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We describe the design and current status of the Degree Angular Scale Interferometer (DASI), a compact cm-wave interferometer operating at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole research station. With 20-cm diameter primary antenna elements operating over the frequency range 26 − 36 GHz, DASI is optimized to measure the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) over the multipole range 140 − 920, (corresponding to scales of 25′ − 2°.6), as well as make high-sensitivity maps of the microwave sky. The telescope was built at the University of Chicago and deployed at the South Pole during the 1999-2000 austral summer.
Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of a few Hz are observed in the very high state of some black hole candidates (GX 339-4 and GS 1124-68). This is the Kepler frequency at the radius of a few hundred Schwarzschild radii. As a possible mechanism of the QPOs in these objects, the trapped oscillations in the accretion disks are considered. The trapped oscillations of the disks were investigated by several authors. They studied the trapped oscillations in the standard radiative cooling-dominated disks. Recently, the advection-dominated accretion flow is considered, as a possible model to explain the hard X-ray spectra of the black hole candidates or the active galactic nuclei. In particular, in the very high state of some black hole candidates, the spectrum can be explained by the disk-corona model which comprises the cold standard accretion disk and the advection-dominated corona above the cold disk. We thus investigated the trapped axi-symmetric oscillations in the advection-dominated corona by the global linear analysis.
Variability of the light curves of the short-period eclipsing binary system GR Tau (, almost-contact binary) is studied. It is found that GR Tau experienced both the state which is characterized by asymmetric light curves and the state characterized by symmetrical light curves.
Although the evolution of binary systems has been qualitatively interpreted with the evolutionary scenario, the quantitative interpretation of any observed system is still unsatisfactory due to the difficulty of the quantitative treatment of mass and angular momentum transfer/loss. To reach a true understanding of the evolution of binary systems, we have to accumulate more observational evidence. So far, we have observed several binaries that are short-period and noncontact, and found the existence of extremely small-mass systems. In the present paper, we study another short-period (P=0.659d), noncontact, eclipsing binary system, V392 Ori. We have made photometric and spectroscopic observations of V392 Ori. The light curves are found to vary, suggesting the existence of circumstellar matter around the system. Combining the photometric and spectroscopic results, we obtain parameters describing the system; we find the mass of the primary component is only 0.6Mʘ- undermassive for its spectral and luminosity class A5V, suggesting that a considerable amount of its original mass has been lost from the system during the course of evolution. The low-mass problem is very important for investigation of the evolution of close binary systems: largemass loss within and/or after the main-sequence will have a significant influence on the future evolution of binary systems.
In this work, we numerically investigated the achievable fidelities when controlling an effective three-qubit system consisting of a NV- color center in diamond with a nearby strongly coupled 13C nuclear spin by means of microwave- and radio-frequency pulses in the experimentally attractive low magnetic field regime. We find that gates with straightforward square driving pulses do not achieve the fidelity currently required for the fault-tolerant quantum computing models.
We discuss the applicability of ultrathin SiO2 layers as a mask for low-temperature selective-area deposition of Si. Thin oxide layers with estimated thickness ranging from 4 to 20 Å were formed by oxidizing H-terminated Si(100) surfaces by a remote plasma exposure at room temperature. Low-temperature selective-area deposition was carried out using two different techniques: flow-modulated plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (FM-PECVD) using SiH4 and H2, and very low pressure CVD (VLPCVD) using Si2H4. We show that the ultra-thin plasma oxide layers exhibit good properties for a use as a passivating mask layer, and that the oxide layer can be patterned directly by E-beam irradiation. These results open up a possibility to realize Si-nanostructures formation by selective-area processing. Degradation of the oxide layer by plasma processing is also discussed.
We investigate nucleation densities in UHV-CVD of Si on ultrathin SiO2 layers (0.2-2 nm) which were prepared by three different oxidation methods: thermal, UV-ozone, and plasma oxidation. The experiments changing the Si2H6 pressure in UHV-CVD indicate that these oxide surfaces have preferred sites for nucleation. Among the three oxidation methods, the nucleation density, Ns, on the thermal oxide is the lowest, while the plasma oxide shows the highest Ns. These results suggest that strained bonds and ion-induced damages in the oxide layers assist nucleation. For UV-ozone and plasma oxides Ns is independent of orientation, reconstruction, and morphology of the initial Si surface.
