To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Proactive integrated weed management (IWM) is critically needed in no-till production to reduce the intensity of selection pressure for herbicide-resistant weeds. Reducing the density of emerged weed populations and the number of larger individuals within the population at the time of herbicide application are two practical management objectives when integrating cover crops as a complementary tactic in herbicide-based production systems. We examined the following demographic questions related to the effects of alternative cover-cropping tactics following small grain harvest on preplant, burndown management of horseweed (Erigeron canadensis L.) in no-till commodity-grain production: (1) Do cover crops differentially affect E. canadensis density and size inequality at the time of herbicide exposure? (2) Which cover crop response traits are drivers of E. canadensis suppression at time of herbicide exposure? Interannual variation in growing conditions (study year) and intra-annual variation in soil fertility (low vs. high nitrogen) were the primary drivers of cover crop response traits and significantly affected E. canadensis density at the time of herbicide exposure. In comparison to the fallow control, cover crop treatments reduced E. canadensis density 52% to 86% at the time of a preplant, burndown application. Cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) alone or in combination with forage radish (Raphanus sativus L.) provided the most consistent E. canadensis suppression. Fall and spring cover crop biomass production was negatively correlated with E. canadensis density at the preplant burndown application timing. Our results also show that winter-hardy cover crops reduce the size inequality of E. canadensis populations at the time of herbicide exposure by reducing the number of large individuals within the population. Finally, we advocate for advancement in our understanding of complementarity between cover crop– and herbicide-based management tactics in no-till systems to facilitate development of proactive, herbicide-resistant management strategies.
We identified a pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium avium in an outpatient bronchoscopy clinic following an increase in clinic procedure volume. We terminated the pseudo-outbreak by increasing the frequency of automated endoscope reprocessors (AER) filter changes from quarterly to monthly. Filter changing schedules should depend on use rather than fixed time intervals.
A well-known theorem of Jacobson (1) states that if every element x of a ring R satisfies xn(x) = x where n(x) > 1 is an integer, then R is commutative. A series of generalizations of this theorem have been proved by Herstein (2; 3; 4; 5; 6), his last result in this direction (6) being that a ring R is commutative provided every commutator u of R satisfies un(u) = u. We now define a γ-ring to be a ring R in which un(u) — u is central for every commutator u of R (where n(u) > 1 is an integer). In the present paper we verify the following conjecture of Herstein: every commutator of a γ-ring is central.
Objectives: Past research suggests that youth with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) present with verbal fluency deficits. However, most studies have focused on sex chromosome trisomies. Far less is known about sex chromosome tetrasomies and pentasomies. Thus, the current research sought to characterize verbal fluency performance among youth with sex chromosome trisomies, tetrasomies, and pentasomies by contrasting how performance varies as a function of extra X number and X versus Y status. Methods: Participants included 79 youth with SCAs and 42 typically developing controls matched on age, maternal education, and racial/ethnic background. Participants completed the phonemic and semantic conditions of a verbal fluency task and an abbreviated intelligence test. Results: Both supernumerary X and Y chromosomes were associated with verbal fluency deficits relative to controls. These impairments increased as a function of the number of extra X chromosomes, and the pattern of impairments on phonemic and semantic fluency differed for those with a supernumerary X versus Y chromosome. Whereas one supernumerary Y chromosome was associated with similar performance across fluency conditions, one supernumerary X chromosome was associated with relatively stronger semantic than phonemic fluency skills. Conclusions: Verbal fluency skills in youth with supernumerary X and Y chromosomes are impaired relative to controls. However, the degree of impairment varies across groups and task condition. Further research into the cognitive underpinnings of verbal fluency in youth with SCAs may provide insights into their verbal fluency deficits and help guide future treatments. (JINS, 2018, 24, 917–927)
Organic acids, most commonly fumarate and malate, when offered to ruminants have been shown to produce a decrease in methane emissions along with an increase in in vitro DM digestibility in rumen fluid taken from sheep (López et al., 1999). They are classed as ‘preservatives’ in the list of feed additives authorised by EU legislation, and as such are permitted for use in livestock (Castillo et al., 2004). However, the addition of fumaric acid to the diet has been associated with inappetance and problems of reduced rumen pH. Fumaric acid encapsulated in a soya oil capsule enables a slow release of fumaric acid in the rumen, which should overcome these problems. Encapsulated fumaric acid (EFA), when offered to lambs as 10% of the diet, reduced methane emissions by 75% and increased feed conversion efficiency by 20% (Wallace et al., 2006). To date, no in vivo studies have been carried out on dairy cattle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of addition of EFA on animal performance and methane production from grazing dairy cows.
