The evolutionary significance of chromosome size polymorphism was explored in a representative panel of 26 Trypanosoma cruzi stocks. We tested a progressive model (aCSDI) assuming that the larger the size difference between homologous chromosomes, the more divergent the parasites are. This was contrasted with a non-progressive model (Jaccard's distance), in which any chromosome size difference has the same weight. ACSDI-based dendrograms were very similar to those built-up from multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data: structuring in 2 major lineages (T. cruzi I and T. cruzi II) and 5 small subdivisions within T. cruzi II was identical, and branching was very similar. Furthermore, a significant correlation (P<0·001) was observed between aCSDI and phenetic distances calculated from MLEE and RAPD data. In contrast, analysis of chromosome size polymorphism with Jaccard's distance generated dendrograms with relatively long branches, causing most branching points to cluster close together, which generates statistically uncertain branching points. Our results thus support a model of progressive chromosome size-variation and show that despite an extensive polymorphism, chromosomal sizes constitute valuable characters for evolutionary analyses. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the clonal evolution model previously proposed for T. cruzi.