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On many Australian commercial pig farms, groups of growing pigs are mass-medicated through their drinking water with selected antimicrobials for short periods to manage herd health. However, delivery of medication in drinking water cannot be assumed to deliver an equal dose to all animals in a group. There is substantial between-animal variability in systemic exposure to an antimicrobial (i.e. the antimicrobial concentration in plasma), resulting in under-dosing or over-dosing of many pigs. Three sources of this between-animal variability during a water medication dosing event are differences in: (1) concentration of the active constituent of the antimicrobial product in water available to pigs at drinking appliances in each pen over time, (2) medicated water consumption patterns of pigs in each pen over time, and (3) pharmacokinetics (i.e. oral bioavailability, volume of distribution and clearance between pigs and within pigs over time). It is essential that factors operating on each farm that influence the range of systemic exposures of pigs to an antimicrobial are factored into antimicrobial administration regimens to reduce under-dosing and over-dosing.
To sustainably improve cleaning of high-touch surfaces (HTSs) in acute-care hospitals using a multimodal approach to education, reduction of barriers to cleaning, and culture change for environmental services workers.
The study was conducted in 2 academic acute-care hospitals, 2 community hospitals, and an academic pediatric and women’s hospital.
Frontline environmental services workers.
A 5-module educational program, using principles of adult learning theory, was developed and presented to environmental services workers. Audience response system (ARS), videos, demonstrations, role playing, and graphics were used to illustrate concepts of and the rationale for infection prevention strategies. Topics included hand hygiene, isolation precautions, personal protective equipment (PPE), cleaning protocols, and strategies to overcome barriers. Program evaluation included ARS questions, written evaluations, and objective assessments of occupied patient room cleaning. Changes in hospital-onset C. difficile infection (CDI) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia were evaluated.
On average, 357 environmental service workers participated in each module. Most (93%) rated the presentations as ‘excellent’ or ‘very good’ and agreed that they were useful (95%), reported that they were more comfortable donning/doffing PPE (91%) and performing hand hygiene (96%) and better understood the importance of disinfecting HTSs (96%) after the program. The frequency of cleaning individual HTSs in occupied rooms increased from 26% to 62% (P < .001) following the intervention. Improvement was sustained 1-year post intervention (P < .001). A significant decrease in CDI was associated with the program.
A novel program that addressed environmental services workers’ knowledge gaps, challenges, and barriers was well received and appeared to result in learning, behavior change, and sustained improvements in cleaning.
In glacial environments particle-size analysis of moraines provides insights into clast origin, transport history, depositional mechanism and processes of reworking. Traditional methods for grain-size classification are labour-intensive, physically intrusive and are limited to patch-scale (1 m2) observation. We develop emerging, high-resolution ground- and unmanned aerial vehicle-based ‘Structure-from-Motion’ (UAV-SfM) photogrammetry to recover grain-size information across a moraine surface in the Heritage Range, Antarctica. SfM data products were benchmarked against equivalent datasets acquired using terrestrial laser scanning, and were found to be accurate to within 1.7 and 50 mm for patch- and site-scale modelling, respectively. Grain-size distributions were obtained through digital grain classification, or ‘photo-sieving’, of patch-scale SfM orthoimagery. Photo-sieved distributions were accurate to <2 mm compared to control distributions derived from dry-sieving. A relationship between patch-scale median grain size and the standard deviation of local surface elevations was applied to a site-scale UAV-SfM model to facilitate upscaling and the production of a spatially continuous map of the median grain size across a 0.3 km2 area of moraine. This highly automated workflow for site-scale sedimentological characterization eliminates much of the subjectivity associated with traditional methods and forms a sound basis for subsequent glaciological process interpretation and analysis.
To update the estimate of mean salt intake for the Australian population made by the Australian Health Survey (AHS).
A secondary analysis of the data collected in a cross-sectional survey was conducted. Estimates of salt intake were made in Lithgow using the 24 h diet recall methodology employed by the AHS as well as using 24 h urine collections. The data from the Lithgow sample were age- and sex-weighted, to provide estimates of daily salt intake for the Australian population based upon (i) the diet recall data and (ii) the 24 h urine samples.
Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia.
Individuals aged ≥20 years residing in Lithgow and listed on the 2009 federal electoral roll.
Mean (95 % CI) salt intake estimated from the 24 h diet recalls was 6·4 (6·2, 6·7) g/d for the Lithgow population compared with a corresponding figure of 6·2 g/d for the Australian population derived from the AHS. The corresponding estimate of salt intake for Lithgow adults based upon the 24 h urine collections was 9·0 (8·6, 9·4) g/d. When the age- and sex-specific estimates of salt intake obtained from the 24 h urine collections in the Lithgow sample were weighted using Australian census data, estimated salt intake for the Australian population was 9·0 (8·6, 9·5) g/d. Further adjustment for non-urinary Na excretion made the best estimate of daily salt intake for both Lithgow and Australia about 9·9 g/d.
The dietary recall method used by the AHS likely substantially underestimated mean population salt consumption in Australia.