Protein breakdown in the rumen often leads to excessive ammonia production and inefficient use of dietary protein by ruminants (Wallace et al., 1997). Attention has for many years focussed on the proteolytic activity of ruminal microorganisms (Wallace et al., 1997). The wide variety of proteolytic species and proteolytic enzymes and their between-animal variability has made the task of decreasing microbial proteolytic activity difficult (Falconer & Wallace 1999). Much less attention has been paid to the contribution of proteinases originating from the feed. In particular, grass cells contain vacuoles harbouring broad spectrum proteinases which are known to be responsible for protein breakdown in the silo (Wetherall et al., 1995). Theodorou et al. (1996) proposed that much of the rapid release of ammonia in grazing animals might be initiated by the action of plant, rather than microbial, proteinases. The present study was undertaken to compare the proteolytic activities of fresh grass and ruminal microorganisms and to evaluate their likely contributions to ammonia production in the rumen.
The breakdown of bacterial protein in the rumen leads to a nutritionally wasteful cycle of protein breakdown and re-synthesis, decreasing the flow of microbial protein from the rumen to the small intestine (Williams and Coleman, 1992). Engulfment and subsequent digestion by ciliate protozoa was demonstrated to be the most important cause of bacterial lysis in mixed ruminal micro-organisms incubated in vitro (Wallace and McPherson, 1987). Despite their importance, little is known about the enzymes responsible for the digestion of bacteria in rumen ciliates. The objective of this study was to clone and characterise a lysozyme from Entodinium caudatum, a common rumen protozoan important in the ingestion and breakdown of rumen bacteria (Williams and Coleman, 1992).
The efficiency and rate of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen depend on several factors, of which the chemical and physical properties of the plant fibre are among the most important. Estimation of microbial yield and fermentation rate can be obtained from in vitro experiments, which combine gas production and substrate degradability measurements and/or use microbial markers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different fibre sources on microbial protein synthesis in a batch culture system in vitro.
Methane formation in the rumen represents a substantial loss of energy to the animal and is also a major source of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Methanogenesis is the main means of disposal of hydrogen during rumen fermentation. The formation of propionate represents an alternative route of hydrogen disposal, providing sufficient propionate precursors are available. Theoretically, adding propionate precursors should stimulate propionate production and decrease methane production. In the present experiment, the effects of two potential precursors of propionate, fumarate and acrylate, on rumen fermentation and methane production were investigated in a rumen simulating fermentor.
In the mid-Atlantic region, there is increasing interest in the use of intercropping strategies to establish cover crops in corn cropping systems. However, intercropping may be limited by potential injury to cover crops from residual herbicide programs. Field experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2015 at Pennsylvania, Maryland, and New York locations (n=8) to evaluate the effect of common residual corn herbicides on interseeded red clover and annual ryegrass. Cover crop establishment and response to herbicide treatments varied across sites and years. S-metolachlor, pyroxasulfone, pendimethalin, and dimethenamid-P reduced annual ryegrass biomass relative to the nontreated check, whereas annual ryegrass biomass in acetochlor treatments was no different compared with the nontreated check. The rank order of observed annual ryegrass biomass reduction among chloroacetamide herbicides was S-metolachlor>pyroxasulfone>dimethenamid-P>acetochlor. Annual ryegrass biomass was not reduced by any of the broadleaf control herbicides. Mesotrione reduced red clover biomass 80% compared to the nontreated check. No differences in red clover biomass were observed between saflufenacil, rimsulfuron and atrazine treatments compared to the nontreated check. Red clover was not reduced by any of the grass control herbicides. This research suggests that annual ryegrass and red clover can be successfully interseeded in silt loam soils of Pennsylvania following use of several shorter-lived residual corn herbicides, but further research is needed in areas with soil types other than silt loam or outside of the mid-Atlantic cropping region.