Time evolution of Si dangling bonds (dbs) was monitored during atomic hydrogen treatment of a-Si:H films using an in-situ electron-spin-resonance (ESR) technique. A high diffusion coefficient (>10−10 cm2s−1) of free atomic H in a-Si:H was detected at the very initial stage of H exposure. Atomic H diffuses into the bulk of the film (∼100 nm) and creates additional metastable dbs. The spatial distribution of such metastable dbs becomes deeper at lower treatment temperatures. An activated type of db creation reaction determines the distribution of these dbs.
The in-situ ESR technique is applied to a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system in order to investigate the surface microchemical reactions during the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and plasma treatments of H2 and Ar gases on a- Si:H. The growth model of a-Si:H and the role of H atoms on a-Si:H films are discussed using the experimental results. The recent results on the dynamic surface reactions of crystalline silicon with oxygen molecules in an ultra-high-vacuum ESR system are introduced.
Asymmetric double heterostructures (ADH) of AlGaN/GaInN/GaN blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) and GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) LEDs were fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The ADH LEDs had spectral emissions peaking at 450 nm and the luminous intensify was 2.5 cd at 20 mA The output power was 3.6 mW at 20mA and the external quantum efficiency was as high as 5.1 % at 20 mA. The GaInN/GaN MQW structure was grown successfully by MOVPE. Fine multi-layer structures 7 – 9 nm thick were detected by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dislocation density in the MQW was as high as 0.5–2×109 cm−2 by TEM The optical efficiency of the MQW layer was higher than that of a bulk GalnN layer. The intensity of UV emission from MQW LEDs was greater than that of blue light from ADH blue LEDs. The UV emission increased as a super-linear function of injection current at -100°C.
The structural properties of the amorphous Si (a-Si), which was created from crystalline silicon by 2 MeV electron irradiation at low temperatures about 25 K, are examined in detail by means of transmission electron microscopy and transmission electron diffraction. The peak positions in the radial distribution function (RDF) of the a-Si correspond well to those of a-Si fabricated by other techniques. The electron-irradiation-induced a-Si returns to crystalline Si after annealing at 550°C.
Initial growth processes of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) films have been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The μc-Si:H films were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on H-terminated Si(111) and plasma-oxidized SiO2/Si(111) surfaces that were made atomically-flat by a careful wet processing. On H-terminated Si(111) the initial growth was epitaxial as evidenced by HRTEM and RHEED, while on SiO2/Si(111) the initial process was nucleation of amorphous Si followed by formation of randomly oriented μc-Si:H structure. STM observation revealed that, on both H-terminated and SiO2-terminated surfaces, initial growth processes proceed through the nucleation-and-coalescence mechanism.
In-situ electron-spin-resonance (ESR) measurements of film growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) using a remote hydrogen plasma technique have been performed. The Si dangling-bond signal in a-Si:H during and after deposition has been detected, in addition to the gas-phase ESR signals both of atomic hydrogen and photo-excited SiHx molecules. Dynamic changes of the Si dangling-bond signal intensity were observed when the deposition started and stopped, which has suggested the existence of a subsurface region with higher spin density than that in the bulk region.
Two-pulse-echo field-sweep spectra of boron-doped samples show in addition to dangling bonds (DB) a very broad feature of approximately 500 G width. This feature is the sum of several lines whose relative intensities change with doping and temperature. The total intensity increases with doping. The spin-lattice relaxation time TI of the resonance at g=1.998 referred to as conduction electrons (CE) has been studied for undoped and P-doped microcrystalline silicon. The discrepancy between T1 values previously reported has been resolved and the values for CE are at least two orders of magnitude smaller than those of the DB. In undoped samples cross-relaxation between the CE and DB spin systems might explain the similar T1 values obtained for CE and DB in inversion recovery measurements.
Direct nanoscale observation on the nucleation and growth of hydrogenated amorphous and microcrystalline silicon on graphite substrates was made using scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and Raman scattering spectroscopy. Nucleation of hydrogenated silicon clusters is initiated through the nucleation sites created by reactive hydrogen species coming from the source gas plasma. The difference in spatial distribution of nucleated clusters at the initial stage of deposition between a-Si:H and μc-Si:H is ascribed to the difference in the number density of nucleation sites which results in difference in the diffusion length of a SiH3 radical at the initial stage of deposition on the graphite substrate. The RMS roughness of μc-Si:H films is larger than that of a-Si:H when the film thickness is larger than 10 Å, which is opposite to the behavior at the initial nucleation stage on the graphite substrate.