High resolution electron microscopy (HREM) has been used to study the atomic arrangement of defects formed during high-dose oxygen implantation of silicon-on-insulator material. The effect of implantation parameters of wafer temperature, dose, and current density were investigated. Wafer temperature had the largest effect on the type and character of the defects. Above the buried oxide layer in the top silicon layer, HREM revealed that microtwins and stacking faults were created during implantation from 350–450°C. From 450–550°C, stacking faults were longer and microtwinning was reduced. From 550–700°C, a new type of defect was observed which had lengths of 40 to 140 nm and consisted of several discontinuous stacking faults which were randomly spaced and separated by two to eight atomic layers. We have referred to them as “multiply faulted defects” (MFDs). Beneath the buried oxide layer in the substrate region, the defects observed included stacking faults and ( 113 ) defects. The results indicated that some parts of the ( 1131 defects can assume a cubic diamond structure created through a twin operation across (115) planes. Details of the structure and formation mechanisms of MFDs and other defects will be discussed.