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In order to maximize the utility of future studies of trilobite ontogeny, we propose a set of standard practices that relate to the collection, nomenclature, description, depiction, and interpretation of ontogenetic series inferred from articulated specimens belonging to individual species. In some cases, these suggestions may also apply to ontogenetic studies of other fossilized taxa.
The aim of this study was to evaluate theprevalence of night eating syndrome (NES) and its correlates in schizophrenicoutpatients.
The 14 items of self-reported night eatingquestionnaire (NEQ) was administered to 201 schizophrenic patients in psychiatricoutpatient clinic. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics, bodymass index (BMI), subjective measures of mood, sleep, binge eating, andweight-related quality of life using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI),Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Koreanversion of Obesity-Related Quality of Life Scale (KOQoL), respectively.
The prevalence of night eaters in schizophrenicoutpatients was 10.4% (21 of 201). Comparisons between NES group and non-NES grouprevealed no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics, clinical status and BMI. Compared to non-NES, patients with NES reportedsignificantly greater depressed mood and sleep disturbance, more binge eatingpattern, and decreased weight-related quality of life. While 'morning anorexia'and 'delayed morning meal' (2 of 5 NES core components in NEQ) were notdiffered between groups, 'nocturnal ingestions', 'evening hyperphagia', and'mood/sleep' were more impaired in NES group.
These findings are the first to describe theprevalence and its correlates of night eaters in schizophrenic outpatients. These results suggest that NES has negative mental health implications, although it was not associated with obesity. Further study to generalize theseresults is required.
There have been many changes in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
It is necessary to develop guidelines that can more aptly respond to cultural issues and specifics in different countries.
The Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was firstly published in 2002, with updates in 2006 and 2010. This third update reviewed the experts' consensus of opinion on the pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder.
The newly revised questionnaire composed of 55 key questions about clinical situations including 223 sub-items was sent to the experts.
Combination of mood stabilizer (MS) and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) was the first-line treatment option in acute mania. For the management of severe psychotic bipolar depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of AAP and LTG, combination of MS, AAP and AD or LTG, combination of AAP and AD, and combination of AAP, AD and LTG was the first-line treatments. Combination of MS and AAP was the treatment of choice for management of mixed features. Combination of MS and AAP, MS or AAP monotherapy was the first-line options for management of maintenance phase after manic episode. For maintenance treatment after bipolar I depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of MS and LTG, combination of AAP and LTG, MS or LTG monotherapy, and combination of MS, AAP and LTG were the first-line options.
Despite the limitations of expert consensus guideline, KMAP-BP 2014 may reflect the current patterns of clinical practice and recent researches.
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the factors associated with bipolar disorder in pregnant female, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, suicidal idea and sleep.
A total of 84 pregnant female were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ).
Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive K-MDQ scores, suggesting the present of bipolarity. Positive EPDS group had twenty subjects (25%) who had depressive symptoms. The diathesis of bipolar disorder was associated with marital dissatisfaction, social conflict, depression and sleep. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the only poor sleep was a risk of bipolarity.
Pregnant female with bipolarity were more depressed and sleep problems than those without bipolarity. The results showed that the most important factor of influencing bipolarity was sleep.
This study aimed to explore thedifference in emotional recognition of musical auditory stimulation and artfulvisual stimulation between helathy people and patients with schizophrenia.
20 songs and 20 paintings thatcontained sad or cheerful emotions were presented to 123 patients withschizophrenia and 224 healthy people as control group. The subjects were askedto tell about their emotions that they had felt from each musical auditorystimulation and artful visual stimulation. To measure such emotions, the Emotional Empathy Scale was used. The level of psychopathology in patientsgroup were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale.
The correct answer rate to musical auditoryand artful visual stimulation of the patient group was significantly lower than that of thecontrol group. Thepatient group showed lower emotional empathic ability compared to the controlgroup. In the patient group, the correct answer rate to musical and artfulstimulation showed a negative correlation with score with Formal ThoughtDisorder Rating Scale.
Patients with schizophrenia have difficulties inprecise emotional recognition to auditory and visual stimulations, and this isassociated with lowered empathic ability and thinking disorder of patients withschizophrenia. If an psychosocial rehabilitation program or psychotherapy isimplemented to patients with schizophrenia, it is deemed to be necessary to make a mediation to improve the emotional recognition and expression ability of patients with schizophrenia.
