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The Turkish poultry industry has rapidly developed in the last decade. Viral pathogens continue to threaten the industry, causing economic losses worldwide, including Turkey. At present, infectious bronchitis and infectious laryngotracheitis are major challenges, as are, to a lesser extent, avian metapneumovirus, infectious bursal disease, Marek's disease and chicken infectious anaemia. The prevalence and severity of these diseases in Turkish chickens varies depending on environmental and management factors, vaccination strategies and biosecurity measures. In Turkey, infectious bronchitis virus, including vaccine and field strains, were detected in 83.6% (41/49) and 64.2% (9/14) vaccinated broiler and layer flocks, respectively. Virulent and vaccine strains of infectious bursal disease virus were found in 83.5% (1548/1855) of excised bursa Fabricius from vaccinated broilers. Virulent Marek's disease virus was found in 19.93% (120/620) of spleens from vaccinated chickens. Infectious laryngotracheitis virus in commercial poultry and Newcastle disease in backyard chickens have been detected. To date, Newcastle disease and avian influenza virus have not been reported in commercial poultry. Avian metapneumovirus was found in 7.2% (8/110) of the broiler samples. Antibodies to gyrovirus and avian leukosis virus have been detected. Commercial vaccines, such as attenuated, inactivated and vectored vaccines, are being used for prevention and control of viral poultry diseases in Turkey. This review summarises the available information on viral poultry diseases in Turkey. It highlights the need to strengthen surveillance and reporting for diseases and addresses the vaccination practices used in Turkish poultry industry. The future prospects of vaccination and need to empower diagnostic capacity in controlling viral poultry diseases are discussed. The information presented here is aimed at improving research, prevention, and control of poultry diseases for researchers, veterinarians, policy makers and other professions related to poultry industry.
To analyse the clinical outcomes of biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam versus ribbon gauze and ear wick in the treatment of severe acute otitis externa.
Ninety-two adults with severe acute otitis externa were randomly assigned to groups receiving ear wick (n = 28), ribbon gauze (n = 34) or biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam (n = 30). Clinical efficacy, in terms of otalgia, oedema, erythema and tenderness of the external auditory canal, was assessed before packing was applied and at follow up on the 3rd and 7th days of presentation.
All packing materials were associated with improved otalgia and oedema on the 3rd day; however, there were significant differences between biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam and the other packing materials, and there was no significant reduction in tenderness in the biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam group on the 3rd day. In the ribbon gauze and ear wick groups, improvements in all clinical efficacy scores were statistically significant for all pairwise comparisons.
The three packing materials were all quite effective in treating severe acute otitis externa, but ear wick and ribbon gauze were superior to biodegradable synthetic polyurethane foam for relieving signs and symptoms, especially on the 3rd day.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship of epicardial fat thickness with severity of obstructive sleep apnoea, and clinical and polysomnographic parameters, and to determine independent predictors for epicardial fat thickness.
A total of 84 patients with a body mass index of less than 30 kg/m2 and suspected sleep-disordered breathing were included in the study. The correlations of epicardial fat thickness with polysomnographic and clinical data, and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea, were investigated.
Mean epicardial fat thickness was 3.75 ± 1.07 mm in the study group (n = 62) and 2.97 ± 0.62 mm in the control group (n = 22) (p < 0.001). There were significant positive correlations between epicardial fat thickness and: apnoea/hypopnoea index, oxygen desaturation index 3 and minimum oxygen saturation, as well as with age, body mass index, and neck and waist circumferences.
Non-obese obstructive sleep apnoea patients have thicker epicardial fat compared to controls. Oxygen desaturation index 3 has a strong correlation with epicardial fat thickness and is an independent predictor of it.
Using high-precision photometry from the Kepler mission, we investigate patterns of spot activity on the K1-type subgiant component of KIC 11560447, a short-period late-type eclipsing binary. We tested the validity of maximum entropy reconstructions of starspots by numerical simulations. Our procedure successfully captures up to three large spot clusters migrating in longitude. We suggest a way to measure a lower limit for stellar differential rotation, using slopes of spot patterns in the reconstructed time-longitude diagram. We find solar-like differential rotation and recurrent spot activity with a long-term trend towards a dominant axisymmetric spot distribution during the period of observations.
