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Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Background: Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the leading cause of spinal cord impairment. In a public healthcare system, wait times to see spine specialists and eventually access surgical treatment for CSM can be substantial. The goals of this study were to determine consultation wait times (CWT) and surgical wait times (SWT), and identify predictors of wait time length. Methods: Consecutive patients enrolled in the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network (CSORN) prospective and observational CSM study from March 2015 to July 2017 were included. A data-splitting technique was used to develop and internally validate multivariable models of potential predictors. Results: A CSORN query returned 264 CSM patients for CWT. The median was 46 days. There were 31% mild, 35% moderate, and 33% severe CSM. There was a statistically significant difference in median CWT between moderate and severe groups; 207 patients underwent surgical treatment. Median SWT was 42 days. There was a statistically significant difference in SWT between mild/moderate and severe groups. Short symptom duration, less pain, lower BMI, and lower physical component score of SF-12 were predictive of shorter CWT. Only baseline pain and medication duration were predictive of SWT. Both CWT and SWT were shorter compared to a concurrent cohort of lumbar stenosis patients (p <0.001). Conclusions: Patients with shorter duration (either symptoms or medication) and less neck pain waited less to see a spine specialist in Canada and to undergo surgical treatment. This study highlights some of the obstacles to overcome in expedited care for this patient population.
Accurate models of X-ray absorption and re-emission in partly stripped ions are necessary to calculate the structure of stars, the performance of hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion and many other systems in high-energy-density plasma physics. Despite theoretical progress, a persistent discrepancy exists with recent experiments at the Sandia Z facility studying iron in conditions characteristic of the solar radiative–convective transition region. The increased iron opacity measured at Z could help resolve a longstanding issue with the standard solar model, but requires a radical departure for opacity theory. To replicate the Z measurements, an opacity experiment has been designed for the National Facility (NIF). The design uses established techniques scaled to NIF. A laser-heated hohlraum will produce X-ray-heated uniform iron plasmas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) at temperatures
eV and electron densities
. The iron will be probed using continuum X-rays emitted in a
diameter source from a 2 mm diameter polystyrene (CH) capsule implosion. In this design,
of the NIF beams deliver 500 kJ to the
mm diameter hohlraum, and the remaining
directly drive the CH capsule with 200 kJ. Calculations indicate this capsule backlighter should outshine the iron sample, delivering a point-projection transmission opacity measurement to a time-integrated X-ray spectrometer viewing down the hohlraum axis. Preliminary experiments to develop the backlighter and hohlraum are underway, informing simulated measurements to guide the final design.
Findings from family and twin studies support a genetic contribution to the development of sexual orientation in men. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting evidence for linkage to chromosome Xq28.
We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan on 409 independent pairs of homosexual brothers (908 analyzed individuals in 384 families), by far the largest study of its kind to date.
We identified two regions of linkage: the pericentromeric region on chromosome 8 (maximum two-point LOD = 4.08, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.59), which overlaps with the second strongest region from a previous separate linkage scan of 155 brother pairs; and Xq28 (maximum two-point LOD = 2.99, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.76), which was also implicated in prior research.
Results, especially in the context of past studies, support the existence of genes on pericentromeric chromosome 8 and chromosome Xq28 influencing development of male sexual orientation.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
The cold, dry, and stable air above the summits of the Antarctic plateau provides the best ground-based observing conditions from optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths to be found on the Earth. Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope (PILOT) is a proposed 2 m telescope, to be built at Dome C in Antarctica, able to exploit these conditions for conducting astronomy at optical and infrared wavelengths. While PILOT is intended as a pathfinder towards the construction of future grand-design facilities, it will also be able to undertake a range of fundamental science investigations in its own right. This paper provides the performance specifications for PILOT, including its instrumentation. It then describes the kinds of projects that it could best conduct. These range from planetary science to the search for other solar systems, from star formation within the Galaxy to the star formation history of the Universe, and from gravitational lensing caused by exo-planets to that produced by the cosmic web of dark matter. PILOT would be particularly powerful for wide-field imaging at infrared wavelengths, achieving near diffraction-limited performance with simple tip–tilt wavefront correction. PILOT would also be capable of near diffraction-limited performance in the optical wavebands, as well be able to open new wavebands for regular ground-based observation, in the mid-IR from 17 to 40 μm and in the sub-millimetre at 200 μm.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are attractive because they hold promise for devices that are easy to fabricate and inexpensive. In the present work, highly crystalline mesoporous TiO2 has been synthesized by evaporation induced self assembly (EISA) method using triblock copolymer Pluronic P123 as the organic template. The synthesized TiO2 is anatase in nature with a pore size of 10-15 nm. DSSC made from mesoporous TiO2 demonstrated solar conversion efficiency of ∼7%. This comes from the benefits of increased surface roughness, surface area and uniform porosity. In addition, well ordered and crystalline pores provided good sunlight absorption and low recombination path for charge carriers. To further enhance the efficiency of the DSSCs, light scattering centers were introduced in the mesoporous TiO2 film. Nanoparticles light scatterers are introduced to scatter the incoming light and hence to increase the light harvesting capability of the device. A 26 % increase in DSSC efficiency was observed with the implementation of scattering centers.
