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Spectroscopic Observations were made to study 42 emission line objects. The analysis of these long slit spectra shows that 15 out of 42 galaxies are blue compact galaxies (BCGs). 21 of them are starforming or HII galaxies and 3 were found to be normal galaxies.
An attempt has been made to examine the nature of 3-minute umbral oscillations in order to identify their origin. For this purpose we have calculated, on the basis of Musielak and Rosner (1987), the fast-mode energy spectra generated in a typical sunspot convection zone (Yun 1968). The computed energy spectrum is fed into the lower boundary of the sub-photospheric resonant cavity to examine the characteristics of the wave propagation through the SS umbral atmosphere (Avrett 1981). The upward velocity spectra computed at various heights are presented and their behaviour compared with observations.
After an outbreak of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) virus, we had previously reported the emergence of a recombinant canine influenza virus (CIV) between the pH1N1 virus and the classic H3N2 CIV. Our ongoing routine surveillance isolated another reassortant H3N2 CIV carrying the matrix gene of the pH1N1 virus from 2012. The infection dynamics of this H3N2 CIV variant (CIV/H3N2mv) were investigated in dogs and ferrets via experimental infection and transmission. The CIV/H3N2mv-infected dogs and ferrets produced typical symptoms of respiratory disease, virus shedding, seroconversion, and direct-contact transmissions. Although indirect exposure was not presented for ferrets, CIV/H3N2mv presented higher viral replication in MDCK cells and more efficient transmission was observed in ferrets compared to classic CIV H3N2. This study demonstrates the effect of reassortment of the M gene of pH1N1 in CIV H3N2.
Equine influenza virus (EIV) causes a highly contagious respiratory disease in equids, with confirmed outbreaks in Europe, America, North Africa, and Asia. Although China, Mongolia, and Japan have reported equine influenza outbreaks, Korea has not. Since 2011, we have conducted a routine surveillance programme to detect EIV at domestic stud farms, and isolated H3N8 EIV from horses showing respiratory disease symptoms. Here, we characterized the genetic and biological properties of this novel Korean H3N8 EIV isolate. This H3N8 EIV isolate belongs to the Florida sublineage clade 1 of the American H3N8 EIV lineage, and surprisingly, possessed a non-structural protein (NS) gene segment, where 23 bases of the NS1-encoding region were naturally truncated. Our preliminary biological data indicated that this truncation did not affect virus replication; its effect on biological and immunological properties of the virus will require further study.
Polycrystalline silicon thin films have been deposited by an inductively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition using SiH4/H2 mixtures. The quality of poly-Si can be improved by increasing RF power and hydrogen dilution ratio. The poly-Si deposited at a RF power of 1000 W with an addition of H2, showed a Raman polycrystalline volume fraction of 85.7 %, FWHM of 6.4 cm−1, deposition rate of 9.64 Å/s and SEM grain size of ∼3000 Å.
The use of gaseous discharge for ion plating and related techniques have been well known to improve coating properties in several ways. IN the arc-induced ion plating (AIIP), the ionization efficiency for the evaporants is so enhanced without any introduction of inert gases that the bias voltage for, and the temperature of the substrate are reduced in the preparation of the coatings. Highly transparent (> 90% transmission in the visible range) and highly conductive (resistivity ≅ 1.5 x 10-4 Ω cm) in-oxide films were deposited at a rate of 500 - 900 Å/min by aIIP of pure in in an O2 atmosphere of 10-4 Torr. Hall-effect measurement revealed that the observed low resistivity is due primarily to the excellent electron mobilty (≥ 70 cm2 / V sec) with carrier density up to 7 х 1020/cm3. Electrochromic WO3 films were also prepared and characterized.
In situ Zn-doped InP layers are grown by low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 620°C. Hole concentration increases with dopant flow rate, but reaches a saturated hole concentration of approximately 1.5 × 1018/cm3. Differently from the Zn-diffused InP case, photoluminescence (PL) of the in situ Zn doped InP shows band edge peak, e/D-A peak and distant D-A peak up to the hole concentration of 7.6 × 1017/cm3. These results can be explained by less generation of interstitial Zn atoms during in situ doping. PL characteristics of the in situ Zn-doped InP at the saturated hole concentration is extensively studied to explain its compensation mechanism. Two new deep bands, presumably responsible for the hole saturation behavior, are observed for the first time.