We aim to discover the accuracy of photometric mass ratios (qph) determined for eclipsing binary stars, in the case of the system having at least one ‘flat bottom’ as a minimum profile, as well as the accuracy of data used in that sense. Within this context, we present the results of two-dimensional grid search (q – i) for some W UMa-type eclipsing binaries showing total eclipses, based on the high precision photometric data provided by the KEPLER Mission. The radial velocity data obtained for KIC10618253 in this study, enables us to compare both qph and the corresponding spectroscopic mass ratio (qsp) values. The results indicate that the high precision photometric data for overcontact eclipsing binaries showing total eclipses allow us to obtain the photometric mass ratios as accurate as the spectroscopic values.
Excavations at Kavuşan Höyük (south-eastern Turkey) have revealed evidence of the use of turtles, tortoises and terrapins in post-Assyrian funerary practices. Of particular significance are the remains of the Euphrates soft-shelled turtle (Rafetus euphraticus), distinguished from other species of turtle by their quantity and treatment in the burial pit under investigation here. The unique finds from Kavuşan Höyük, coupled with archaeological and textual records, underline the economic and symbolic significance of these animals for communities in prehistoric and early historical Mesopotamia.
A new high rate deposition method has been used to fabricate thin film CdTe
photovoltaic devices using pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. The devices have been
deposited in superstrate configuration on to a commercial fluorine doped tin
oxide transparent conductor on soda lime glass. The cadmium sulphide and cadmium
telluride thin films were deposited from compound targets. The magnetrons were
mounted vertically around a cylindrical chamber and the substrate carrier
rotates so that the layers can be deposited sequentially. The substrates were
held at 200°C during deposition, a process condition previously found
to minimize the stress in the coatings. Optimization of the process involved a
number of parameters including control of pulse frequency, power and working gas
pressure. The devices deposited using the process are exceptionally uniform
enabling the CdTe absorber thickness to be reduced to ∼1um. The
as-deposited material is dense and columnar. The cadmium chloride treatment
increases the grain size and removes planar defects. The microstructure of the
films before and after activation has been characterized using a number of
techniques including transmission electron microscopy, Energy Dispersive mapping
and these measurements have been correlated to device performance. The
deposition rate is much higher than can be obtained with radio-frequency
sputtering and is comparable with methods currently used in thin film CdTe
module manufacturing such as Vapour Transport Deposition and Close Space
This study evaluated type D personality, anxiety, depression and personality traits in patients with isolated itching of the external auditory canal.
A hundred consecutive out-patients with isolated itching of the external auditory canal and 100 controls were enrolled in the study. The Type D Scale, the abbreviated form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used for data collection. Patients were also evaluated using the Modified Itch Severity Scale.
In all, 43 per cent of patients and 15 per cent of controls met the criteria for a type D personality. Patients with a type D personality had higher anxiety and itching severity but lower extraversion compared with those without a type D personality. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that extraversion and type D personality were independently associated with itch severity.
These data suggest that clinicians should consider psychological and personality features when evaluating and treating patients with isolated itching of the external auditory canal.
During an endoscopic arytenoidectomy, an intubation tube must be elevated anteriorly with the laryngoscope to ensure an adequate surgical field. This paper describes a new laryngoscope that has a canal along the outer wall of the body and a ridge which runs along the canal.
Ten patients underwent endoscopic total arytenoidectomy using this new laryngoscope and 10 patients underwent the same operation using a regular laryngoscope.
The duration of all operations ranged between 25 and 65 minutes, with a median duration of 42.5 minutes. The median duration with the new laryngoscope was 39 minutes, and that with the regular laryngoscope was 49 minutes; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05).
This new laryngoscope shortened the duration of the endoscopic arytenoidectomy and facilitated the procedure by enlarging the surgical field. This new laryngoscope may be a beneficial surgical instrument for posterior endoscopic laryngeal operations.
We investigated a gastroenteritis outbreak in Erzurum city, Turkey in December 2012 to identify its cause and mode of transmission. We defined a probable case as onset of diarrhoea (⩾3 episodes/day) or vomiting, plus fever or nausea or abdominal pain during 19–27 December, 2012 in an Erzurum city resident. In a case-control study we compared exposures of 95 randomly selected probable cases and 95 neighbourhood-matched controls. We conducted bacterial culture and real-time multiplex PCR for identification of pathogens. During the week before illness onset, 72% of cases and 15% of controls only drank water from antique neighbourhood fountains; conversely, 16% of cases and 65% of controls only drank bottled or tap water (adjusted odds ratio 20, 95% confidence interval 4·6–84, after controlling for age and sex using conditional logistic regression). Of eight stool specimens collected, two were positive for Shigella sonnei, one for astrovirus, one for astrovirus and norovirus, and one for astrovirus and rotavirus. Water samples from the fountains had elevated total coliform (38–300/100 ml) and Escherichia coli (22–198/100 ml) counts. In conclusion, drinking contaminated fountain water caused this multi-pathogen outbreak. Residents should stop drinking water from these fountains, and clean water from the water treatment plant should be connected to the fountains.
