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Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) cause morbidity and mortality in critically ill children. We examined novel and/or modifiable risk factors for CLABSI to identify new potential targets for infection prevention strategies.
This single-center retrospective matched case-control study of pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients was conducted in a 60-bed PICU from April 1, 2013, to December 31, 2017. Case patients were in the PICU, had a central venous catheter (CVC), and developed a CLABSI. Control patients were in the PICU for ≥2 days, had a CVC for ≥3 days, and did not develop a CLABSI. Cases and controls were matched 1:4 on age, number of complex chronic conditions, and hospital length of stay.
Overall, 72 CLABSIs were matched to 281 controls. Univariate analysis revealed 14 risk factors, and 4 remained significant in multivariable analysis: total number of central line accesses in the 3 days preceding CLABSI (80+ accesses: OR, 4.8; P = .01), acute behavioral health needs (OR, 3.2; P = .02), CVC duration >7 days (8–14 days: OR, 4.2; P = .01; 15–29 days: OR, 9.8; P < .01; 30–59 days: OR, 17.3; P < .01; 60–89 days: OR, 39.8; P < .01; 90+ days: OR, 4.9; P = .01), and hematologic/immunologic disease (OR, 1.5; P = .05).
Novel risk factors for CLABSI in PICU patients include acute behavioral health needs and >80 CVC accesses in the 3 days before CLABSI. Interventions focused on these factors may reduce CLABSIs in this high-risk population.
In recent years, the discovery of massive quasars at
has provided a striking challenge to our understanding of the origin and growth of supermassive black holes in the early Universe. Mounting observational and theoretical evidence indicates the viability of massive seeds, formed by the collapse of supermassive stars, as a progenitor model for such early, massive accreting black holes. Although considerable progress has been made in our theoretical understanding, many questions remain regarding how (and how often) such objects may form, how they live and die, and how next generation observatories may yield new insight into the origin of these primordial titans. This review focusses on our present understanding of this remarkable formation scenario, based on the discussions held at the Monash Prato Centre from November 20 to 24, 2017, during the workshop ‘Titans of the Early Universe: The Origin of the First Supermassive Black Holes’.
Introduction: There is increasing evidence supporting ultrasonography for the determination of optimal chest compression location during cardiac arrest. Radiological studies have demonstrated that in up to 1/3 of patients the aortic root or outflow tract is being compressed during standard CPR. Out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrests (OHCA) could benefit from cardiac localization, undertaken with scaled-down ultrasound equipment by which the largest fluid filled structure in the chest (the heart) is identified to guide optimal compression location. We intend to evaluate 1) where the left ventricle is in supine patients, 2) the accuracy and precision as well as 3) the feasibility and reliability of cardiac localization with a scaled down ultrasound device (bladder scanners). Methods: We are recruiting men and women over the age of 40. The scanning protocol involves using a bladder scanner on a 15-point grid over the subject's left chest and parasternal, midclavicular, and anterior axillary intercostal spaces 3-7. Detected volumes will be recorded, with the presumption that the intercostal space with the largest measured volume is centered over the heart. Echocardiography will then be used to confirm the bladder scanner accuracy and to better describe the patient's internal chest anatomy. Having assessed procedural feasibility on 3 pilot subjects, we are now recruiting 100 participants, with planned interim analysis at 50 participants for sample size reassessment. Maximal volume location frequencies from the echocardiograms will be described and assessed for variation utilizing the goodness-of-fit test. The proportion of agreement across the two modalities regarding the maximal volume location will also be examined. Results: Among the 3 volunteers (pilot study), the scanner identified fluid in 4-8 of 15 intercostal spaces. In each of the three pilot study patients, the maximal volume identified by the bladder scanner was found to be at the parasternal location of the 6th intercostal space. This was also the location of the mid left ventricular diameter on echocardiography. Conclusion: Our literature review and pilot study data support the premise that lay persons and emergency medical personnel may improve compressions (and thus outcomes) during OHCA by using a scaled-down ultrasound to identify the location of optimal compression. We are currently enrolling patients in our study.
