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We aimed to verify the effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription (rRT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detecting cases of modified measles (M-Me) and for predicting super-spreader candidates through the experience of a measles outbreak dominated by M-Me in Yamagata, Japan, during March–April 2017. We applied rRT-PCR to specimens from 35 cases of M-Me, nine cases of typical measles (T-Me) and nine cases of prodromal stage of T-Me (P-Me). From rRT-PCR among the M-Me cases, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed the highest positive rate (80.0%), followed by throat swab (48.6%), urine (33.3%) and serum (3.1%). The negative result of PBMC in M-Me cases was recovered by the result of a throat swab. In specimens of PBMC, throat swab and urine, M-Me group showed the significantly higher cycle of threshold (i.e., lower viral load) in the rRT-PCR than T-Me and P-Me groups, respectively. Furthermore, three super-spreaders in T-Me or P-Me showed an extremely low cycle of threshold in their throat swab specimens. rRT-PCR using PBMC and throat swab might be helpful for clinical management and measles control by certain detection of M-Me cases and by predicting super-spreading events resulting from measles cases with the high viral load.
The management of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma has not been standardised to date. This study reviewed the clinical course, management and survival outcomes of patients with extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in the head and neck region.
Nine patients with extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma in the head and neck were included in this study.
Five patients received radical surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy or both. Two other patients were treated with chemotherapy consisting of CPT11 plus cisplatin or CPT11 plus cisplatin plus VP-16 three times. Two other patients received chemoradiotherapy consisting of S-1 or CPT11 plus cisplatin. The median overall survival was 14.5 months, with a three-year survival rate of 23.7 per cent.
The prognosis of extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma is generally poor. Further prospective multicentre studies are required for better understanding of disease entities and response to treatment modalities.
Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma is a rare minor salivary gland neoplasm. The treatment of choice is surgical resection with or without post-operative radiotherapy. This tumour often demonstrates a good prognosis.
We report a case of hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma arising in the nasopharynx. A 27-year-old female presented with progressive hearing disturbance and tinnitus. On examination, an expansile mass was observed in her nasopharynx. Biopsy was performed and the pathology results returned as clear cell carcinoma.
Results and conclusion:
Surgical resection was performed trans-orally accompanied by trans-palatal approach. She has no recurrence during more than two years of follow up.
We report the properties of MgO:Si film as a protective cathode material on the electrical discharge, and the electronic state of the outer-most surface on MgO:Si film characterized by helium Meta-stable De-excitation Spectroscopy (MDS) and that of several nanometer region from the surface evaluated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both of the spectra are discussed focusing on the dependence upon the amount of Si in the MgO film for understanding discharge phenomena. The analyses of the experimental data imply that the discharge properties are not improved due to surface degradation with the increase of Si in MgO films. However, an in-situ discharge experiment, in which MgO:Si films are not exposed for the atmosphere after its deposition, shows that the introduction of Si up to about 1 atomic% has the potential to enhance the secondary electron emission coefficient.
In order to measure precisely the polarization of Crab Nebula and Cygnus X-1, we have been developing a hard X-ray polarimeter for balloon-borne experiments called PHENEX (Polarimetry of High ENErgy X-rays). It consists of several detectors called unit counters. The unit counter has a detection efficiency of 20% and a modulation factor of 53% at 80 keV. Up to now, we have finished the installation of eight unit counters to the polarimeter, that will be launched in Spring 2009 to observe the Crab Nebula. If the polarization of this source is more than 30%, the PHENEX polarimeter will be able to measure the degree and the direction of the polarization with errors less than 10% and 10°, respectively.
X-ray astronomy has been much advanced by three observations: spectroscopy, timing, and imaging. Also in the hard X-ray region, these three observations will be realized by ASTRO-H and XEUS. However, the observation of the polarization is at the moment left out in spite of its potential usefulness. This is because of the difficulty of developing polarimeters with high sensitivity. Since the origin of the polarization is often due to nonthermal radiation processes such as synchrotron radiation, observations in the hard X-ray region are possibly more important than those in the soft X-ray region: it is expected that the degree of polarization in the hard X-ray region would be higher than that at lower energies.
Upon direct inspection of surgically removed ossicles from the ears of patients with long-term post-mastoidectomy cavity problems, the extent of malleus destruction often appears greater in patients with a longer duration of cavity problems, whereas the extent of incus destruction does not appear to correlate with the duration of cavity problems. This study aimed to investigate this impression.
