To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
After five positive randomized controlled trials showed benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the management of acute ischemic stroke with emergent large-vessel occlusion, a multi-society meeting was organized during the 17th Congress of the World Federation of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology in October 2017 in Budapest, Hungary. This multi-society meeting was dedicated to establish standards of practice in acute ischemic stroke intervention aiming for a consensus on the minimum requirements for centers providing such treatment. In an ideal situation, all patients would be treated at a center offering a full spectrum of neuroendovascular care (a level 1 center). However, for geographical reasons, some patients are unable to reach such a center in a reasonable period of time. With this in mind, the group paid special attention to define recommendations on the prerequisites of organizing stroke centers providing medical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke, but not for other neurovascular diseases (level 2 centers). Finally, some centers will have a stroke unit and offer intravenous thrombolysis, but not any endovascular stroke therapy (level 3 centers). Together, these level 1, 2, and 3 centers form a complete stroke system of care. The multi-society group provides recommendations and a framework for the development of medical thrombectomy services worldwide.
This Research Communication describes an investigation of the nutritional depletion of total mixed rations (TMR) by pest birds. We hypothesized that species-specific bird depredation of TMR can alter the nutritional composition of the ration and that these changes can negatively impact the performance of dairy cows. Blackbirds selected the high energy fraction of the TMR (i.e., flaked corn) and reduced starch, crude fat and total digestible nutrients during controlled feeding experiments. For Holsteins producing 37·1 kg of milk/d, dairy production modeling illustrated that total required net energy intake (NEI) was 35·8 Mcal/d. For the reference TMR unexposed to blackbirds and the blackbird-consumed TMR, NEI supplied was 41·2 and 37·8 Mcal/d, and the resulting energy balance was 5·4 and 2·0 Mcal/d, respectively. Thus, Holsteins fed the reference and blackbird-consumed TMR were estimated to gain one body condition score in 96 and 254 d, and experience daily weight change due to reserves of 1·1 and 0·4 kg/d, respectively. We discuss these results in context of an integrated pest management program for mitigating the depredation caused by pest birds at commercial dairies.
Much actuarial work is underpinned by the use of economic models derived from mainstream academic theories of finance and economics which treat money as being a neutral medium of exchange. The sustainability of a financial system whose understanding is based on a limited view of the role of money has increasingly been subject to criticism. In order to identify needed research programmes to address such criticisms and improve these disciplines, we sought to understand the current state of knowledge in economics and finance concerning the link between monetary and financial factors and sustainability. We have approached this through a search for relevant literature published in the highest-rated academic journals in economics, finance and the social sciences for titles and abstracts containing both references to the financial system on the one hand, and sustainability and environmental factors on the other. The systematic search of a universe of 125 journals and 355,000 articles yielded the finding that surprisingly few research papers jointly address these concepts. Nevertheless, we find that current research shares a broad consensus that the implications of the growth-oriented economic model results in an increasingly interconnected and fragile financial system whose participants are not incentivised to fully recognise the natural environment and resource constraints. We further observe that the prescriptions offered are relatively limited and small-scale in their outlook and that there is a vital need for further research, particularly for actuaries who are required to take a longer-term outlook. The Resource and Environment Board has supported this work with two key objectives: first, to identify research that may have direct application to actuarial work and, second, to identify gaps in academic research that would help drive the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries’ own research agenda. With this in mind there are three further areas of potential actuarial research. These are the policy aim of pursuing growth without limit within a finite ecosystem; discount factors as the primary means of capital allocation and investment decisions; and the use of gross domestic product as the key metric of economic activity and success. We also conclude that further academic research is urgently needed to understand the sustainability of the banking and monetary system.