Innovation Concept: The outcome of emergency medicine training is to produce physicians who can competently run an emergency department (ED) shift. While many workplace-based ED assessments focus on discrete tasks of the discipline, others emphasize assessment of performance across the entire shift. However, the quality of assessments is generally poor and these tools often lack validity evidence. The use of entrustment scale anchors may help to address these psychometric issues. The aim of this study was to develop and gather validity evidence for a novel tool to assess a resident's ability to independently run an ED shift. Methods: Through a nominal group technique, local and national stakeholders identified dimensions of performance reflective of a competent ED physician. These dimensions were included in a new tool that was piloted in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Ottawa during a 4-month period. Psychometric characteristics of the items were calculated, and a generalizability analysis used to determine the reliability of scores. An ANOVA was conducted to determine whether scores increased as a function of training level (junior = PGY1-2, intermediate = PGY3, senior = PGY4-5), and varied by ED treatment area. Safety for independent practice was analyzed with a dichotomous score. Curriculum, Tool or Material: The developed Ottawa Emergency Department Shift Observation Tool (O-EDShOT) includes 12-items rated on a 5-point entrustment scale with a global assessment item and 2 short-answer questions. Eight hundred and thirty-three assessment were completed by 78 physicians for 45 residents. Mean scores differed significantly by training level (p < .001) with junior residents receiving lower ratings (3.48 ± 0.69) than intermediate residents who received lower ratings (3.98 ± 0.48) than senior residents (4.54 ± 0.42). Scores did not vary by ED treatment area (p > .05). Residents judged to be safe to independently run the shift had significantly higher mean scores than those judged not to be safe (4.74 ± 0.31 vs 3.75 ± 0.66; p < .001). Fourteen observations per resident, the typical number recorded during a 1-month rotation, were required to achieve a reliability of 0.80. Conclusion: The O-EDShOT successfully discriminated between junior, intermediate and senior-level residents regardless of ED treatment area. Multiple sources of evidence support the O-EDShOT producing valid scores for assessing a resident's ability to independently run an ED shift.
Childhood adversity is associated with poor mental and physical health outcomes across the life span. Alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis are considered a key mechanism underlying these associations, although findings have been mixed. These inconsistencies suggest that other aspects of stress processing may underlie variations in this these associations, and that differences in adversity type, sex, and age may be relevant. The current study investigated the relationship between childhood adversity, stress perception, and morning cortisol, and examined whether differences in adversity type (generalized vs. threat and deprivation), sex, and age had distinct effects on these associations. Salivary cortisol samples, daily hassle stress ratings, and retrospective measures of childhood adversity were collected from a large sample of youth at risk for serious mental illness including psychoses (n = 605, mean age = 19.3). Results indicated that childhood adversity was associated with increased stress perception, which subsequently predicted higher morning cortisol levels; however, these associations were specific to threat exposures in females. These findings highlight the role of stress perception in stress vulnerability following childhood adversity and highlight potential sex differences in the impact of threat exposures.
Synthesizing thin diamond films by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most recent and technologically important development in the thin-film field. Thin diamond films are useful in many applications because of their unique physical, chemical, optical, and electronic properties.
To assess thin diamond films’ suitability for support membranes in X-ray lithography, X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the crystal structure and orientation of these films deposited on silicon wafers by hot-filament assisted CVD. X-ray transmission properties of free-standing thin diamond films prepared by selectively etching silicon substrates were characterized by X-ray fluorescence in short and long wavelength regions.
This paper discusses conventional and grazing incidence diffraction techniques used to study the crystal structure of thin diamond films and compares the results with film morphology. It also describes X-ray transmission properties of these films in terms of Beer's Law, the mass absorption coefficient, and the wavelength of attenuated radiation. Finally, it reveals the long wavelength regions for optimum X-ray lithography operations using polycrystalline diamond (PCD) film.
Over the past 25 years, numerous studies of polymers utilizing both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been reported in the literature. These studies have suffered because the two techniques must be performed on separate samples and under conditions that are often dissimilar. By combining the two techniques into one instrument, typical problems encountered with variations in sample preparation and thermal and atmospheric environment are eliminated. This is quite important in the study of polymers since one must match not only temperatures between the two techniques, but also heating rates as well. Matched thermal conditions are necessary because polymer properties such as crystallinity and crystallite size depend on both the temperature and thermal history of the sample under study.
