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Unavailability of irrigation water for early sowing has remained a constant problem in cold arid deserts of Ladakh. In order to get a solution to this problem, a 2-yr farmers’ participatory research trial with best bet agronomic management on artificial glacier water harvesting technology was conducted. The technology involves collecting water from natural glaciers that melt during late December. The water is diverted toward a shed constructed with stone embankments set up at regular intervals. The area is chosen where there is minimum interference of solar radiation, generally between two mountain slopes or ridge that is on the leeward side. The melted water is that melts from the natural glacier impeded by the embankments and get frozen here. This frozen water starts melting in late March and is used for both pre sowing and initial crop water requirement. It also ensures early sowing of wheat by creating additional 45-day window which leads to introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties to replace decades old locally grown short-duration varieties. The work was initiated with a benchmark survey of 100 farmers to get an understanding of present irrigation scenario, crop management practices and date of sowing. Data from 99 farmer participating trial of wheat conducted after or from bench mark survey clearly indicated that the effect of water shortage can be seen on yield and yield attributing characters due to unavailability of pre sowing irrigation and water requirement at imperative growth stages and may also lead to terminal heat stress in wheat crop. Out of total number of irrigations applied, initial two irrigations can be compensated by artificial glacier water harvesting technique, leading to a revolution in the agriculture scenario of the tribal population by introduction of long- and medium-duration wheat varieties in cold arid desert of Ladakh for the very first time. It was observed that wheat seeding done in first fortnight of April gave better yields in comparison to late seeded wheat. Moreover, the long-duration varieties (LDVs) or medium-duration varieties (MDVs) sown under late condition gave better yield in comparison to locally grown short-duration varieties sown at same time. Yield potential of LDVs and MDVs of wheat under late sowing was found quite low in comparison to early-sown wheat, still when compared with the performance of locally grown wheat the yields were more even if the local varieties were sown early. The outcome of this study will help the farmers of tribal, cold arid community in harvesting better wheat yields by timely sowing of the wheat crop accompanied with better bet agronomic management practices. Government initiative is further required to ensure better outreach of complete crop management strategies to the tribal farming community of the region in order to ensure food security and improve their socioeconomic status.
Prematurity is a risk factor for hypertension, vascular stiffness, nephron deficit and adult onset cardiorenal disease. The vascular tree and kidneys share morphogenic drivers that promote maturation in utero before 36 weeks of gestation. Vascular elastin accrual terminates after birth leaving collagen to promote vascular stiffness. Our objective was to determine if the histomorphometry of the umbilical artery, an extension of the aorta, parallels nephron mass across gestational age groups. From a cohort of 54 newborns, 32 umbilical cord specimens were adequate for evaluation. The umbilical cord was sectioned, stained with trichrome, and digitalized. Muscular and collagenous areas of the umbilical artery were measured in pixels using the Image J 1.48q software. Total kidney volume was measured by ultrasound and factored by body surface area (TKV/BSA). The umbilical artery total area was significantly greater in term v. preterm infants (9.3±1.3 v. 7.0±2.0 mm2; P<0.05) and increased with gestational age; while the percent muscular and collagen areas were independent of gestational age (R2=0.04; P=ns). Percent muscular area correlated positively with TKV/BSA (r=0.53; P=0.002); while an increase in collagen correlated inversely with kidney mass (r=−0.53; P=0.002). In conclusion, an enhanced % muscular area and presumed vascular elasticity was associated with increased renal mass in all infants. Umbilical artery histomorphometry provides a link between the intrauterine environment, vascular and kidney development.
Introduction: A variety of patch materials have been used in the repair of intracardiac defects. We evaluated the short- and mid-term clinical and echocardiography results of glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium patches used to repair intracardiac defects in our clinic. Methods and results: This study examines the short- (up to 30 days post-operatively) and mid-term (up to 24 months post-operatively) results of 533 patients with intracardiac defects who underwent surgical correction with glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium patches between 2004 and 2010 at a university clinic. Short- and mid-term post-operative echocardiographic studies showed no evidence of calcification, thrombus, or aneurysmal dilatation on the patch. Vegetation developed in two (0.37%) of the 533 patients. Conclusion: These results that have been obtained from a group of large number of patients imply that the glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium patches may be preferable in the closure of cardiac defects because of their low complication rates and ease of use.
We report temporal measurements of bandgap photoluminescence (PL) from GaAs surfaces under low-intensity CW laser excitation. We have observed slow PL degradation in n-type, p-type and semi-insulating (Cr-doped and LEC-grown) samples, and have fit the data to a simple power law. Calculations indicate a significant contribution from the bulk material, possibly via recombination-enhanced generation or migration of non-radiative centers. The effectiveness of various methods of surface treatment (photowashing, deposition of epitaxial AlGaAs, spin-coating with organic and inorganic sulfide films) has been assessed. One specific technique, involving coating with sodium sulfide, is effective in enhancing the PL efficiency and suppressing the degradation, but these effects are not permanent.
A total of 31 strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 (10 from outbreak cases and 7 from surface water)
and non-O1 (4 from clinical and 10 from surface water sources) isolated between 1993 and
1997 were examined with respect to presence of cholera enterotoxin (CT) gene by PCR-based
assays, resistance to antibiotics, plasmid profiles and random amplified polymorphic DNA
(RAPD) analysis. All were resistant to 9 or more of the 17 antibiotics tested. Identical
antibiotic resistance patterns of the isolates may indicate that they share a common mode of
developing antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, the multiple antibiotic resistance indexing
showed that all strains tested originated from high risk contamination. Plasmid profile analysis
by agarose gel electrophoresis showed the presence of small plasmids in 12 (7 non-O1 and 5
O1 serotypes) with sizes ranging 1·3–4·6 MDa. The CT gene was detected in all clinical isolates
but was present in only 14 (6 O1 serotype and 8 non-O1 serotype) isolates from environmental
waters. The genetic relatedness of the clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 strains was investigated by RAPD fingerprinting with four primers. The four primers
generated polymorphisms in all 31 strains of Vibrio cholerae tested, producing bands ranging
from <250 to 4500 bp. The RAPD profiles revealed a wide variability and no correlation with
the source of isolation. This study provides evidence that Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 have
significant public health implications.
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