The Mongolian gerbil has been used as laboratory animal since 1935. Breeding gerbils as an isolated laboratory population for decades may have led to a domestication process whose effects include changes in brain size. Quantitative changes in testicular activity could be assumed. Comparative intraspecific measurements were performed in 34 adult males of the laboratory strain (LAB) and in males raised as offspring of wild Mongolian gerbils (WILD) caught in central Mongolia (F1, n = 16; F2, n = 17). LAB and WILD were examined in January. Testicular spermatozoa were counted, proportions of different cell types were analysed using DNA flow cytometry, and mitotic and meiotic activity was calculated from DNA histograms. Intratesticular testosterone concentrations were measured with an enzyme immunoassay. In the WILD, testicular activity was lower and varied more. The overall weight, the efficiency of spermatogenesis (sperm/g testis) and resulting total sperm per testis were significantly less in offspring of wild gerbils. This corresponded with lower levels of haploid cells, total germ cell transformation of diploid cells to spermatids and meiotic transformation of spermatocytes to spermatids. The most profound difference was found in testicular testosterone concentration: the mean level was 405.7 ± 41.2 ng/g testis in LAB vs 6.4 ± 2.0 ng/g in WILD F1. All parameters changed in WILD F2 generation compared with F1 and diminished the differences with LAB. Differences between F1 and F2 were significant for testis mass, testis/body weight ratio, percentages of haploid cells and cells in G2/M phase, both germ cell transformations and testosterone concentration. The results suggest rapid, adaptive changes of male reproductive physiology in the early offspring generations from wild populations under laboratory breeding conditions. The breeding of Mongolian gerbils in the laboratory has influenced the testicular function resulting in increased spermatogenic activity and highly stimulated testosterone production.