Materials and methods:
As a result of total middle-ear reconstruction, 41 ossicles (21 malleus and 20 incus bones) were obtained from 31 patients with post-mastoidectomy cavity problems. The ossicles were examined histopathologically, and the proportion of lamellar bone area to total bone area (expressed as percentage lamellar bone) was measured. We also calculated the inter-operation time, i.e. the time period between the previous mastoidectomy and the recent total middle-ear reconstruction; this parameter was used as an approximate measure of the duration of the patient's cavity problem. Correlations between percentage lamellar bone and inter-operation time were calculated for the two ossicles.
The range of inter-operation times was seven to 65 years. We observed a correlation between percentage lamellar bone and inter-operation time for malleus bones (r = −0.512, p < 0.05), but not for incus bones.
These results were in agreement with our pre-study impressions.
Various techniques have been used for the improvement of cutaneous changes seen with photoaging. These include dermabrasion, chemical peels, and ablative and nonablative lasers. Another option is the use of broadband light devices, which provide a treatment modality for skin rejuvenation with minimal or no downtime. In contrast to ablative rejuvenation laser procedures (CO2, Er-YAG), which can result in protracted edema and erythema lasting for several weeks as well as pigmentary changes and scarring, broadband light devices induce a dermal healing response without notable injury to the epidermis and also diminish pigmented lesions on the skin such as lentigos. By heating the dermis and dermal vasculature, these broadband devices result in dermal remodeling through fibroblast stimulation and collagen reformation and also allow for reduction of erythema and telangiectasias.
Broadband light devices include a family of light devices known as the intense pulsed light (IPL) systems. The main uses of IPLs as a nonlaser light source include removal of pigmented and vascular lesions, rejuvenation and skin tightening, and removal of unwanted hair. The IPL systems utilize high-intensity pulsed-light sources that emit noncoherent, noncollimated polychromatic light from 515 to 1,200 nm. The mechanism of action of IPL systems is that of selective photothermolysis. Because main chromophores of the epidermis and dermis have specific absorption coefficients, the effective wavelength(s) of light are chosen that would most selectively destroy the target of interest, while sparing surrounding tissue.
Nano-JASMINE is a nano-size astrometry satellite that will carry out astrometry measurements of nearby bright stars for more than one year. This will enable us to detect annual parallaxes of stars within 300 pc from the Sun. We expect the satellite to be launched as a piggy-back system as early as in 2009 into a Sun synchronized orbit at the altitude between 500 and 800 km. Being equipped with a beam combiner, the satellite has a capability to observe two different fields simultaneously and will be able to carry out HIPPARCOS-type observations along great circles. A 5 cm all aluminum made reflecting telescope with a aluminum beam combiner is developed. Using the on-board CCD controller, experiments with a real star have been executed. A communication band width is insufficient to transfer all imaging data, hence, we developed an onboard data processing system that extracts stellar image data from vast amount of imaging data. A newly developed 2K × 1K fully-depleted CCD will be used for the mission. It will work in the time delayed integration(TDI) mode. The bus system has been designed with special consideration of the following two points. Those are the thermal stabilization of the telescope and the accuracy of the altitude control. The former is essential to achieve high astrometric accuracies, on the order of 1 mas. Therefore relative angle of the beam combiner must be stable within 1 mas. A 3-axes control of the satellite will be realized by using fiber gyro and triaxial reaction wheel system and careful treatment of various disturbing forces.
We have developped a software of Star-Image-Extractor (SIE) which works as the on-board real-time image processor. It detects and extracts only the object data from raw image data. SIE has two functions: reducing image data and providing data for the satellite's high accuracy attitude control system.
Shell-like supernova remnants (SNRs) are primary candidates for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. However, among the known SNRs (about 220), only a small fraction has been known to exhibit the synchrotron X-ray spectrum, that is considered to be a piece of evidence for high energy particle acceleration. Synchrotron X-ray emitting SNRs are known to be systematically radio-quiet compared to the SNRs that do not emit synchrotron X-rays. Therefore, most synchrotron X-ray emitting SNR candidates may have escaped detection in the previous systematic radio surveys. On the other hand, hard X-ray surveys are effective to search for synchrotron X-ray emitting SNRs, because of its penetration power. Thus we have searched for SNRs in the ASCA Galactic Plane Survey data, the first Galactic imaging survey in $>$2 keV, and discovered 14 candidates. Deep follow-up observations with ASCA, XMM, or Chandra on 5 of them revealed 2 sources to be synchrotron X-ray emitting SNRs. Furthermore we confirmed non-thermal X-ray spectra from the other 3 sources, though the origin is yet unknown. We report the observational results and discuss the X-ray origin.
