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Establishing accurate morphological measurements of galaxies in a reasonable amount of time for future big-data surveys such as EUCLID, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope or the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a challenge. Because of its high level of abstraction with little human intervention, deep learning appears to be a promising approach. Deep learning is a rapidly growing discipline that models high-level patterns in data as complex multilayered networks. In this work we test the ability of deep convolutional networks to provide parametric properties of Hubble Space Telescope like galaxies (half-light radii, Sérsic indices, total flux etc..). We simulate a set of galaxies including point spread function and realistic noise from the CANDELS survey and try to recover the main galaxy parameters using deep-learning. We compare the results with the ones obtained with the commonly used profile fitting based software GALFIT. This way showing that with our method we obtain results at least equally good as the ones obtained with GALFIT but, once trained, with a factor 5 hundred time faster.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
Caregivers report early disturbances in social behavior among patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD); however, there are few direct observational studies of these social behavioral disturbances. This study aimed to identify social behavioral themes in bvFTD by direct observation in naturalistic interactions. The identification of these themes can help caregivers and clinicians manage the social behavioral disturbances of this disease.
Researchers observed 13 bvFTD patients in their homes and community-based settings and recorded field notes on their interpersonal interactions. A qualitative analysis of their social behavior was then conducted using ATLAS.ti application and a constant comparison method.
Qualitative analysis revealed the following themes: (1) diminished relational interest and initiation, indicating failure to seek social interactions; (2) lack of social synchrony/intersubjectivity, indicating an inability to establish and maintain interpersonal relationships; and (3) poor awareness and adherence to social boundaries and norms. These themes corresponded with changes from caregiver reports and behavioral scales.
This analysis indicates that real-world observation validates the diagnostic criteria for bvFTD and increases understanding of social behavioral disturbances in this disorder. The results of this and future observational studies can highlight key areas for clinical assessment, caregiver education, and targeted interventions that enhance the management of social behavioral disturbances in bvFTD.
There is tremendous interest in using low loadings of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) to enhance the multifunctional properties of polymers, with functionalization often pursued to increase the dispersion and effective reinforcement of MWNTs within the polymer. In our interest to understand the effect of MWNT functionalization on Poly (butylene terephthalate) (PBT) crystallization kinetics, morphology and mechanical properties, nanocomposites were fabricated with both as-received and carboxyl group (-COOH) functionalized MWNTs. Initial results indicate as-received and functionalized nanotubes alter the crystallization temperature and crystal size for quiescent samples. In addition, isothermal crystallization studies using an Advanced Rheometric Expansion System (ARES) show that the addition of MWNTs increases the rate of PBT crystallization. However, functionalization was found to decrease the rate of nanocomposite crystallization as compared to nanocomposites samples prepared using pristine MWNTs, suggesting that nanotube functionalization weakens the nucleation effect observed in the nanocomposite samples. These results suggest that semicrystalline polymer nanocomposite crystallization kinetics and morphology can be significantly influenced by nanoparticle functionalization and chemistry. Further study of how these changes impact the rheological and multifunctional properties of semicrystalline nanocomposite systems are ongoing.
In February 2008, three white-nosed coatis (Nasua narica) were found dead in a recreational park in Cancun, Mexico. The diagnosis of rabies virus (RABV) infection was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence test. The phylogenetic analysis performed with the complete RABV nucleoprotein gene positioned this isolate close to a sequence of a human rabies case reported during 2008 from Oaxaca, Mexico, sharing 93% similarity. In turn, these two variants are related to another variant found in rabid Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana bats across North America. Anti-RABV neutralizing activity (1·3 IU/ml) was found in the serum of one white-nosed coati captured with another five that cohabited with the dead animals. Enhanced rabies surveillance and pathogenesis studies should be conducted in coatis and insectivorous bats of the region to clarify the role of these species as potential emergent or long-term unidentified RABV reservoirs.