Development of a catalogue of approximately 100 radio sources having positional accuracy of ~0.005 arcseconds is one goal of the DSN radio reference frame program. This objective is set by the navigation requirements of the Galileo Project for reconstruction of the probe entry angle into the atmosphere of Jupiter. These radio positions are determined by VLBI observations using the antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network on two intercontinental baselines – California-Spain and California-Australia. Since 1978, measurements have been made simultaneously at 2.3 and 8.4 Ghz. Sixteen to twenty-four hours of data on each of the two baselines are usually obtained within a few days of each other, and since mid-1982 these pairs of observations have been made at approximately six week intervals.
Development of a radio reference frame of very high accuracy has become necessary in order to obtain the required accuracy in spacecraft navigation for current and future planetary missions. The antennas of the NASA Deep Space Network are being utilized on a regular basis to obtain the positions of over 100 compact extragalactic radio sources distributed over the sky down to a declination of −45 degrees with uncertainties of less than 0.005 arcseconds.
The problem of understanding the deformation occurring along the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the western United States depends upon understanding the forces which drive the plates in this region. One of the primary sources of our knowledge concerning these forces lies in their manifestation as relative displacements which occur throughout the broad zone of deformation surrounding the San Andreas fault system. It is information concerning the spatial and temporal distribution of these motions which will be of greatest benefit in helping to determine which of several possible mechanisms is responsible for driving contemporary plate motions in this region.
The appearance of triazine resistance in a number of weed species has provided some opportunities for plant breeders to develop triazine-resistant crop varieties through classical breeding techniques. The sources of genes utilized by plant breeders for desirable characteristics are usually limited by the normal reproductive barriers that distinguish species. The occurrence of a triazine-resistant biotype of birdsrape mustard (Brassica campestris L. # BRSRA) has allowed for the development of commercially useful triazine-resistant varieties of canola (low erucic acid, low glucosinolate oilseed rape, B. napus L.). The cytoplasm of triazine-resistant birdsrape mustard was transferred interspecifically to oilseed rape, by a technique commonly known as back-crossing, in conjunction with selection for chromosome number. ‘OAC Triton′, the first triazine-resistant canola variety, appears to be finding commercial acceptance in Canada, in spite of some limitations in agronomic performance. Although it should be possible to transfer this triazine-resistant cytoplasm to other economic Brassica species including the cole crops and mustards, conventional plant breeding techniques cannot separate the gene conferring triazine resistance from other genes in the resistant weed biotype's cytoplasm. This problem may limit the utility of triazine-resistant cytoplasms from weed biotypes in classical crop breeding.
40Ar/39Ar ages of most single ice-ratted amphiboles from Heinrich layer 2 (H2) from a core in the Labrador Sea, a core in the eastern North Atlantic and a core in the western North Atlantic range from 1600 to 2000 Ma. This range is identical to that for K/Ar ages from the Churchill province of the Canadian Shield that outcrops at Hudson Strait and forms the basement of the northern part of Hudson Bay. The ambient glacial sediment includes some younger and older grains derived from Paleozoic, Mesoproterozoic and Archean sources, but still the majority of the amphiboles have ages in the 1600–2000 Ma interval. The Ca/K ratios of these 1600–2000 Ma old amphiboles, however, have a bimodal distribution in contrast with the uniformity of the Ca/K ratios of H2 amphiboles. This indicates that 1600–2000 Ma old amphiboles of the ambient sediment were derived from an additional Early Proterozoic source besides Churchill province. In H2, Churchill-derived grains constitute 20–40% of the ice-rafted debris (IRD). The fraction in the ambient glacial sediment is 65–80%. Results presented here are consistent with the hypothesis that Heinrich events were produced by a sudden intensification of the iceberg discharge through Hudson Strait that mixed, in the North Atlantic, with icebergs that continued to calve from other ice sheets. The shift from mixed sources in the background sediment to a large dominance of Churchill province grains in H2 indicates that, even if calving of other ice sheets intensified during the Heinrich episode, the increase in the iceberg discharge via Hudson Strait from the Hudson Bay drainage basin of the Laurentide ice sheet was by far the largest.