Despite the clinical impact of motor symptoms such as agitation or retardation on the course of depression, these symptoms are poorly understood. Novel developments in the field of instrumentation and mobile devices allow for dimensional and continuous recording of motor behavior in various settings, particularly outside the laboratory. Likewise, the use of novel assessments enables to combine multimodal neuroimaging with behavioral measures in order to investigate the neural correlates of motor dysfunction in depression. The research domain criteria (RDoC) framework will soon include a motor domain that will provide a framework for studying motor dysfunction in mood disorders. In addition, new studies within this framework will allow investigators to study motor symptoms across different stages of depression as well as other psychiatric diagnoses. Finally, the introduction of the RDoC motor domain will help test how motor symptoms integrate with the original five RDoC domains (negative valence, positive valence, cognitive, social processes, and arousal/regulation).