Neurocysticercosis is a public health problem in many developing countries and is the most frequent parasitic disease of the brain. The human tapeworm carrier is the main risk factor for acquiring neurocysticercosis. Since the parasite lodges only in the human intestine, experimental models of Taenia solium taeniosis have been explored. Macaques, pigs, dogs, cats and rabbits are unsuccessful hosts even in immunodepressed status. By contrast, rodents are adequate hosts since tapeworms with mature, pregravid and, in some cases, gravid proglottids develop after infection. In this review, information that has been generated with experimental models of taeniosis due to T. solium is discussed. Initially, the use of the model for immunodiagnosis of human taeniosis and evaluation of intervention measures is summarized. Next, descriptions of tapeworms and comparison of hamsters, gerbils and other mammals as experimental models are discussed, as well as data on the humoral immune response, the inflammatory reaction and the production of cytokines associated to Th1 and Th2 responses in the intestinal mucosa. Finally, evaluation of protection induced against the development of tapeworms by recombinant T. solium calreticulin in hamsters is summarized and compared to other studies.
Late Tertiary-Quaternary volcanism around Calatrava, within the Hercynian massif of central Spain, is alkaline mafic-ultramafic, with ∼250 centres, mainly monogenetic cones and vents, with melilitite the most abundant eruptive. Carbonatite may be expected in association with melilitite and a clear example of magmatic carbonate emerged from a brief field reconnaissance. It is a vent filled with a mixed eruption of glassy melilitite lapilli in a carbonate matrix. Levels and profiles of trace elements are inseparable from recognized carbonatite, and totally unlike those in local sedimentary limestone and caliche. C and O isotopes are the same as those reported for carbonatite ashes in other provinces. Carbonate is present as globules in the melilitite glass, and as inclusions within large clinopyroxene and olivine grains, which are largely xenocrystic. Euhedral spinels in melilitite and carbonate matrix are chromite mantled with titano-magnetite, reported previously only from high-temperature kimberlite. Wehrlite fragments indicate direct eruption from the mantle. Phlogopite and chromian spinel are found only as inclusions in the olivine, pointing to a phlogopite-carbonate mantle source region of the type favoured for carbonatite and melilitite melt generation. Calatrava represents the most southerly and westerly expression in mainland Europe of intra-continental carbonatite-melilitite volcanism. Follow-up field visits have shown that carbonate volcanism is extensive and voluminous throughout the province, requiring a long-term research programme.
Eighty-seven Manchego sucking lambs raised exclusively on maternal milk were slaughtered. The carcasses were weighed immediately after dressing and classified according to hot carcass weight (HCW): low HCW (<5.5 kg), medium HCW (5.5 to 6.5 kg) and high HCW (≥ 6.5 kg). The effects of this classification system on carcass and meat quality were studied. Carcass conformation improved as carcass weight increased; carcasses became more compact. Carcass fatness increased (P < 0.001) as carcasses became heavier. With regard to the joints, leg (P < 0.001) and shoulder (P < 0.05) proportions decreased as carcass weight increased, whereas loin-rib (P < 0.001) and flank (P < 0.001) proportions increased. The proportion of fat in the leg clearly increased in the heavier carcasses (P < 0.001), while that of bone decreased (P < 0.001) and that of muscle was not affected. pH at 24 h in the m. longissimus dorsi and m. semitendinosus decreased as carcass weight increased. The only meat colour parameter affected by carcass weight was the yellowness index; lighter-weight carcasses displayed lower index (P < 0.05). Cooking losses were unaffected as carcass weight increased, whereas with regard to tenderness, the shear force value tended to be higher in the low carcass weight group. No differences between carcass weight groups were found in the sensory analysis. Fatty acid composition did not show any significant effect due to carcass weight except in stearic fatty acid (C18:0); C18:0 proportion decreased (P < 0.01) as carcasses became heavier. Carcass weight affected carcass quality (all carcass quality parameters studied were higher in the heavier carcasses), whereas meat quality varied little as a result the small variation between carcass weights in sucking lambs.