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Turkey, and since 2004 many cases have been reported from different regions of Turkey. There are limited data about the seroprevalence of the disease in household members of patients or persons sharing the same environment. We evaluated seroprevalence of CCHF in the immediate neighbourhood and in household members of patients living in the same environment as confirmed cases of CCHF in an endemic area of Turkey. A total of 625 healthy subjects [mean (s.d.) age: 42·3 (18·4) years, 58·7% females] without a past history of CCHF infection included in this case-control, retrospective study were evaluated in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors for CCHF via a study questionnaire, while serum analysis for CCHF virus (CCHFV) IgG antibodies was performed by ELISA. Anti-CCHFV IgG antibodies were positive in 85 (13·6%) participants. None of the seropositive individuals had a history of symptomatic infection. Regression analysis revealed that animal husbandry [odds ratio (OR) 1·84, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·09–3·11], contact with animals (OR 2·31, 95% CI 1·08–5·10), contact with ticks (OR 3·45, 95% CI 1·87–6·46), removing ticks from animals by hand (OR 2·48, 95% CI 1·48–4·18) and living in a rural area (OR 4·05, 95% CI 1·65–10·56) were associated with increased odds of having IgG seropositivity, while being a household member of a patient with prior CCHF infection had no influence on seropositivity rates. This result also supports the idea that CCHF is not transmitted person-to-person by the airborne route.
Implementation of contact precautions in nursing homes to prevent methicillm-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) transmission could cost time and effort and may have wide-ranging effects throughout multiple health facilities. Computational modeling could forecast the potential effects and guide policy making.
All hospitals and nursing homes in Orange County, California.
Our simulation model compared the following 3 contact precaution strategies: (1) no contact precautions applied to any nursing home residents, (2) contact precautions applied to those with clinically apparent MRSA infections, and (3) contact precautions applied to all known MRSA carriers as determined by MRSA screening performed by hospitals.
Our model demonstrated that contact precautions for patients with clinically apparent MRSA infections in nursing homes resulted in a median 0.4% (range, 0%–1.6%) relative decrease in MRSA prevalence in nursing homes (with 50% adherence) but had no effect on hospital MRSA prevalence, even 5 years after initiation. Implementation of contact precautions (with 50% adherence) in nursing homes for all known MRSA carriers was associated with a median 14.2% (range, 2.1%–21.8%) relative decrease in MRSA prevalence in nursing homes and a 2.3% decrease (range, 0%–7.1%) in hospitals 1 year after implementation. Benefits accrued over time and increased with increasing compliance.
Our modeling study demonstrated the substantial benefits of extending contact precautions in nursing homes from just those residents with clinically apparent infection to all MRSA carriers, which suggests the benefits of hospitals and nursing homes sharing and coordinating information on MRSA surveillance and carriage status.
Environmental concerns emphasize the urgent need for the development of biodegradable polymers. In this study, poly (lactic acid) (PLA), being a biodegradable polymer matrix, was used together with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) to enhance its low toughness. In addition, the deterioration in mechanical properties owing to plasticization was tried to be overcome by addition of nanofiller. As nanofiller, two nanotubular halloysite (HNT) types, one local (ESAN HNT) and an imported one (Nanoclay HNT) supplied by Aldrich, were used. As the first step, characterization and purification of local HNT was performed. In the second step, plasticized and unplasticized PLA matrix composites containing 3, 5 and 10 wt % were prepared and their morphological and mechanical analysis were performed. Upon the addition of both ESAN HNT (local HNT) and Nanoclay HNT (imported HNT) no improvement was observed in the basal spacing of the clay layers owing to poor interaction between the matrix and the surface of the nanotubes which should be modified for better dispersion.
Mutations in the genes for connexin 26 (GJB2) and connexin 30 (GJB6) play an important role in autosomal recessive, non-syndromic hearing loss. This study aimed to detect the 35delG and 167delT mutations of the GJB2 gene and the del(GJB6-D13S1830) mutation of the GJB6 gene in paediatric patients diagnosed with congenital, non-syndromic hearing loss and treated with cochlear implantation in Mediterranean Turkey.
Materials and method:
We included 94 children diagnosed with congenital, non-syndromic hearing loss and treated with cochlear implantation. Blood samples were collected, DNA extracted and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed to enable molecular diagnosis of mutations.