This study was aimed to discover the correlation between those getting tattoos and their psychopathology relating to their delinquent behavior and emotional problems.
Date for this study was collected from 19-year-old men who were receiving a physical examination for conscription at the Korea Military Manpower Administration. 400 data sheets were collected among them. All of sjubjects were evaluated on the following measures: sociodemographic variants, Juvernile delinquency scale, State-trait anger expression inventory, Beck depression inventory, State-triat anxiety inventory, and Positive affect and negative affect schedule.
In comparison with those without tattooes, those with a tattoo scored higher in the scales that were related to delinquency, anger, depression, and negateive emotion. Furthermore, there were positive correlations between the number of tattoos and the scores for the Juvenile delinquent tendency and behavior scale as well as on the State-triat anxiety scale.
Those with tattoos had experienced anger, anxiety, and depression more strongly in comparison with those without tattoos. These reults recommended that tattooed males should be evaluated more on their regrading psychopathology compared to those without tattoos.
Thisstudy was to assess the prevalence and its correlates of restless legs syndrome(RLS) in outpatients with bipolar disorder.
A total of 100clinical stabilized bipolar outpatients were examined. The presence of RLS andits severity were assessed using the International Restless Legs Sydrome StudyGroup (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria. Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), Spielberg's StateAnxiety Inventory (STAI-X-1), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Koreanversion Drug Attitude Inventory (KDAI-10), Subjective Well-Beings under NeurolepticTreatment Scale-Short Form(SWN-K) and Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) wereused to evaluate the depressive symptomatology, level of anxiety, subjectivequality of sleep, subjective feeling of well-being, drug attitude, presence ofakathisia, respectively.
Of the 100 bipolar outpatients,7 (7%) were met to full criteria of IRLSSG and 36 (36%) have at least one ofthe 4 IRLSSG criterion. Because of relatively small sample size, non-parametricanalysis were done to compare the characteristics among 3 groups (full-RLS, 1≥positiveRLS-symptom and Non-RLS). There were no significant differences in sex, age, and other sociodemographic and clinical data among 3 groups. BDI, STAI-X-1 andPSQI are tended to be impaired in RLS and 1≥positive RLS-symptomgroups.
This is the first preliminarystudy for studying the prevalence and its correlates of RLS in bipolardisorder. The results shows that RLS was relatively smaller presentin bipolar disorder than schizophrenia. Sametendencies shown in schizophrenic patients were found that bipolar patientswith RLS had more depressive symptoms, state anxiety and poor subjective sleepquality.
The aim of this study was to monitor changes of prescription trends for bipolar disorder in inpatient settings in one university hospital.
A retrospective chart review was performed and data of 188 cases (2009–2012) and 118 cases (1998–2001) with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder were collected. Data on demographic variables, duration of hospitalization, kinds of psychotropic medications and the patterns of prescription over each four-year period were analyzed.
The proportion of patients with manic episode was decreased, whereas those of mixed and depressive episodes were increased. The use of lithium was decreased with the increased use of valproate. Increased use of lamotrigine in depressive episode was prominent. The use of combination treatment with mood stabilizers and antipsychotics was almost same level in both periods. The use of typical antipsychotics was significantly decreased and that of atypical antipsychotics was increased. Especially, the use of quetiapine showed great increase. In bipolar depression, the use of antidepressant was increased.
Data showed that quetiapine monotherapy had favorable effect on acute manic symptoms and well tolerated. Also this result suggests that quetiapine monotherapy may improve the self-perceived quality of sleep without any daytime impairment following sleep in acute manic patients.
Despite the advance in pharmacotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), poor treatment adherence to pharmacotherapy for PTSD is a critical issue.
We intended to evaluate the predictors of premature discontinuation of psychiatric outpatient treatment after discharge for noncombat-related PTSD.
This study aimed to examine the sociodemographic and disease-related variables associated with the premature discontinuation of psychiatric outpatient treatment after discharge among patients with non-combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were discharged with a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder.