For high density FeRAM devices small cell sizes are essential. The combination of the capacitor on plug (COP) structure with the Chain FeRAM™ cell design is used to develop a 32Mb FeRAM. Based on a 0.2 μm standard CMOS process a silicide capped polysilicon plug is used to contact the bottom electrode of the ferroelectric capacitor to the transistor. The barrier contact to the plug is formed by IrO2/Ir and a sputter deposited PZT (40/60) is used as ferroelectric material. The function of SrRuO3 (SRO) layers at the electrode/PZT interfaces is described in more detail. Double sided SRO results in slightly lower coercive voltage and imprint behavior compared to capacitors without SRO. Double sided SRO is essential to achieve excellent fatigue behavior measured up to 1×1011 switching cycles.
Poly-Si TFTs with high field effect mobility are fabricated by using PECVD SiO2 layer deposited with a new method: two-step (graded) oxide deposition. To adjust stoichiometry of the poly-Si/oxide interface and the bulk oxide layer, the double layer oxide films were deposited. The oxide films near the interface were deposited with high N2O/SiH4 gas ratio to obtain the stoichiometric layer for good matching between poly-Si and SiO2. The remaining bulk oxide films were deposited with low N2O/SiH4 gas ratio. The composition of the bulk oxide film was measured by using ESCA and the interface layer was analized with ESR. The poly-Si TFT with the double layer gate oxide resulted to the better performance than conventional TFT wth single layer gate oxde.
Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on a silicon substrate by direct metal ion beam deposition (DMIBD). Partial pressures of nitrogen gas were changed to get different compositions of nitrogen in the DLC films. The composition and surface morphology of the films were examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Effect of nitrogen doping on field emission property was studied. The field emission data indicated that the nitrogen doping lowered the turn-on field and increase the current density. It was believed that doping of nitrogen into the DLC film plays an important role in enhancement of the field emission. This enhancement of field emission could be explained by the improvement of electron transport through nitrogen-dope DLC layer.
Clay minerals from the tidal flat sediments along the coast of Youngjong Island, west of mainland Korea, were studied to ascertain their potential as an indicator of sea-level fluctuation. Semi-quantitative analysis of their clay-size fractions by XRD shows that the vertical distribution of clay minerals can be separated into four clay mineral assemblage units. Based on the relative contents of chlorite, four sedimentary units are distinguishable, and the abundance of chlorite is inversely related to that of smectite. The kaolinite content is constant, and so it is clear that chlorite originating from the Han River was transformed to smectite by pedogenesis during regression periods. Therefore, the relative contents of clay minerals from the unconsolidated materials in the tidal flat of Youngjong Island canbe used as indicators of transgression and regression in accordance with the sea-level fluctuation.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was utilized to investigate microstructures of heteroepitaxial SiC/Si films, grown from single-source precursors such as tetramethylsilane [TMS, Si(CH3)4], hexamethyldisilane [HMDS, Si2(CH3)6], and 1,3-disilabutane [1,3-DSB, H3SiCH2SiH2CH3]. In the case of TMS/H2 and HMDS/H2 samples, SiC/Si films grown at relatively high precursor concentration and/or low temperatures showed columnar grains with a high degree of epitaxial relationship with the Si substrate. Higher quality films with larger grains were observed in the case of high temperature and/or low precursor concentration samples, although a high density of interfacial voids was observed. Samples grown from pure 1,3-DSB at a low pressure showed high quality single crystalline films with few interfacial voids. It was suggested that the microstructural behavior of these films closely resembles that of the SiC films formed during the carbonization of Si surfaces by the pyrolysis of hydrocarbons, in which the nucleation rate of the film at the initial stage plays a key role. The improvement achieved during the 1,3-DSB growth is proposed to be due to the low growth pressure and the 1 : 1 ratio of Si and C associated with this precursor.