Vocabulary input frequency influences age of acquisition, and is also an essential control for investigating the influence of other factors. We propose a new method of frequency estimation, self-report. 918 Danish-speaking parents of 12–36-month-old children estimated their frequency of use of 725 words. Self-report was substantially correlated with both language sample based frequencies (0.67) and frequencies of a large written corpus of Danish (0.58). Correlations within vocabulary categories between frequency and age of acquisition, restricted to words occurring in the language samples, were comparable for the two estimates. Overall, self-report based frequency estimates appear to have a promising degree of validity, which reflects their greatest strength, independence of the situation.
We report on first results of computing synthetic spectra from H/He-poor accretion disks in ultracompact LMXBs. We aim at the determination of the chemical composition of the very low-mass donor star, which is the core of a former C/O white dwarf. The abundance analysis allows to draw conclusions on gravitational settling in WDs which is an important process affecting cooling times and pulsational g-mode periods.
We have developed a new code for the calculation of synthetic spectra and vertical structures of accretion disks in cataclysmic variables and compact X-ray binaries. Here we present results for the CV system AM CVn.
AM CVn stars are a special type of cataclysmic variables, also called helium cataclysmics. They are systems of interacting binary white dwarfs, consisting of a degenerate C-O white dwarf primary and a low mass semi-degenerate secondary. The secondary loses mass, almost, pure helium, to the primary, forming an accretion disk. They have all in common a helium-rich composition, analoguous to the hydrogen-rich cataclysmic variables. They show photometric variabilities on time scales of ~ 1000s, the prototype of the class, AM CVn, e.g. exhibits a variability of ~ 18 min (Nelemans et al. 2001).
Absorption lines of highly ionized iron group elements dominate the UV spectra of many hot stars. They were identified in several central stars as well as in sdO stars, in PG 1159 stars and in the hottest DO and DA white dwarfs. Due to the high effective temperatures atmospheric modelling including metal line blanketing has to be done under NLTE conditions. Adequate models have become available only very recently (Dreizler & Werner 1992). We present new NLTE model atmospheres blanketed by some 120 000 lines from iron group elements (Sc through Ni). We adopted Anderson's (1991) statistical approach along with an opacity sampling technique using our Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) code. We generally found:
— Many strong metal lines cause substantial blocking at the flux maximum.
— The temperature in the continuum forming layers is increased by backwarming due to iron group lines; outer layers, cooled by CNO lines, are unaffected.
— The line profiles of H and He become deeper and broader, indicating that the neglect of NLTE metal line blanketing could cause the discrepancies encountered when fitting He II and H I lines in hot subdwarfs.
We investigated the large-scale (10–1000 m) and small-scale (mm–cm) variations in size, number and arrangement of air bubbles in the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) (Antarctica) ice core, down to the end of the bubble/hydrate transition (BHT) zone. On the large scale, the bubble number density shows a general correlation with the palaeo-temperature proxy, δ18O, and the dust concentration, which means that in Holocene ice there are fewer bubbles than in glacial ice. Small-scale variations in bubble number and size were identified and compared. Above the BHT zone there exists a strong anticorrelation between bubble number density and mean bubble size. In glacial ice, layers of high number density and small bubble size are linked with layers with high impurity content, identified as cloudy bands. Therefore, we regard impurities as a controlling factor for the formation and distribution of bubbles in glacial ice. The anticorrelation inverts in the middle of the BHT zone. In the lower part of the BHT zone, bubble-free layers exist that are also associated with cloudy bands. The high contrast in bubble number density in glacial ice, induced by the impurities, indicates a much more pronounced layering in glacial firn than in modern firn.
Peat deposits in Greenland and Denmark were investigated to show that high-resolution dating of these archives of atmospheric deposition can be provided for the last 50 years by radiocarbon dating using the atmospheric bomb pulse. 14C was determined in macrofossils from sequential one cm slices using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Values were calibrated with a general-purpose curve derived from annually averaged atmospheric 14CO2 values in the northernmost northern hemisphere (NNH, 30°–90°N). We present a thorough review of 14C bomb-pulse data from the NNH including our own measurements made in tree rings and seeds from Arizona as well as other previously published data. We show that our general-purpose calibration curve is valid for the whole NNH producing accurate dates within 1–2 years. In consequence, 14C AMS can precisely date individual points in recent peat deposits within the range of the bomb-pulse (from the mid-1950s on). Comparing the 14C AMS results with the customary dating method for recent peat profiles by 210Pb, we show that the use of 137Cs to validate and correct 210Pb dates proves to be more problematic than previously supposed.