A nanometer-scale dislocation network is artificially formed in thin top Si layer of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure, and effect of the dislocation network on the transport property is examined from the viewpoint of nanodevice applications. The artificial network of screw dislocations was formed in the Si layer using a wafer bonding of a pair of (001) SOI wafers with a slight misalignment of the in-plane crystalline directions to cause a lattice mismatch. The transmission electron microscopy clearly revealed the formation of dislocation network at the bonding interface with the period less than ∼20 nm. The dislocation network was found to enhance the conductivity in the Si bicrystal layer more than one order of magnitude in comparison with that in the monocrystal layer free from the dislocations. The enhanced conductivity is probably derived from an increased concentration of electrons around the dislocations due to the formation of donor-like gap states.
Variability of the light curves of the short-period eclipsing binary system GR Tau (, almost-contact binary) is studied. It is found that GR Tau experienced both the state which is characterized by asymmetric light curves and the state characterized by symmetrical light curves.
The High Energy Transient Explorer 2 is a small scientific satellite designed to detect and localize gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The coordinates of GRBs detected by HETE-2 will be distributed to interested ground-based observers within seconds of burst detection, thereby allowing detailed observations of the initial phases of GRBs. HETE-2 was launched successfully on October 9, 2000. The GRB positions will start to be delivered after a few months of the complete testing and calibration of the spacecraft system and the science instruments.
The complex radio source Sgr A is embedded in a region near our Galactic Center. The dynamical center of our Galaxy is considered to be Sgr A*, the compact non-thermal radio source. Dynamical mass within ~0.1 pc from Sgr A* has been estimated to be ~ 3×106 M⊙. This places Sgr A* to be a candidate of a massive blackhole (Eckart and Genzel, 1997 and reference therein).
On 1993 August 20, we observed the Rho-Oph dark cloud and detected hard X-rays from Class I sources (Koyama et al.(1994), Kamata et al.(1997)). One of the sources (EL29) showed a flare-like variability, while another (WL6) exhibited sinusoidal variation with no large spectral change. The later would be due to a spin of the protostar. The sinusoidal period of about 1 day is shorter than spin periods of TTSs of ~3-7 day.
In the X-ray band, we can see weak and extended X-rays along the Galactic plane and near the Galactic Bulge region, although these regions are dominated by many point sources (e.g., Warwick et al. 1985). The Tenma satellite discovered conspicuous emission lines from selected regions near the Galactic plane (Koyama et al. 1986). These lines are identified with K-shell line from He-like Fe, hence the extended emission is attributable to optically thin hot plasmas with temperatures of several keV. The origin of the thin hot plasmas, however, have been debatable, because no class of X-ray objects shows such high temperature plasma emissions. To investigate the origin of the extended X-rays, we are currently observing the Galactic plane regions with the ASCA satellite. In this paper, we report on the ASCA results: the hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the hot plasma in the Galaxy.
The region south of the reflection nebula NGC1333 in Perseus is an active star forming region including numerous Herbig-Haro objects and at least 5 protostar candidates with molecular outflows and far-infrared emission. It has been actively studied in various wave bands (e.g. Aspin et al 1994 and references therein). We observed this region with ASCA with the primary objective to detect X-rays from the protostars embedded deep in the molecular cloud.
One major objective of our ASCA Galactic Plane Survey Project (AGPSP) is, utilizing the wide and high energy band (up to 10 keV) X-ray imaging capability and the high spectral resolving power of ASCA, to search possible X-ray SNRs in the Galactic inner disk. The observation of the field including G352.7-0.1 reported in this paper, was performed on 1996 March 14 during the first AO4 survey. We report on the X-ray SNR G352.7-0.1 found in AGPSP. G352.7-0.1 is one of the radio SNRs (Green 1996), and is classified as a shell-like SNR with the size of 8' x 6'.
Production Engineering R‘‘void-free’ metallization is proposed. It is shown that void formation is suppressed when the TiAl3 intermediate layer is formed at the interface between the Al alloy and reactively sputtered TiN barrier metal films. We have investigated the relationship between void formation and coverage of the intermediate layer. It is found that a coverage of more than 60 % TiAl3 perfectly suppresses void formation. The interfacial reaction is achieved by using ‘soft TiN', which arises from the short migration length of the sputtered particles impinging on the substrate surface when dc power is decreased. The soft TiN film includes many vacancies and crystallographically disordered regions which easily cause rearrangement of the TiN films by movement of Ti atoms during annealing. It is thought that these Ti atoms compensate vacancies in the Al-Si-Cu film and suppress the formation of Al voids.