The layer charge characteristics of smectite from the Tertiary basins in the Pohang area, Korea have been studied in detail using the alkylammonium method. On the basis of layer charges, the smectite in the Pohang area can be classed as normal and high-charge (hc) smectite. The layer charge of the normal smectite averages 0.3, and ranges from 0.25 to 0.38/half unit-cell. The hcsmectite collapses on K saturation to become illite-like material and shows 10 Åseries reflections on X-ray diffraction. The layer charge of the hc-smectite ranges from 0.5 to 1. The layer charges do not appear to be related to stratification or to basins of occurrence. The diagenetic trend that may have existed in the region was probably disturbed by later volcanic activity. A systematic change in layer charge and geochemistry of smectite in Waeup illustrates that the heat and solutions associated with the volcanic activity may have played a role in the development of layer charge.
Reevesite, the Ni-Fe member of the hydrotalcite group, occurs as a secondary mineral in the serpentinized ultramafic rocks of the Kwangcheon area in Korea, replacing the pecoraitc-magnetite-millerite-polydymite assemblages in small veins lining cracks and fracture zones. Chemical analyses for the reevesites indicate the presence of the Co-analogue of reevesite and the complete solid-solution between Fe3+ and Co3+. The Co-analogue of the reevesite shows the approximate ratio of 3:1 of divalent to trivalent cations, which is in distinct contrast to the comblainite with the ratio of 2:1 reported by Piret & Deliens (1980). The presence of the complete solid-solution phase between Fe3+ and Co3+ is confirmed by synthesis at room temperature. On the basis of the results, the Co-analogue of the reevesite should be named as a new member of the hydrotalcite group, and thereby be distinguished from the comblainite. The partial substitutions of SO2-4 for CO2-3 in the interlayer region might affect the slight increase of the basal spacing in the reevesite. The synthesis performed suggests that the reevesite could be precipitated under either an alkaline or a neutral environment, if carbonate activity is high enough.
The proper use of a time-dependent and controlled nutrition regimen during the hormone-sensitive growth phase before first parturition can significantly affect mammary growth and subsequent lactation performance. The objective of the present study was to determine if a compensatory nutrition regimen improves lactation performance by affecting proliferation and apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells. Forty female rats (7 weeks of age, average weight 148 g) were assigned to either (1) control, free access to diet or (2) stair-step compensatory nutrition regimen, an alternating 3–4-week schedule beginning with an energy-restricted diet (31·2% restriction) for 3 weeks, followed by the control diet for 4 weeks. Estimated milk yield was greater (P <0·05) on day 15 of lactation in the compensatory nutrition group than in the control group. Mammary cell proliferation values were 1·4- and 2·7-fold greater in mammary tissue from the compensatory group during pregnant and early lactating stages respectively, compared with those from the control group. Ornithine decarboxylase (EC 18.104.22.168)mRNA was 24% higher (P <0·05) in mammary tissues of rats from the compensatory nutrition group during pregnancy than in those from the control group. These results indicate that the compensatory nutrition regimen imposed during the peripubertal growth phase stimulated mammary epithelial cell proliferation and improved lactation performance.
Pecoraite and nepouite, Ni-serpentines, occur in the serpentinized ultramafic rocks in the Kwangcheon area, Korea, where the parent rock is classified as harzburgite and/or lherzolite. Pecoraite was precipitated twice from the solution; the early-formed pecoraite coexists with magnetite, millerite, and polydymite both in the Buk- and Nam-sites, while the late-formed pecoraite appears as well-grown colloform and opaque-free phase only in the Buk-site. The typical colloform texture of the late-formed pecoraite strongly indicates that it was precipitated from the solution in supergene conditions. Pecoraite is characterized by its extremely high Ni content and the difference in Fe content between the early- and late-formed pecoraite. Nepouite is distinguished from pecoraite by its prismatic morphology and the large degree of isomorphous substitution between Ni and Mg. The phase relations among coexisting magnetite-millerite-polydymite assemblage with the early-formed pecoraite suggest that the pecoraite might have precipitated in the extremely limited fO2 and fs2 environment from the highly Ni-concentrated solutions and is stable at 25°C and 1 bar.
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