Fifty-five percent of subjects prematurely discontinued outpatient treatment within 6 months of discharge. Comparing sociodemographic variables between the 6-month non-follow-up group and 6-month follow-up group, there were no variables that differed between the two groups. However, comparing disease-related variables, the 6-month follow-up group showed a longer hospitalization duration and higher Global Assessment of Function score at discharge. The logistic regression analysis showed that a shorter duration of hospitalization predicted premature discontinuation of outpatient treatment within 6 months of discharge.
The duration of psychiatric hospitalization for posttraumatic stress disorder appeared to influence the premature discontinuation of outpatient treatment after discharge.
This study examined the prescribing patterns for medications to treat bipolar disorder in outpatient-based psychiatric practice focusing on atypical antipsychotics.
Retrospective chart review of patients admitted to a university hospital with a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder in a period from January 2008 to December 2012 was conducted. We reviewed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition diagnosis and detailed clinical information at index episode. Psychotropic medications were grouped into six categories; atypical antipsychotics, typical antipsychotics, lithium, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and minor tranquilizers. Severity, rapid cycling type, psychiatric comorbidity and disease duration were computed focusing on atypical antipsychotics.
In 344 patients who were prescribed major psychotropic medications, atypical antipsychotics were prescribed in 70.9% of subjects, anticonvulsants in 73.3%, lithium in 36.9%, antidepressants in 41.9%, and typical antipsychotics in 0.9% of subjects. About 12.5% of subjects were treated with the monotherapy. Atypical antipsychotics prescription was favored in subjects with manic and mixed episodes or severe episode. Prescribing trend is independent of rapid cycling type. Prescription of antidepressants were more frequent in subjects who were recently diagnosed as bipolar disorder or prescribed new medications or existed psychiatric comorbidity.
The development of bipolar disorder's psychopharmacology has been reflected in the prescription pattern of psychotropic medications in Korea. This study suggests that atypical antipsychotics have played major role in treatment of bipolar disorder.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of the suicidal ideation and associated factors with self-reported suicidal ideation within the last 12 months among Korean adolescents.
A total of 1533 adolescents were recruited from middle schools (age range: 13-14 years) in Korea. According to existence of suicidal ideation, they were divided 2 group – suicidal ideation group and non-suicidal ideation group, and the differences between groups in terms of various characteristics, including depression (Kovacs’ Children’s Depression Inventory), school and family factors, and health related conditions.
A total of 501 (32.7%) middle school students reported suicidal ideation, and the rate of suicidal attempt was 6.9% (n=106). The associated factors of suicidal ideation were female (OR= 2.42, p<0.001), below average academic achievement (OR=1.43, p=0.007), perceived low parental support (OR=2.09, p=0.001), depression (OR=3.25, p<0.001), current alcohol use (OR=2.37, p=0.003), self reported poor health (OR=1.54, p =0.043), and school bullying (OR=1.91, p =0.005).
These results may have important implications for the strategies and specified intervention in preventing suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents.
We evaluated the difference in sleep skills between patients with and without need of hypnotics after sleep CBT.
Total 131 insomnia patients' sleep disturbances were assessed by visual analogue scales. Patients received 9 sessions of sleep CBT and were prescribed hypnotics for prn during 3 months. Sleep CBT was focused on the sleep hygiene and sleep stimulus-control guidelines. Sleep hygiene guidelines were Limit the time spent in bed (SH1), Get regular exercise (SH2), Avoid light at night (SH3), Avoid heavy meals or drinking (SH4), Quiet, dark, and comfortable bedroom (SH5), Avoid caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine (SH6), Relaxing bedtime routine (SH7),Llight bedtime snack (SH8), Remove the bedroom clock (SH9). Sleep stimulus-control guidelines were Go to bed only when sleepy (SSC1), Use the bed for sleeping or sex (SSC2), Get out of bed when unable to sleep (SSC3), Get up at the same time (SSC4), Avoid napping (SSC5). Each sleep skill state was evaluated by Likert scale, and they were compared between before and after CBT. Patients were divided into two groups: still need of hypnotics and no need of hypnotics after 3 months.
Forty-six (35.1%) patients replied they needed not hypnotics any more, but 85 (64.9%) patients replied they still needed hypnotics after CBT. Sleep VAS (25.26±8.52 vs. 32.64±8.95, p<0.001), SH2 (3.67±0.92 vs. 2.76±1.06, p=0.030), SH7 (4.08±0.55 vs. 2.76±0.76, p<0.001) were different in two groups.
