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Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
X-ray microscopy is a field that has developed rapidly in recent years. Two different approaches have been used. Zone plates have been employed to produce focussed beams with sizes as low as 0.07 pm for x-ray energies below 1 keV. Images of biological materials and elemental maps for major and minor low Z have been produced using above and below absorption edge differences. At higher energies collimators and focussing mirrors have been used to make small diameter beams for excitation of characteristic K— or L-x rays of all elements in the periodic
The efficacy of three sources of vitamins A and D supplements was tested in an experiment with fattening pigs involving the following four treatments :
(1) Control—basal meal.
(2) As control, but at one week of age the pigs had been given a single intramuscular injection of a commercial preparation, supplying 500,000 i.u. of vitamin A and 100,000 i.u. of vitamin D3.
(3) Basal meal + 1 % cod-liver oil (containing 500 i.u./g. of vitamin A and 68 i.u./g. of vitamin 3), supplying 2,270 i.u. of vitamin A and 309 i.u. of vitamin D3 per lb. of diet.
(4) Basal meal + synthetic vitamins A and D concentrate (containing 50,000 i.u./g. of vitamin A and 5,000 i.u./g. of vitamin D3), added to supply 2,250 i.u. of vitamin A and 300 i.u. of vitamin D3 per lb. of diet.
The basal meal which was the standard fattening diet used at Shinfield consisted of: fine miller’s offal 50, barley meal 30, flaked maize 10, white fish meal 10, all parts by weight. It should be noted that the diet contained a precursor of vitamin A, and it was calculated that this would provide about one-third of the recommended allowance of vitamin A for fattening pigs.
Many studies have used retrospective reports to assess the long-term consequences of early life stress. However, current individual characteristics and experiences may bias the recall of these reports. In particular, depressed mood may increase the likelihood of recall of negative experiences. The aim of the study was to assess whether specific factors are associated with consistency in the reporting of childhood adverse experiences.
The sample comprised 7466 adults from Canada's National Population Health Survey who had reported on seven childhood adverse experiences in 1994/1995 and 2006/2007. Logistic regression was used to explore differences between those who consistently reported adverse experiences and those whose reports were inconsistent.
Among those retrospectively reporting on childhood traumatic experiences in 1994/1995 and 2006/2007, 39% were inconsistent in their reports of these experiences. The development of depression, increasing levels of psychological distress, as well as increasing work and chronic stress were associated with an increasing likelihood of reporting a childhood adverse experience in 2006/2007 that had not been previously reported. Increases in mastery were associated with reduced likelihood of new reporting of a childhood adverse experience in 2006/2007. The development of depression and increases in chronic stress and psychological distress were also associated with reduced likelihood of ‘forgetting’ a previously reported event.
Concurrent mental health factors may influence the reporting of traumatic childhood experiences. Studies that use retrospective reporting to estimate associations between childhood adversity and adult outcomes associated with mental health may be biased.
We report a stable CdS/Sb2S3/SnSe heterojunction thin film solar cell deposited on SnO2:F (FTO) – coated glass substrates. Thermal evaporation at 10-5 Torr with substrate temperature of 400 °C was used to deposit Sb2S3 and SnSe thin films of 450 nm and 160 nm, respectively. Thin film Sb2S3 has an optical band gap (Eg) of 1.48 eV and photoconductivity (σp) of 4x10-7 Ω-1 cm-1 and thin film SnSe has an Eg of 1.28 eV and σp of 2 Ω-1 cm-1. The chemically deposited CdS thin film heated at 400 °C shows an Eg of 2.34 eV and σp of 0.1 Ω-1 cm-1. Stabilized solar cell structures with these thin films, FTO/CdS/Sb2S3/SnSe/C-Ag, showed open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.60 V, short circuit current density (Jsc) of 5.51 mA/cm2 and power conversion efficiency (η) of 0.96% with a fill factor FF of 0.29. In the absence of the SnSe layer, Jsc decreases to 4.77 mA/cm2.
Thin films of AgSbS2 (150 nm) are prepared (75 min at 40 °C) via chemical deposition using a solution mixture containing SbCl3, Na2S2O3 and AgNO3. As-deposited films are amorphous. When they are heated in nitrogen at 180-320 °C, crystalline cubic-AgSbS2 films are formed. They show an optical band gap 1.89 eV and photoconductivity 1.8x10-5 Ω-1cm-1. Silver antimony sulfide-selenide film, AgSb(SxSe1-x)2, is produced from the initial amorphous film when it is heated in presence of Se-vapor. XRD analysis confirms the formation of solid solution AgSbS1.25Se0.75 or AgSbSe2 depending on the extent of Se-vapor available during heating. SnO2:F/CdS/AgSbS2/C solar cell shows Voc 610 mV, Jsc 0.88 mA/cm2,FF 0.53 and η 0.28%. In SnO2:F/CdS/Sb2S3/AgSb(SxSe1-x)2/C solar cell, Voc is 582 mV, Jsc 0.99 mA/cm2, FF 0.51 and η 0.29%.