As a unique example of our technique, we show how this chronometer can be applied to identify temporal changes in Hg concentrations from Danish and Greenland peat cores.
This book presents a wide range of new research on many aspects of naval strategy in the early modern and modern periods. Among the themes covered are the problems of naval manpower, the nature of naval leadership and naval officers, intelligence, naval training and education, and strategic thinking and planning. The book is notable for giving extensive consideration to navies other than those ofBritain, its empire and the United States. It explores a number of fascinating subjects including how financial difficulties frustrated the attempts by Louis XIV's ministers to build a strong navy; how the absence of centralised power in the Dutch Republic had important consequences for Dutch naval power; how Hitler's relationship with his admirals severely affected German naval strategy during the Second World War; and many more besides. The book is a Festschrift in honour of John B. Hattendorf, for more than thirty years Ernest J. King Professor of Maritime History at the US Naval War College and an influential figure in naval affairs worldwide.
N.A.M. Rodger is Senior Research Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford.
J. Ross Dancy is Assistant Professor of Military History at Sam Houston State University.
Benjamin Darnell is a D.Phil. candidate at New College, Oxford.
Evan Wilson is Caird Senior Research Fellow at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
Contributors: Tim Benbow, Peter John Brobst, Jaap R. Bruijn, Olivier Chaline, J. Ross Dancy, Benjamin Darnell, James Goldrick, Agustín Guimerá, Paul Kennedy, Keizo Kitagawa, Roger Knight, Andrew D. Lambert, George C. Peden, Carla Rahn Phillips, Werner Rahn, Paul M. Ramsey, Duncan Redford, N.A.M. Rodger, Jakob Seerup, Matthew S. Seligmann, Geoffrey Till, Evan Wilson
The PG 1159 stars represent the hottest stage of post-AGB evolution. Quantitative spectral analyses of most known PG 1159 stars have been carried out by us from optical, UV and EUV observations (see Dreizler et al 1995 for a review). It has been shown that these stars have atmospheres dominated by C and He with a significant admixture of O. These abundances reveal the inter–shell matter of a former AGB star. The four stars, HS 2324+3944, NGC 7094, Abell 43, and Sh 2-68, define a small group of peculiar PG 1159 stars (termed hybrid PG 1159). Unlike all other PG 1159 stars hydrogen is detected in their spectra. Three of them are CSPNe. Our Non-LTE analyses (Dreizler et al 1995; Dreizler et al 1996) show that these stars have typical PG 1159 Teff, log g as well as C and He abundances (Table 1). In contrast, the O abundance is lower than in PG 1159 stars. N is probably present but near the detection limit of the currently available spectra. Hybrid PG 1159 stars tend to have lower masses/luminosities than ordinary PG 1159 stars. A reduced mass-loss in their post-AGB evolution might be responsible for the incomplete removal of the H rich envelope. However, peeling of a post-AGB star alone can not produce the observed abundance pattern. In addition, mixing is required. A first evolution calculation with time dependent mixing of Iben & MacDonald (1995) shows some qualitative agreement in the abundance pattern like the C/He ratio it is, however, not able to explain the overall abundances.
We discuss the origin of hot hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars. Evidence is growing that the “born-again AGB star scenario” as a consequence of a late He shell flash cannot explain the diverse observations. Analyses of the stars and their associated planetary nebulae suggest that the H-deficiency is not formed during the second post-AGB phase but already while the star is still on the AGB. There are even hints that the H-deficiency can occur before the first departure from the AGB.