Currently, the performances of thin film solar cells are limited by poor light absorption and carrier collection. In this research, large, broadband, and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement was realized via incorporation of different periodic nanopetterns. By studying the enhancement effect brought by different materials, dimensions, coverage, and dielectric environments of the metal nanopatterns, we analyzed the absorption enhancement mechanisms as well as optimization criteria for our designs. A test for totaling the absorption over the solar spectrum shows an up to ∼30% broadband absorption enhancement when comparing to conventional thin film cells.
Reducing the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks presents a challenge for public health. Worldwide, grow-out broilers are routinely vaccinated to prevent or lessen clinical manifestation of other infections. In this exploratory analysis we tested if details of a routine vaccination programme delivered to conventional grow-out broilers were associated with the burden of Salmonella in the flock as it progressed through its production cycle. None of the flocks studied were vaccinated against Salmonella or received a competitive exclusion product. The flocks were reared on conventional grow-out farms in southeastern USA, and sampled in a prospective field observational study. We observed significant associations between the content and design of a grow-out vaccination programme targeting other infections and the probability of detecting Salmonella in the broiler flock at different time points throughout the production cycle. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first field report of such associations.
Perfluorosulfonic acid membrane (Nafion®-117) was first surface modified with atmospheric pressure UV photo-oxidation or low-pressure vacuum UV photo-oxidation downstream from an Ar microwave plasma, and then graft polymerized with acrylic acid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the modified Nafion surface and poly(acrylic acid) grafted to the modified surface.
Serum and urine samples from seven recombinant inbred mouse strains, derived from a cross between BALB/c and C57BL/6, were examined to determine the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgCH) and the major urinary protein (MUP) allotypes. CXBG and CXBJ exhibited the same IgCH alleles as did BALB/c; the others resembled C57BL/6, thus providing no evidence of crossover types. Comparison of the Mup and brown coat colour (b) alleles (both on linkage group VIII) revealed that three of the strains resemble BALB/c and two resemble C57BL/6, whereas the CXBE and CXBI strains are crossover types.
Ménière's disease is not uncommon, with an incidence in Caucasians of about one in 2000. The incidence peaks in the fifth decade. Cases are usually isolated or sporadic, but in perhaps five per cent other family members are affected. We report here the clinical and genetic characteristics of a comprehensive set of familial Ménière's disease cases from the UK.
Forty-six affected families were studied. All cases were diagnosed using the American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery committee on hearing and equilibrium 1995, or more stringent, criteria.
Outcomes and results:
Autosomal dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance was the most likely mode of inheritance overall. Apparent genetic anticipation was observed, but may also be a result of ascertainment bias given the collection strategy. There was also a slight tendency for cases to result from maternal transmission within the families in this set. The family pedigrees are presented, and the authors have also set up a website at which all the pedigrees may be viewed in greater detail.
Changes in the lability and local environment of Cd sorbed onto calcite, hydroxylapatite and humic acid have been investigated as a function of time (30 min–9 months) using a combination of X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS) and isotopic dilution techniques with Cd concentrations between 1 and 1000 mmol kg –1. Enhanced X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) shows that precipitation of Cd carbonate was initially observed on calcite. Ageing of a 10 mmol kg–1 sample showed replacement of Cd in the fourth shell with Ca, indicating diffusion between the two phases had occurred. This diffusion appeared to be ongoing for a 10 mmol kg–1 sample even after 9 months of reaction. Only 20% of the Cd in a sample with 10 mmol kg–1 Cd remained labile after 6 months of reaction, suggesting a high degree of incorporation into the solid phase, in agreement with the XAS results. The XAS results for hydroxylapatite indicated that Cd is not fixed in the mineral lattice and Cd lability in a sample loaded with 10 mmol kg–1 Cd was ∼55% after 6 months of reaction. This indicates that a relatively high proportion of the Cd sorbed to hydroxylapatite remained as kinetically active surface species. Little change was observed in the local environment of Cd adsorbed on flocculated Ca-humate samples as a function of time and ∼75% of the Cd remained radio-labile after 6 months of reaction regardless of initial Cd loading. High lability is expected because incorporation into a solid matrix or surface precipitation of a Cd phase is less likely than with the mineral phases.