Forty-eight sucking lambs (26 males and 22 females) of the Manchega breed were used in this work. Lambs were slaughtered at 10, 12 and 14 kg live weight. Carcass degree of fatness was assessed by three assessors from colour photographs of the carcasses, using the European Union scale for light lambs (EU), the Colomer-Rocher method (CF) and another new scale developed by our group (sucking lambs scale, SL). Carcass conformation was assessed according to the Colomer-Rocher method (CC). Fatness and conformation scales were divided to give 0·25 points in each interval. Left half-carcasses were jointed and dissected into lean, fat and bone. Muscle proportion, bone proportion and whole fat proportion (obtained by addition of every fat depot: subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, inguinal fat and kidney knob and channel fat) were determined. Male and female carcasses showed a very different tissue composition: both groups had statistically significant differences (P < 0·05) in 20 out of 25 tissue composition variates. Males showed a higher number of variates that were well correlated with assessors’ scoring than females. Correlation coefficients between most of the tissue composition variates and assessors’ scores were higher in males. Furthermore, the number of variates that were significantly correlated with assessors’ scores was lower in females. Therefore, subjective methods for the estimation of carcass degree of fatness and of carcass conformation are poor predictors of tissue composition in female sucking lamb carcasses.
Fuchsite and other Cr-rich phyllosilicates, paragenetic with dolomite, are present in some ultramafic enclaves from the ‘frailesca’ rock (a lapilli- to block-size pyroclastic lithic-tuff), in the Almadén mercury mining district, Spain. Analyses (EMPA and TEM) of fuchsite and Cr-chlorite showed a relatively large range in levels of Cr2O3. Petrographic relationships between these phyllosilicates and primary relics of Cr-spinel crystals, as well as their high Cr content, indicate that these Cr-rich minerals originated from primary chromian spinels through an early hydrothermal alteration stage. The hydrothermal fluids accounting for this early alteration would be of relatively high temperature, high aCO2 and aK, and variable aNa/K. In a later alteration stage, fuchsite was partially or totally replaced by illite and Cr-illite, giving rise to an argillitic alteration.
Three weaning treatments (weaning at 45 days of age, at 65 days of age, unweaned) and two slaughter weights (24 and 28 kg) were compared in lambs raised at pasture, and their effect on carcass and meat traits were studied. Unweaned lambs displayed a greater growth rate, lower concentrate consumption, greater dorsal fat thickness, more kidney knob and channel fat and greater total fat levels, measured through dissection of the hind limb. Total collagen concentration was lower in unweaned lambs and the intramuscular fat of these same animals exhibited a greater proportion of saturated fatty acids and a lower n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio. Slaughter weight influenced scored carcass fatness, which was greater in heavier lambs, meat colour, which displayed greater lightness in lower-weight lambs, and water-holding capacity, which was lower in lambs with the lower slaughter weight. The heavier lambs displayed lower soluble collagen values, and the intramuscular fat of the longissimus dorsi muscle of these same lambs contained higher levels of monounsaturated and lower levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Forty-five Talaverana breed sucking lambs of both sexes were slaughtered at 10 and 12 kg live weight in order to study the effect of gender and slaughter weight on carcass, meat and fat traits. Carcass dressing proportions and fatness (by various measures) were higher in females and heavier lambs, which also showed better conformation. Lightness (L*) of the carcass fat was higher in males and heavier lambs. Females and heavier lambs also displayed a greater proportion of fat on dissection, primarily due to a higher percentage of subcutaneous fat tissue. Water-holding capacity was greater in males and in lower-weight lambs. Males presented higher total collagen and lower soluble collagen values than females. In general, a high percentage of short-chain (C12:0 and C14:0) fatty acids, as well as of palmitic acid (C16:0), was observed in the intramuscular fat of the longissimus dorsi muscle, corresponding with an exclusively milk diet.