–21.4)], 7/25 heart [28.0% (12.1–49.4)] and 5/21 placenta [23.8% (8.2–47.2)] were PCR positive for the presence of Neospora DNA. Overall 82/455 [18.0% (14.6–21.7)] of the bovine fetuses tested positive for the presence of N. caninum DNA in at least one sample. None (0/308) of the ovine fetal samples tested positive for the presence of Neospora DNA in any of the tissues tested. The results show that N. caninum was associated with fetal losses in cattle (distributed across South-West Scotland), compared to sheep in the same geographical areas where no parasite DNA was found. Neospora is well distributed amongst cattle in South-West Scotland and is the potential cause of serious economic losses to the Scottish cattle farming community; however, it does not appear to be a problem amongst the Scottish sheep flocks.
Analysis of injuries during military operations has focused on those related to combat. Non-combat complaints have received less attention, despite the need for many troops to be evacuated for non-battle illnesses in Iraq. This study aims to further characterize the disease and non-battle injuries (DNBIs) seen at a tertiary combat hospital and to describe the types of procedures and medications used in the management of these cases.
In this observational study, patients were enrolled from a convenience sample with non-combat-related diseases and injuries who were evaluated in the emergency department (ED) of a US military tertiary hospital in Iraq from 2007-2008. The treating emergency physician (EP) used a data collection form to enroll patients that arrived to the ED whose injury or illness was unrelated to combat.
Data were gathered on 1,745 patients with a median age of 30 years; 84% of patients were male and 85% were US military personnel. The most common diagnoses evaluated in the ED were abdominal disorders, orthopedic injuries, and headache. Many cases involved intravenous access, laboratory testing, and radiographic testing. Procedures performed included electrocardiogram, lumbar puncture, and intubation.
Disease and non-battle traumatic injuries are common in a tertiary combat hospital. Emergency providers working in austere settings should have the diagnostic and procedural skills to evaluate and treat DNBIs.
BebartaVS, MoraAG, NgPC, MasonPE, MuckA, MaddryJK. Disease and Non-Battle Traumatic Injuries Evaluated by Emergency Physicians in a US Tertiary Combat Hospital. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):53–57.
There is a known high prevalence of genetic and clinical syndrome diagnoses in the paediatric cardiac population. These disorders often have multisystem effects, which may have an important impact on neurodevelopmental outcomes. Taken together, these facts suggest that patients and families may benefit from consultation by genetic specialists in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic.
This study assessed the burden of genetic disorders and utility of genetics evaluation in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic.
A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients evaluated in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic from 6 December, 2011 to 16 April, 2013. All patients were seen by a cardiovascular geneticist with genetic counselling support.
A total of 214 patients were included in this study; 64 of these patients had a pre-existing genetic or syndromic diagnosis. Following genetics evaluation, an additional 19 were given a new clinical or laboratory-confirmed genetic diagnosis including environmental such as teratogenic exposures, malformation associations, chromosomal disorders, and single-gene disorders. Genetic testing was recommended for 112 patients; radiological imaging to screen for congenital anomalies for 17 patients; subspecialist medical referrals for 73 patients; and non-genetic clinical laboratory testing for 14 patients. Syndrome-specific guidelines were available and followed for 25 patients with known diagnosis. American Academy of Pediatrics Red Book asplenia guideline recommendations were given for five heterotaxy patients, and family-based cardiac screening was recommended for 23 families affected by left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
Genetics involvement in a cardiac neurodevelopmental clinic is helpful in identifying new unifying diagnoses and providing syndrome-specific care, which may impact the patient’s overall health status and neurodevelopmental outcome.
An overview of the Czech national R&D project HiLASE (High average power pulsed laser) is presented. The project focuses on the development of advanced high repetition rate, diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) systems with energies in the range from mJ to 100 J and repetition rates in the range from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. Some applications of these lasers in research and hi-tech industry are also presented.
We investigated an international outbreak of Salmonella Agona with a distinct PFGE pattern associated with an Irish Food company (company X) producing pre-cooked meat products sold in various food outlet chains in Europe. The outbreak was first detected in Ireland. We undertook national and international case-finding, food traceback and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. We undertook a matched case-control study on Irish cases. In total, 163 cases in seven European countries were laboratory-confirmed. Consumption of food from food outlet chains supplied by company X was significantly associated with being a confirmed case (mOR 18·3, 95% CI 2·2–149·2) in the case-control study. The outbreak strain was isolated from the company's pre-cooked meat products and production premises. Sufficient evidence was gathered to infer the vehicles of infection and sources of the outbreak and to justify the control measures taken, which were plant closure and food recall.
In summer 2008, we investigated an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness in participants of a mountain-bike event in Wales (UK) which had been affected by heavy rain. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the cause using an internet-based questionnaire. Fifty-three percent of those contacted responded, and 161 (46·5%) out of the 347 responders, reported gastrointestinal symptoms. Median day of onset was 3 days following the event. Ten riders reported receiving a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of Campylobacter. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the inadvertent ingestion of mud (OR 2·5, 95% CI 1·5–4·2, P<0·001) and eating ‘other’ food during the event (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·2–3·6, P=0·01) as significant risk factors for illness. We concluded that the outbreak was caused by Campylobacter, spread to the riders by the inadvertent ingestion of mud which had been contaminated with sheep faeces from the rural course. Mountain-bike race organizers should consider microbiological hazards when risk-assessing potential race courses. The internet is an efficient tool for the investigation of outbreaks in computer-literate populations.