In this study, we used an online survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to environmental cleaning and other infection prevention strategies among environmental services workers (ESWs) at 5 hospitals. Our findings suggest that ESWs could benefit from additional education and feedback as well as new strategies to address workflow challenges.
Spatial studies of the emission line regions in planetary nebulae (PN) can provide insight into the physical and chemical environments across the nebulae. In a collaborative effort by the coauthors, a K-band Fabry-Perot etalon has been coupled with an advanced 256 × 256 InSb focal plane array at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory 2.3m telescope. This system permits us to obtain spatially resolved, 0.24″/pixel, moderate spectral resolution (R ≈ 800), flux-density IR emission line images of astronomical sources. We obtained continuum-subtracted images of Br γ, HeI 2.06 μm, the 2-μm UIR features, and the 3.3 μm PAH dust feature in the PN NGC 6572, NGC 7027, and NGC 7662. One objective was to determine the spatial morphology of two unidentified emission lines, UIR1−2.199 μm, and UIR2−2.287 μm (Geballe et al. 1991). These UIR lines appear in the spectra of many PN (Hora et al. 1997) and in the Orion Nebula (Luhman & Rieke 1996). Geballe et al. suggested that the UIR lines are most likely forbidden transitions and showed that the parent ion ionization potential is ≈ 30–40 eV, while the ionization potential for the ions themselves is 40–60 eV. Here we directly compare the distribution of the UIR emitters to that of the gas (H+,He+) and dust (PAHs).
We report near-infrared spectroscopy of three Seyfert galaxies. Velocity resolved spectra covering low excitation-potential transitions of [Ar III] 8.991 µm, [S IV] 10.514 µm, and [Ne II] 12.813 µm were obtained using the facility mid-infrared array spectrometer (SpectroCam) of the Palomar Observatory Hale 5-m Telescope, and low-resolution spectra covering [Mg V] 5.608 µm, [Ar II] 6.985 µm, and [Ne VI] 7.642 µm were obtained using the faint-object spectrograph (HIFOGS) of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO).
We find high contrast [Ar III] and [S IV] in each galaxy, and [Ne II] in NGC 1068 and NGC 4151 (12.8 µm data were not obtained on NGC 5506). The line profiles are well resolved. In NGC 1068 and NGC 4151, they are fit by singlecomponent Gaussians. However, in NGC 5506, evidence for a broad pedestal is seen in the [Ar III] and [S IV] spectra, similar to the broad Paβ component reported by Blanco et al. (1990) and Rix et al. (1990).
To quantify myocardial blood flow in infants and children with mild or moderate aortic stenosis using adenosine-infusion cardiac magnetic resonance.
It is unclear whether asymptomatic children with mild/moderate aortic stenosis have myocardial abnormalities. In addition, cardiac magnetic resonance-determined normative myocardial blood flow data in children have not been reported.
We studied 31 infants and children with either haemodynamically normal hearts (n=20, controls) or mild/moderate aortic stenosis (n=11). The left ventricular myocardium was divided into six segments, and the change in average segmental signal intensity during contrast transit was used to quantify absolute flow (ml/g/minute) at rest and during adenosine infusion by deconvolution of the tissue curves with the arterial input of contrast.
In all the cases, adenosine was well tolerated without complications. The mean pressure gradient between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta was higher in the aortic stenosis group compared with controls (24 versus 3 mmHg, p<0.001). Left ventricular wall mass was slightly higher in the aortic stenosis group compared with controls (65 versus 50 g/m2, p<0.05). After adenosine treatment, both the absolute increase in myocardial blood flow (p<0.0001) and the hyperaemic flow significantly decreased (p<0.001) in children with mild/moderate aortic stenosis compared with controls.
Abnormal myocardial blood flow in children with mild/moderate aortic stenosis may be an important therapeutic target.
It has been previously demonstrated that a cognitive bias against disconfirmatory evidence (BADE) is associated with delusions. However, small samples of delusional patients, reliance on difference scores and choice of comparison groups may have hampered the reliability of these results. In the present study we aimed to improve on this methodology with a recent version of the BADE task, and compare larger groups of schizophrenia patients with/without delusions to obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients, a population with persistent and possibly bizarre beliefs without psychosis.
A component analysis was used to identify cognitive operations underlying the BADE task, and how they differ across four groups of participants: (1) high-delusional schizophrenia, (2) low-delusional schizophrenia, (3) OCD patients and (4) non-psychiatric controls.
As in past studies, two components emerged and were labelled ‘evidence integration’ (the degree to which disambiguating information has been integrated) and ‘conservatism’ (reduced willingness to provide high plausibility ratings when justified), and only evidence integration differed between severely delusional patients and the other groups, reflecting delusional subjects giving higher ratings for disconfirmed interpretations and lower ratings for confirmed interpretations.