The rapid, quantitative and qualitative analysis of particulates on air filter samples is becoming increasingly important as more air pollution sampling stations are set up throughout the countiy. Although atomic absorption provides a sensitive technique for the analysis of many elements, the disadvantages of complex sample preparation, sample destruction and the necessity to analyze one element at a time make this technique unsuitable for a large volume of samples. X-ray energy spectroscopy when combined with automated sample handling and the latest dedicated data reduction systems provides a technique which enables the analyst to process large numbers of samples and obtain precise quantitative and qualitative data rapidly. This paper will describe the preparation and analysis of typical air filter type samples, and the steps taken to identify the elements in the samples and obtain computerized reduction of the data in μg/cm2, ppm or percent.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) results in substantial numbers of hospitalisations and deaths in older adults. There are known lifestyle and medical risk factors for pneumococcal disease but the magnitude of the additional risk is not well quantified in Australia. We used a large population-based prospective cohort study of older adults in the state of New South Wales (45 and Up Study) linked to cause-specific hospitalisations, disease notifications and death registrations from 2006 to 2015. We estimated the age-specific incidence of CAP hospitalisation (ICD-10 J12-18), invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notification and presumptive non-invasive pneumococcal CAP hospitalisation (J13 + J18.1, excluding IPD), comparing those with at least one risk factor to those with no risk factors. The hospitalised case-fatality rate (CFR) included deaths in a 30-day window after hospitalisation. Among 266 951 participants followed for 1 850 000 person-years there were 8747 first hospitalisations for CAP, 157 IPD notifications and 305 non-invasive pneumococcal CAP hospitalisations. In persons 65–84 years, 54.7% had at least one identified risk factor, increasing to 57.0% in those ⩾85 years. The incidence of CAP hospitalisation in those ⩾65 years with at least one risk factor was twofold higher than in those without risk factors, 1091/100 000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1060–1122) compared with 522/100 000 (95% CI 501–545) and IPD in equivalent groups was almost threefold higher (18.40/100 000 (95% CI 14.61–22.87) vs. 6.82/100 000 (95% CI 4.56–9.79)). The CFR increased with age but there were limited difference by risk status, except in those aged 45 to 64 years. Adults ⩾65 years with at least one risk factor have much higher rates of CAP and IPD suggesting that additional risk factor-based vaccination strategies may be cost-effective.
Environmental and biological factors contribute to sleep development during infancy. Parenting plays a particularly important role in modulating infant sleep, potentially via the serotonin system, which is itself involved in regulating infant sleep. We hypothesized that maternal neglect and serotonin system dysregulation would be associated with daytime sleep in infant rhesus monkeys. Subjects were nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (n = 287). During the first month of life, daytime sleep-wake states were rated bihourly (0800–2100). Infants were considered neglected (n = 16) if before nursery-rearing, their mother repeatedly failed to retrieve them. Serotonin transporter genotype and concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were used as markers of central serotonin system functioning. t tests showed that neglected infants were observed sleeping less frequently, weighed less, and had higher 5-HIAA than non-neglected nursery-reared infants. Regression revealed that serotonin transporter genotype moderated the relationship between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep: in subjects possessing the Ls genotype, there was a positive correlation between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep, whereas in subjects possessing the LL genotype there was no association. These results highlight the pivotal roles that parents and the serotonin system play in sleep development. Daytime sleep alterations observed in neglected infants may partially derive from serotonin system dysregulation.
To evaluate long-term efficacy of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) by examining response rates from baseline in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) scores. Preliminary results of the responder analysis are reported in this analysis.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, the odds of response to deutetrabenazine treatment were higher than the odds of response to placebo at all response levels, and there were low rates of overall adverse events and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients with TD who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration and a long-term maintenance phase. The cumulative proportion of AIMS responders from baseline was assessed. Response was defined as a percent improvement from baseline for each patient from 10% to 90% in 10% increments. AlMS score was assessed by local site ratings for this analysis.
343 patients enrolled in the extension study (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 patients received deutetrabenazine). At Week 54 (n=145; total daily dose [mean±standard error]: 38.1±0.9mg), 63% of patients receiving deutetrabenazine achieved ≥30% response, 48% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 26% achieved ≥70% response. At Week 80 (n=66; total daily dose: 38.6±1.1mg), 76% of patients achieved ≥30% response, 59% of patients achieved ≥50% response, and 36% achieved ≥70% response. Treatment was generally well tolerated.
Patients who received long-term treatment with deutetrabenazine achieved response rates higher than those observed in positive short-term studies, indicating clinically meaningful long-term treatment benefit.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Funding Acknowledgements: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel.
To evaluate the long-term safety and tolerability of deutetrabenazine in patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) at 2years.