Of the 94 children analysed, the 35delG mutation was detected in 12 (12.7 per cent): 10 (83.3 per cent) were homozygous and 2 (16.7 per cent) heterozygous mutant. The 167delT and del(GJB6-D13S1830) mutations were not detected.
The GJB2-35delG mutation is a major cause of congenital, non-syndromic hearing loss in this study population.
Turkey's 10.6 million head of cattle comprise a rich array of native breeds and types but these are being increasingly eroded by the often indiscriminate use of exotic genotypes. The structure of agriculture is such that most farms are predominantly subsistence oriented, of small size, keep few animals and provide only minimal inputs. Native breeds have evolved to meet these conditions and are generally well adapted to the natural environment, inadequate and unbalanced nutrition and disease stress. In the last 80 years, there has been much modification of the natural gene pool and many distinct breed types are in danger of or have already suffered extinction. This paper describes some of the major remaining cattle genetic resources and their conservation status. Government is now aware of the danger of the impoverishment or loss of this important aspect of biodiversity and has established programmes for conservation and preservation of several native breeds. Government, research institutions and producers should work together to ensure that the local gene pool is preserved and can thus continue to contribute to biodiversity and sustainable livestock production.
Pulsed Electron Deposition (PED) is an attractive alternative to Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) for growing high temperature superconductor thin films because of its relatively low cost. In this study, YBa2Cu3O7-δ(YBCO) thin film has been fabricated on silicon substrates by Pulsed Electron Deposition technique. SrTiO3 (STO) as a buffer layer has been grown between Si substrate and YBCO superconducting layer. The crystalline structures of STO/Si and YBCO/STO/Si films have been investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology and microstructure of YBCO/STO/Si thin film have been characterized with atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). From the θ-2θ XRD analysis of YBCO thin films, (00l) diffraction peaks are obtained indicating they have a poor c-axis oriented structure. SEM analysis shows that the surfaces of films are crack-free, but they have some particulates. On AFM images, the droplets are clearly observed leading to a roughly surface.
In the framework of the EVRENA project, high-resolution spectra of northern eclipsing close binaries in stellar groups are obtained with the HERMES Echelle spectrograph at the Mercator telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory). This contribution gives the first results on DV Camelopardalis.
Since hospitals in a region often share patients, an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in one hospital could affect other hospitals.
Using extensive data collected from Orange County (OC), California, we developed a detailed agent-based model to represent patient movement among all OC hospitals. Experiments simulated MRSA outbreaks in various wards, institutions, and regions. Sensitivity analysis varied lengths of stay, intraward transmission coefficients (β), MRSA loss rate, probability of patient transfer or readmission, and time to readmission.
Each simulated outbreak eventually affected all of the hospitals in the network, with effects depending on the outbreak size and location. Increasing MRSA prevalence at a single hospital (from 5% to 15%) resulted in a 2.9% average increase in relative prevalence at all other hospitals (ranging from no effect to 46.4%). Single-hospital intensive care unit outbreaks (modeled increase from 5% to 15%) caused a 1.4% average relative increase in all other OC hospitals (ranging from no effect to 12.7%).
MRSA outbreaks may rarely be confined to a single hospital but instead may affect all of the hospitals in a region. This suggests that prevention and control strategies and policies should account for the interconnectedness of health care facilities.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric illness associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There is little empirical support for specific treatments and new approaches are sorely needed. This two-site study aimed to determine whether olanzapine is superior to placebo in increasing body mass index (BMI) and improving psychological symptoms in out-patients with AN.
A total of 23 individuals with AN were randomly assigned in double-blind fashion to receive olanzapine or placebo for 8 weeks together with medication management sessions that emphasized compliance. Weight, other physical assessments and measures of psychopathology were collected.
End-of-treatment BMI, with initial BMI as a covariate, was significantly greater in the group receiving olanzapine [F(1, 20)=6.64, p=0.018]. Psychological symptoms improved in both groups, but there were no statistically significant group differences. Of the 23 participants, 17 (74%) completed the 8-week trial. Participants tolerated the medication well with sedation being the only frequent side effect and no adverse metabolic effects were noted.
This small study suggests that olanzapine is generally well tolerated by, and may provide more benefit than placebo for out-patients with AN. Further study is indicated to determine whether olanzapine may affect psychological symptoms in addition to BMI.
We report here the case of a 27-year-old woman with Noonan syndrome presenting with ventricular fibrillation. After successful defibrillation, echocardiography revealed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Normal echocardiographic cardiac structure and function were reported 11 years ago. This case emphasises the importance of regular follow-up in patients with congenital disorders in which cardiac manifestations might develop in early adulthood or later.