Among several CBT skills, regular moderate exercise in daytime and a relaxing bedtime routine seem to be key components.
Conventional ambulatory heart rhythm monitoring is limited in its ability to provide rapid diagnosis of arrhythmias in athletes participating in water or high-intensity sports. This case report is of a 17-year-old female competitive swimmer who underwent loop recorder implantation with Confirm Rx™ ICM 3500 (Abbott, Minneapolis, MN) to monitor for arrhythmias during swimming. The purpose of this case report is to describe the utility of implantable loop recorders in arrhythmia diagnosis and symptom evaluation in water sport athletes.
To analyse the results of treatment for nasolabial cysts according to whether an intraoral sublabial or endoscopic transnasal approach was used, and to determine the recent surgical trend in our hospital.
Twenty-four patients with a histopathologically and radiologically confirmed nasolabial cyst between January 2010 and December 2017 were enrolled in this study.
Nasolabial cysts were predominant in females (91.7 per cent) and on the left side (54.2 per cent). Treatment involved an intraoral sublabial approach in 12 cases (48.0 per cent) and a transnasal endoscopic approach in 13 cases (52.0 per cent). In 13 cases (52.0 per cent) surgery was performed under local anaesthesia, while in 12 cases (48.0 per cent) it was conducted under general anaesthesia. The most common post-operative complications were numbness of the upper lip or teeth (n = 9, 36.0 per cent). Only one patient (4.0 per cent), who underwent a transnasal endoscopic approach, experienced a reoccurrence.
Surgical resection through an intraoral sublabial or transnasal endoscopic approach is the best treatment for a nasolabial cyst, showing very good results and a low recurrence rate. The recent surgical trend in our hospital is to treat nasolabial cysts using a transnasal endoscopic approach under local anaesthesia.
The Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA) is a longitudinal behavioral genetic study with a primary focus on cognitive and brain aging in men, particularly early identification of risk for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It comprises a subset of over 1600 twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Twins live all over the USA. Assessments began when participants were in their 50s. Follow-ups were conducted every 5–6 years, and wave 3 has been completed as of this writing. The age range of participants is narrow (about 10 years). An extensive neurocognitive test battery has added precision in assessing differences in middle-aged adults, and predicting progression to MCI. Young adult cognitive test data (at an average age of 20 years) provide a means of disentangling aging effects from longstanding differences. Genome wide genotyping and plasma assays of AD biomarkers from waves 1 and 3 were conducted in wave 3. These features make the VETSA ideal for studying the heterogeneity of within-individual trajectories from midlife to old age, and for early detection of risk factors for cognitive decline.
Addition of multispecies impurity ions to the total-f gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGCa is reported, including a cross-verification of neoclassical physics against the NEO code. This new version of the neoclassical gyrokinetic code XGCa is used to benchmark and confirm the previous reduced-equation-based prediction that high-
impurity particles in the Pfirsch–Schlüter regime can exhibit a significant level of up–down poloidal asymmetry, through the large parallel friction force, and thus influence the radial plasma transport significantly. The study is performed in a plasma with weak toroidal rotation. In comparison, when the impurity particles are in the plateau regime, the up–down poloidal asymmetry becomes weak, with the parallel friction force becoming weaker than the parallel viscous force. It is also found that the linearization of the perturbed distribution function, based on the small poloidal asymmetry assumption, can become invalid. Using the numerical data from XGCa, each term in the parallel fluid force-balance equation have been analysed to find that both the main ions and the electrons respond to the poloidal potential variation adiabatically when the high-
tungsten possesses large poloidal variation.
The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) is a longitudinal twin study that recruited over 16,000 twin-pairs born between 1994 and 1996 in England and Wales through national birth records. More than 10,000 of these families are still engaged in the study. TEDS was and still is a representative sample of the population in England and Wales. Rich cognitive and emotional/behavioral data have been collected from the twins from infancy to emerging adulthood, with data collection at first contact and at ages 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 21, enabling longitudinal genetically sensitive analyses. Data have been collected from the twins themselves, from their parents and teachers, and from the UK National Pupil Database. Genotyped DNA data are available for 10,346 individuals (who are unrelated except for 3320 dizygotic co-twins). TEDS data have contributed to over 400 scientific papers involving more than 140 researchers in 50 research institutions. TEDS offers an outstanding resource for investigating cognitive and behavioral development across childhood and early adulthood and actively fosters scientific collaborations.
The Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) is a prospective adoption study of birth parents, adoptive parents and adopted children (n = 561 adoptees). The original sample has been expanded to include siblings of the EGDS adoptees who were reared by the birth mother and assessed beginning at age 7 years (n = 217 biological children), and additional siblings in both the birth and adoptive family homes, recruited when the adoptees were 8–15 years old (n = 823). The overall study aims are to examine how family, peer and contextual processes affect child and adolescent adjustment, and to examine their interplay (mediation, moderation) with genetic influences. Adoptive and birth parents were originally recruited through adoption agencies located throughout the USA following the birth of a child. Assessments are ongoing and occurred in 9 month’s intervals until the adoptees turned 3 years of age, and in 1 to 2 year intervals thereafter through age 15. Data collection includes the following primary constructs: child temperament, behavior problems, mental health, peer relations, executive functioning, school performance and health; birth and adoptive parent personality characteristics, mental health, health, context, substance use, parenting and marital relations; and the prenatal environment. Findings highlight the power of the adoption design to detect environmental influences on child development and provide evidence of complex interactions and correlations between genetic, prenatal environmental and postnatal environmental influences on a range of child outcomes. The study sample, procedures and an overview of findings are summarized and ongoing assessment activities are described.
TwinsUK is the largest cohort of community-dwelling adult twins in the UK. The registry comprises over 14,000 volunteer twins (14,838 including mixed, single and triplets); it is predominantly female (82%) and middle-aged (mean age 59). In addition, over 1800 parents and siblings of twins are registered volunteers. During the last 27 years, TwinsUK has collected numerous questionnaire responses, physical/cognitive measures and biological measures on over 8500 subjects. Data were collected alongside four comprehensive phenotyping clinical visits to the Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King’s College London. Such collection methods have resulted in very detailed longitudinal clinical, biochemical, behavioral, dietary and socioeconomic cohort characterization; it provides a multidisciplinary platform for the study of complex disease during the adult life course, including the process of healthy aging. The major strength of TwinsUK is the availability of several ‘omic’ technologies for a range of sample types from participants, which includes genomewide scans of single-nucleotide variants, next-generation sequencing, metabolomic profiles, microbiomics, exome sequencing, epigenetic markers, gene expression arrays, RNA sequencing and telomere length measures. TwinsUK facilitates and actively encourages sharing the ‘TwinsUK’ resource with the scientific community — interested researchers may request data via the TwinsUK website (http://twinsuk.ac.uk/resources-for-researchers/access-our-data/) for their own use or future collaboration with the study team. In addition, further cohort data collection is planned via the Wellcome Open Research gateway (https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/gateways). The current article presents an up-to-date report on the application of technological advances, new study procedures in the cohort and future direction of TwinsUK.
The Children of the Twins Early Development Study (CoTEDS) is a new prospective children-of-twins study in the UK, designed to investigate intergenerational associations across child developmental stages. CoTEDS will enable research on genetic and environmental factors that underpin parent–child associations, with a focus on mental health and cognitive-related traits. Through CoTEDS, we will have a new lens to examine the roles that parents play in influencing child development, as well as the genetic and environmental factors that shape parenting behavior and experiences. Recruitment is ongoing from the sample of approximately 20,000 contactable adult twins who have been enrolled in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) since infancy. TEDS twins are invited to register all offspring to CoTEDS at birth, with 554 children registered as of May 2019. By recruiting the second generation of TEDS participants, CoTEDS will include information on adult twins and their offspring from infancy. Parent questionnaire-based data collection is now underway for 1- and 2-year-old CoTEDS infants, with further waves of data collection planned. Current data collection includes the following primary constructs: child mental health, temperament, language and cognitive development; parent mental health and social relationships; parenting behaviors and feelings; and other socioecological factors. Measurement tools have been selected with reference to existing genetically informative cohort studies to ensure overlap in phenotypes measured at corresponding stages of development. This built-in study overlap is intended to enable replication and triangulation of future analyses across samples and research designs. Here, we summarize study protocols and measurement procedures and describe future plans.