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Mineralogy and Remote Sensing of Rocks, Soil, Dust, and Ices
J. F. Bell, Cornell University, Department of Astronomy, 402 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801, USA,
W. M. Calvin, Department of Geological Science, MS 172, University of Nevada Reno, NV 89557-0138, USA,
W. H. Farrand, Space Science Institute 4750 Walnut Street, # 205 Boulder, CO 80301, USA,
R. Greeley, Planetary Geology Group Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287-1404, USA,
J. R. Johnson, US Geological Survey Astrogeology Team 2255 N. Gemini Drive Flagstaff, AZ 86001-1698, USA,
B. Jolliff, Washington University, Campus Box 1169 One Bookings Drive St Louis, MO 63130, USA,
R. V. Morris, NASA/JSC Code KR, Building 31, Room 120 2101 NASA Road 1 Houston, TX 77058, USA,
R. J. Sullivan, CRSR Cornell University, 308 Space Sciences Building Ithaca, NY 14853, USA,
S. Thompson, Arizona State University, School of Earth and Space Exploration Box 871404 Tempe, AZ 85287, USA,
A. Wang, Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, Washington University, Campus Box 1196 1 Bookings Drive St Louis, MO 63130-4862, USA,
C. Weitz, Planetary Science Institute, NASA 1700 East Fort Lowell Suite 106 Tuscon, AZ 85719, USA,
S. W. Squyres, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 428 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Multispectral imaging from the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity has provided important new insights about the geology and geologic history of the rover landing sites and traverse locations in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. Pancam observations from near-UV to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths provide limited compositional and mineralogic constraints on the presence, abundance, and physical properties of ferric- and ferrous-iron–bearing minerals in rocks, soils, and dust at both sites. High-resolution and stereo morphologic observations have also helped to infer some aspects of the composition of these materials at both sites. Perhaps most importantly, Pancam observations were often efficiently and effectively used to discover and select the relatively small number of places where in situ measurements were performed by the rover instruments, thus supporting and enabling the much more quantitative mineralogic discoveries made using elemental chemistry and mineralogy data. This chapter summarizes the major compositionally and mineralogically relevant results at Gusev and Meridiani derived from Pancam observations. Classes of materials encountered in Gusev crater include outcrop rocks, float rocks, cobbles, clasts, soils, dust, rock grindings, rock coatings, windblown drift deposits, and exhumed whitish/yellowish sulfur- and silica-rich soils. Materials studied in Meridiani Planum include sedimentary outcrop rocks, rock rinds, fracture fills, hematite spherules, cobbles, rock fragments, meteorites, soils, and windblown drift deposits. This chapter also previews the results of a number of coordinated observations between Pancam and other rover-based and Mars-orbital instruments that were designed to provide complementary new information and constraints on the mineralogy and physical properties of Martian surface materials.
Elemental Composition: Orbital and in situ Surface Measurements
J. Brückner, Geochemistry Department, Max Planck Institut für Chemie, PO Box 3060, Mainz D-55020, Germany,
G. Dreibus, Cosmochemistry Deparment, Max Planck Institut für Chemie, PO Box 3060, Mainz D-55020, Germany,
R. Gellert, Department of Physics, University of Guelph Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada,
S. W. Squyres, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 428 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA,
H. Wänke, Abteilung Kosmochemie Max Planck Institut für Chemie, PO Box 3060, Mainz D-55020, Germany,
A. Yen, JPL/Caltech 4800 Oak Grove Road M/S 183-501 Pasadena, CA 91109-8099, USA,
J. Zipfel, Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg Frankfurt/Main, D-60325, Germany
The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometers (APXSs) on board the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) determine the elemental compositions of Martian samples. Improvements to the version of the instrument flown on the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) mission allow, for the first time, in situ detection and quantification of trace elements such as nickel, zinc, and bromine. The APXS measurements are performed by placing the sensor head against or immediately above the sample surface. A wealth of compositional diversity has been discovered at the two MER landing sites. At Gusev crater, fresh rock surfaces in the plains resemble primitive basalts, while rocks in the Columbia Hills are significantly weathered and enriched in mobile elements such as phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, and bromine. Sandstones cemented by sulfates as well as evidence for clay formation have also been found in the Columbia Hills. At Meridiani Planum, the layered sedimentary rocks were found to consist primarily of sulfates mixed with siliciclastic debris. Iron-rich spherules and their fragments, confirmed to be hematitic by the Mössbauer spectrometer (MB), are found armoring the soil bedforms as well as embedded in the outcrop rocks. A variety of unusual objects, including an iron-nickel meteorite and a likely ejecta fragment similar to a Martian meteorite, have also been discovered. The elemental compositions of soils analyzed at both sites are remarkably similar, indicative of global-scale homogenization or the similarity of the soil precursors.
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