Cu2ZnSnS4 (henceforth CZTS) absorber layers are successfully synthesized by a sulfurization technique of physical vapor deposited precursors. In our previous report, we have clarified that the off-stoichiometry composition of Cu-poor and Zn-rich is desirable to achieve high conversion efficiency. By using CZTS compound target that provide such active composition, we could conduct a simple single sputtering method to prepare CZTS absorber. In our laboratory, a two-stage process of precursor preparation followed by sulfurization is a major fabrication method from the start of this study. We think that this method is suitable for a mass production. An optimization of the sulfurization process is a quite important issue because the active composition was already revealed. In this paper, TG/DTA system available in the H2S atmosphere is introduced to optimize the sulfurization condition. As a result, bump-free CZTS films were prepared successfully and the fluctuation of J-V properties in one substrate was drastically suppressed.
Chemically deposited thin film stack of SnSe-ZnSe-Cu2-xSe was heated in nitrogen with Se vapor at 350-400 oC to produce Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) thin films. For this, a thin film of SnSe with 180 nm thickness was deposited at 26 °C from a chemical bath containing tin(II) chloride, triethanolamine, sodium hydroxide, sodium selenosulfate, and a small quantity of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Thin films of ZnSe and Cu2-xSe were subsequently deposited on this SnSe film, also from chemical bath. The CZTSe thin film produced this way shows X-ray diffraction pattern matching that of Cu2ZnSnSe4 (kesterite/stannite) and have a Zn-rich composition. The film has an optical band gap of 0.9-1.0 eV and p-type electrical conductivity, 0.2-0.06 Ω-1 cm-1.
An excellent candidate for an earth abundant absorber material is WSe2 which can be directly grown as a p-type semiconductor with a band gap near 1.4 eV. In this work we present the structural, optical, and electrical properties of thin film WSe2 grown via the selenization of sputter deposited tungsten films. We will show that highly textured films with an optical band gap in range of 1.4 eV, and absorption coefficients greater than 105/cm across the visible spectrum can be easily achieved. In addition we will present Hall Effect and carrier density measurements as well, where will show densities in the 1017cm-3 range and p-type Hall mobilities greater than 10 cm2/V-s range can be obtained. We employ these results to numerically simulate solar cells based on this material, where we will show efficiencies greater than 20% are possible.
Secondary phases are likely to occur in the Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) films since the CZTS is thermodynamically stable in only a narrow region of the phase diagram. The CZTS solar cell performance can be influenced by the existence and precipitated position of secondary phases. Therefore, locally investigate the distribution of secondary phases is important to further improve CZTS solar cell efficiency. In this study, two different kinds of transmission electron microscopy imaging techniques, bright field scanning TEM image (BF-STEM) and High-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) image, are applied to analyze the distribution of secondary phases. Due to the atomic number differences between CZTS and secondary phases, secondary phases are evident in the HAADF images. Therefore, HAADF image is a more powerful and convenient method to analyze the secondary phases than the BF-STEM image.
III-V compound multi-junction solar cells have high efficiency potential of more than 50% due to wide photo response, while limiting efficiencies of single-junction solar cells are 31-32%. In order to realize high efficiency III-V compound multi-junction solar cells, understanding and controlling imperfections (defects) are very important. This paper reviews fundamentals of defects and defect management for III-V compound materials, single-junction, multi-junction, space and concentrator solar cells.
We analyze photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) using a hyperspectral imager that records spectrally resolved luminescence images of solar cell absorbers. The system is calibrated to yield the luminescence flux in absolute values. This system enables to quantitatively image physical parameters such as the photovoltage with an uncertainty of less than 30mV. The wide field illumination, low power excitation and fast acquisition brings new insights compared to classical setups such as confocal microscope. Several types of absorbers have been analyzed. For instance, we can investigate spatial fluctuations of the Quasi Fermi Levels splitting in CIGS polycristalline absorbers and link those fluctuations to transport properties. The method is general to the point that third generation PV cells absorbers can also be evaluated. We illustrate the great potential of our setup by imaging carrier temperature in Hot Carriers Solar cells absorbers and quasi Fermi levels splitting in Intermediate Band Solar cells.