In the 12-week ARM-TD and AIM-TD studies, deutetrabenazine showed clinically significant improvements in Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale scores compared with placebo, and there were low rates of overall adverse events (AEs) and discontinuations associated with deutetrabenazine.
Patients who completed ARM-TD or AIM-TD were included in this open-label, single-arm extension study, in which all patients restarted/started deutetrabenazine 12mg/day, titrating up to a maximum total daily dose of 48mg/day based on dyskinesia control and tolerability. The study comprised a 6-week titration period and a long-term maintenance phase. Safety measures included incidence of AEs, serious AEs (SAEs), and AEs leading to withdrawal, dose reduction, or dose suspension. Exposure-adjusted incidence rates (EAIRs; incidence/patient-years) were used to compare AE frequencies for long-term treatment with those for short-term treatment (ARM-TD and AIM-TD). This analysis reports results up to 2 years (Week106).
343 patients were enrolled (111 patients received placebo in the parent study and 232 received deutetrabenazine). There were 331.4 patient-years of exposure in this analysis. Through Week 106, EAIRs of AEs were comparable to or lower than those observed with short-term deutetrabenazine and placebo, including AEs of interest (akathisia/restlessness [long-term EAIR: 0.02; short-term EAIR range: 0–0.25], anxiety [0.09; 0.13–0.21], depression [0.09; 0.04–0.13], diarrhea [0.06; 0.06–0.34], parkinsonism [0.01; 0–0.08], somnolence/sedation [0.09; 0.06–0.81], and suicidality [0.02; 0–0.13]). The frequency of SAEs (EAIR 0.15) was similar to those observed with short-term placebo (0.33) and deutetrabenazine (range 0.06–0.33) treatment. AEs leading to withdrawal (0.08), dose reduction (0.17), and dose suspension (0.06) were uncommon.
These results confirm the safety outcomes seen in the ARM-TD and AIM-TD parent studies, demonstrating that deutetrabenazine is well tolerated for long-term use in TD patients.
Presented at: American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting; April 21–27, 2018, Los Angeles, California,USA
Funding Acknowledgements: Funding: This study was supported by Teva Pharmaceuticals, Petach Tikva, Israel
Emperor Maximilian I was intensely engaged with material relics of the ancient Roman and medieval German past. Maximilian’s historical imagination, creative and participatory rather than objective and distancing, guided his own monumental projects. This essay analyzes, among other episodes, the quest for the bones of the historical Siegfried in Worms and an apparently archeological drawing by Albrecht Dürer.
During the summer of 2016, the Hawaii Department of Health responded to the second-largest domestic foodborne hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreak in the post-vaccine era. The epidemiological investigation included case finding and investigation, sequencing of RNA positive clinical specimens, product trace-back and virologic testing and sequencing of HAV RNA from the product. Additionally, an online survey open to all Hawaii residents was conducted to estimate baseline commercial food consumption. We identified 292 confirmed HAV cases, of whom 11 (4%) were possible secondary cases. Seventy-four (25%) were hospitalised and there were two deaths. Among all cases, 94% reported eating at Oahu or Kauai Island branches of Restaurant Chain A, with 86% of those cases reporting raw scallop consumption. In contrast, a food consumption survey conducted during the outbreak indicated 25% of Oahu residents patronised Restaurant Chain A in the 7 weeks before the survey. Product trace-back revealed a single distributor that supplied scallops imported from the Philippines to Restaurant Chain A. Recovery, amplification and sequence comparison of HAV recovered from scallops revealed viral sequences matching those from case-patients. Removal of product from implicated restaurants and vaccination of those potentially exposed led to the cessation of the outbreak. This outbreak further highlights the need for improved imported food safety.
Over the past half-century video games have become a significant part of our cultural environment, in part, by leading advances in both technology and artistic innovation. In recent years librarians and researchers have recognized these games as cultural objects that require collection and curation. Developing and maintaining collections of this fast moving and somewhat ephemeral media, however, poses challenges due to constantly advancing technology and a corresponding lack of consistent terminology. This article addresses the literature and critical issues surrounding collections of video games within libraries and presents a case study of the University of Michigan’s Computer and Video Game Archive (CVGA), one of the largest academic archives of its kind. Moreover, video games are situated in a humanistic approach to the field of game studies as the article draws on the relevance of methods from art history and film studies.