We present results of a project aimed at establishing a set of 12 spectro-photometric standards over a wide wavelength range from 320 to 2500 nm. Currently no such set of standard stars covering the near-IR is available. Our strategy is to extend the useful range of existing well-established optical flux standards (Oke 1990, Hamuy et al. 1992, 1994) into the near-IR by means of integral field spectroscopy with SINFONI at the VLT combined with state-of-the-art white dwarf stellar atmospheric models (TMAP, Holberg et al. 2008). As a solid reference, we use two primary HST standard white dwarfs GD71 and GD153 and one HST secondary standard BD+17 4708. The data were collected through an ESO “Observatory Programme” over ~40 nights between February 2007 and September 2008.
Duplicate specimens were taken with cotton-wool swabs from the upper tarsal conjunctiva of 63 patients living in Gambian villages in which trachoma is endemic and from 34 infants with ophthalmia neonatorum (ON) attending an outpatient clinic in The Gambia. The detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence (IF) using a conjugated monoclonal antibody to its principal outer membrane protein was compared with isolation in cycloheximide-treated McCoy cells. For trachoma, the sensitivity and specificity of the immunofluorescent technique were 62% and 100% respectively if ten elementary bodies (EBs) was taken as the minimum requirement for positivity by IF. If all cases with one or more EB were considered positive, the sensitivity was 81% and the specificity 85%. For ON the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 95% respectively, regardless of which criterion was used. In view of its simplicity and easy applicability to field conditions it seems likely that direct IF using monoclonal antibodies may be a useful technique for the detection of C. trachomatis in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with trachoma.
Epidemiological evidence suggests a link between cannabis use and psychosis. A variety of factors have been proposed to mediate an individual's vulnerability to the harmful effects of the drug, one of which is their psychosis proneness. We hypothesized that highly psychosis-prone individuals would report more marked psychotic experiences under the acute influence of cannabis.
A group of cannabis users (n=140) completed the Psychotomimetic States Inventory (PSI) once while acutely intoxicated and again when free of cannabis. A control group (n=144) completed the PSI on two parallel test days. All participants also completed a drug history and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). Highly psychosis-prone individuals from both groups were then compared with individuals scoring low on psychosis proneness by taking those in each group scoring above and below the upper and lower quartiles using norms for the SPQ.
Smoking cannabis in a naturalistic setting reliably induced marked increases in psychotomimetic symptoms. Consistent with predictions, highly psychosis-prone individuals experienced enhanced psychotomimetic states following acute cannabis use.
These findings suggest that an individual's response to acute cannabis and their psychosis-proneness scores are related and both may be markers of vulnerability to the harmful effects of this drug.
Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L) R. Br.] is an important cereal crop in Niger, West Africa and a potential crop for the United States of America (USA). Only a few studies have been conducted in either country to identify the optimum planting dates for high and stable yields, in part because planting date experiments are resource-intensive. Crop simulation models can be an alternative research tool for determining optimum planting dates and other management practices. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the performance of the Cropping System Simulation Model (CSM)–CERES-Millet model for two contrasting environments, including Mead, Nebraska, USA and Kollo, Niger, West Africa and to use the model for determining the optimum planting dates for these two environments. Field experiments were conducted in both environments to study the impact of nitrogen fertilizer on grain yield of three varieties in Kollo and three hybrids in Mead and their associated growth and development characteristics. The CSM–CERES-Millet model was able to accurately simulate growth, development and yield for millet grown in these two contrasting environments and under different management practices that included several genotypes and different nitrogen fertilizer application rates. For Kollo, the optimum planting date to obtain the maximum yield was between 13 and 23 May for variety Heini Kirei, while for the other varieties the planting dates were between 23 May and 2 June. For Mead, the planting date analysis showed that the highest simulated yield was obtained, on average, between 19 and 29 June for hybrid 59022A×89-083 and 1361M×6Rm. Further studies should focus on evaluation and application of the millet model for other agroclimatic regions where pearl millet is an important crop.
This study investigated fluoroquinolone, macrolide resistances and serotype distributions among Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from children in Bangkok and rural settings during 1991–2000. Phenotypic identification, serotyping, and susceptibility testing were performed by standard microbiological procedures. The predominant serotypes of C. jejuni were Lior 36, 2 and 4 and of C. coli were Lior 8, 29 and 55. Resistance to nalidixic acid increased significantly during 1991–2000 and the frequency of isolates resistant to both nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin in Bangkok was significantly greater than in rural settings. In 1996–2000, a significant trend was observed in C. jejuni isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin from Bangkok but not for macrolide resistance from both settings. In summary, fluoroquinolone resistance among C. jejuni and C. coli isolates became widespread in both Bangkok and rural settings in Thailand in the 1990s while widespread resistance to macrolides was undetected.
BOOMERanG has recently resolved structures on the last scattering surface at redshift ˜ 1100 with high signal to noise ratio. We review the technical advances which made this possible, and we focus on the current results for maps and power spectra, with special attention to the determination of the total mass-energy density in the Universe and of other cosmological parameters.
We report the discovery, using FORS1 at the ESO-VLT and ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, of magnetic fields and chemical peculiarities in the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 72106 and HD 101412. These stars may well represent pre-main sequence progenitors of the magnetic Ap/Bp stars. At the same time, we fail to confirm claims by Hubrig et al. (2004) of the presence of magnetic fields in the Herbig Ae star HD 139614.
In the 1998-99 flight, BOOMERanG has produced maps of ∼4% of the sky at high Galactic latitudes, at frequencies of 90, 150, 240 and 410 GHz, with resolution ≳ 10'. The faint structure of the Cosmic Microwave Background at horizon and sub-horizon scales is evident in these maps. These maps compare well to the maps recently obtained at lower frequencies by the WMAP experiment. Here we compare the amplitude and morphology of the structures observed in the two sets of maps. We also outline the polarization sensitive version of BOOMERanG, which was flown early this year to measure the linear polarization of the microwave sky at 150, 240 and 350 GHz.