These data support the finding that a reduced willingness to adjust beliefs when confronted with disconfirming evidence may be a cognitive underpinning of delusions specifically, rather than obsessive beliefs or other aspects of psychosis such as hallucinations, and illustrates a cognitive process that may underlie maintenance of delusions in the face of counter-evidence. This supports the possibility of the BADE operation being a useful target in cognitive-based therapies for delusions.
We report on the preparation and characterization of crystalline bismuth oxide thin films via Biased Target Ion Beam Deposition method. A focused blue laser (405nm) is used to write an array of dots in the bismuth oxide thin film and demonstrate clear and circular recording marks in form of “bubbles” or “little volcanos” (FWHM ∼500nm). Results indicate excellent static recording characteristics, writing sensitivity and contrast. The recording mechanism is investigated and is believed to be related to laser-induced morphology change.
The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing is a prospective study of 1,112 individuals (211 with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 133 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 768 healthy controls (HCs)). Here we report diagnostic and cognitive findings at the first (18-month) follow-up of the cohort. The first aim was to compute rates of transition from HC to MCI, and MCI to AD. The second aim was to characterize the cognitive profiles of individuals who transitioned to a more severe disease stage compared with those who did not.
Eighteen months after baseline, participants underwent comprehensive cognitive testing and diagnostic review, provided an 80 ml blood sample, and completed health and lifestyle questionnaires. A subgroup also underwent amyloid PET and MRI neuroimaging.
The diagnostic status of 89.9% of the cohorts was determined (972 were reassessed, 28 had died, and 112 did not return for reassessment). The 18-month cohort comprised 692 HCs, 82 MCI cases, 197 AD patients, and one Parkinson's disease dementia case. The transition rate from HC to MCI was 2.5%, and cognitive decline in HCs who transitioned to MCI was greatest in memory and naming domains compared to HCs who remained stable. The transition rate from MCI to AD was 30.5%.
There was a high retention rate after 18 months. Rates of transition from healthy aging to MCI, and MCI to AD, were consistent with established estimates. Follow-up of this cohort over longer periods will elucidate robust predictors of future cognitive decline.
In 1922 we recorded sixteen species of non-marine mollusca from Hoxne but of these only eight were known from extant examples, the remainder being listed on the authority of either Prof. Prestwich, or the late Clement Reid, and we noted that two horizons were present, Early Pleistocene and Late Pleistocene (Proc. Geol. Assoc, Vol. XXXIII (1922), pp. 137–165.) Through the kindness of Prof. P. G. H. Boswell and Mr. J. Reid Moir samples of peaty earth containing shells from Hoxne were submitted to us for examination. There came from Section 4, layer G (see Proc. Prehistoric Soc., East Anglia, Vol. V (1926), p. 145) and we are greatly indebted to these gentlemen for their kindness.
The presence of 10 virulence genes was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 365 European O157 and non-O157 Escherichia coli isolates associated with verotoxin production. Strain-specific PCR data were analysed using hierarchical clustering. The resulting dendrogram clearly separated O157 from non-O157 strains. The former clustered typical high-risk seropathotype (SPT) A strains from all regions, including Sweden and Spain, which were homogenous by Cramer's V statistic, and strains with less typical O157 features mostly from Hungary. The non-O157 strains divided into a high-risk SPTB harbouring O26, O111 and O103 strains, a group pathogenic to pigs, and a group with few virulence genes other than for verotoxin. The data demonstrate SPT designation and selected PCR separated verotoxigenic E. coli of high and low risk to humans; although more virulence genes or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis will need to be included to separate high-risk strains further for epidemiological tracing.
During the 1960s and 1970s, aerial reconnaissance on the northern side of the confluence of the Rivers Trent, Tame, and Mease in Staffordshire revealed a cluster of features indicative of prehistoric ceremonial activity. Some of the features within the cluster are morphologically unique, but a lack of previous investigation meant that their dating, phasing, and function were unknown. This paper details the results of a multi-disciplinary approach to addressing these questions about the complex and to place it into its contemporary landscape context. The results indicate that the complex represents numerous phases of symbolic and ceremonial activity extending from the late Neolithic and into the early Bronze Age. Furthermore, it has shown how these structures fit within a wider landscape of ceremonial activity extending back to the earlier Neolithic and continuing into the Bronze Age.
V- and I-band observations were taken over 9 months to study the RR Lyrae population in the metal-poor diffuse globular cluster NGC 6101. We identify one new variable, which is either a potential long-period red giant variable or eclipsing binary, and recover all previously identified RR Lyraes. One previously studied RR Lyrae is reclassified as an RRc type, while two period estimations have been significantly refined. We confirm that NGC6101 is Oosterhoff type II with a high ratio of n(c)/n(ab + c) = 0.833 with a very long mean RRab period of 0.86 d. By using theoretical RRLyrae period-luminosity-metallicity relations, we use our V- and I-band RR Lyrae data to gain an independent estimate of the reddening towards this cluster of E(B − V) = 0.15 ± 0.04 and derive a distance of 12.8 ± 0.8 kpc. The majority of the work in this study was undertaken by upper secondary school students involved in the Space to Grow astronomy education project in Australia.