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We present a broad study of linear, clustered, noble gas puffs irradiated with the frequency doubled (527 nm) Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Pure Ar, Kr, and Xe clustered gas puffs, as well as two mixed-gas puffs consisting of KrAr and XeKrAr gases, make up the targets. Characterization experiments to determine gas-puff density show that varying the experimental parameter gas-delay timing (the delay between gas puff initialization and laser-gas-puff interaction) provides a simple control over the gas-puff density. X-ray emission (>1.4 keV) is studied as a function of gas composition, density, and delay timing. Xe gas puffs produce the strongest peak radiation in the several keV spectral region. The emitted radiation was found to be anisotropic, with smaller X-ray flux observed in the direction perpendicular to both laser beam propagation and polarization directions. The degree of anisotropy is independent of gas target type but increases with photon energy. X-ray spectroscopic measurements estimate plasma parameters and highlight their difference with previous studies. Electron beams with energy in excess of 72 keV are present in the noble gas-puff plasmas and results indicate that Ar plays a key role in their production. A drastic increase in harder X-ray emissions (X-ray flash effect) and multi-MeV electron-beam generation from Xe gas-puff plasma occurred when the laser beam was focused on the front edge of the linear gas puff.
The present cross-sectional serosurvey constitutes the first effort to describe the varicella zoster virus (VZV) seroepidemiology in Serbia. An age-stratified serum bank of 3570 residual samples collected between 2015 and 2016 in each of the seven districts of the Vojvodina Province was tested for IgG anti-VZV antibodies with an enzyme immunoassay. Results were standardised into common units according to the European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN2) methodology. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to examine the relationships between standardised anti-VZV positivity or logarithmically transformed antibody titres and demographic features of study subjects. Seropositivity (85% overall) increased with age, in parallel with geometric mean titres. By the time of school entry, 68% of children were immune. The slower subsequent acquisition of immunity leaves epidemiologically relevant proportions of adolescents (7%), young adults (6%) and especially females of reproductive age (6%) prone to more severe forms of varicella. In the ongoing pre-vaccine era, natural infection provides a high level of collective immunity, with the highest VZV transmission in children of preschool age. The detected gaps in VZV immunity of the Serbian population support the adoption of the official recommendations for varicella immunisation of non-immune adolescents and young adults, including non-pregnant women of childbearing age.
Solar hard X-ray and gamma-ray emission was measured by BDRG instrument, the part of set of instruments operated on board the Russian satellite Lomonosov from April 2016 until now (solar-synchronous orbit with altitude 490 km, inclination of 97.6 degrees). Lomonosov measurements (11 flares with the X-ray energy more than 10 keV, and more than half of them have class in soft X-rays less than C2) were compared to the data obtained by RHESSI and Fermi space observatories as well as the Nobeyama Radioheliograph operating at the same time. The quasi-periodicity with different periods were found in some of them.
Results of characterization of 238Pu-doped Eu- and La-monazites using
single crystal XRD, Raman and XAFS spectroscopy and TEM are presented. It is
shown that despite significant accumulated doses (up to 9x1018
α-decays/gram) the Eu-monazite remains a single crystal. Unusual foamy
structures are observed by TEM and are interpreted as recrystallisation of
domains damaged by recoil U-ions. Partial recrystallisation of the surface
material is also supported by Raman and luminescence data.
The present-day realization of inertial coordinate system by means of traditional optical astrometry is the Fifth Fundamental Catalogue (FK5). The series of observations with new meridian instruments (CAMC, PMC-190, BAMC, HMC) show the significant correlated differences (up to 0.″1) of observational catalogues from the FK5. Moreover, FK5 mean epoch appears to be old (about 50 years ago) and FK5 proper motions would have essential errors owing to the fact that not many new original catalogues (only 25 in RA and 15 in DEC) were used when compiling FK5. It should be noted also that FK5 has a dissimilar accuracy of positions and proper motions of “old” and “new” stars.
In experiments with neutral beam injection at the early stage of a Globus-M discharge, instabilities were observed that were excited by fast ions in the frequency range of 50–200 kHz, which were identified as toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE) (Petrov et al., Plasma Phys. Rep., vol. 37, 2011, pp. 1001–1005). In contradiction with the NSTX and MAST tokamaks, a regime of TAE generation was realized with strongly developed single modes. Magnetic measurements with fast Mirnov probes have shown that most of the modes have toroidal number
. The influence of the modes on the fast particle confinement was recorded by means of a tangentially directed neutral particle analyser (NPA) and neutron detector. Hydrogen and deuterium were used as target plasma and injected beam for study of the isotopic effect. At deuterium injection into the deuterium plasma, TAE led to the neutron rate dropping by 25 %, whereas NPA fluxes of high energy dropped by 75 %. At hydrogen injection, the drop in the measured NPA fluxes did not exceed 25 %.
Laying hen rearing systems have been the focus of scientific research for many years. Over the last few decades, new laying hen rearing systems have been rapidly introduced in an effort to harmonise poultry health and welfare with consumer, producer, industry and environmental demands. Given the above situation, the subject matter of this paper was a comparative review of the results obtained by different authors on the effect of rearing system on productive traits (egg production and mortality) and egg quality characteristics (egg weight, proportions of main egg parts, Haugh units, yolk colour and carotenoids) in laying hens. Although productive performance in alternative systems is often lower compared to conventional, intensive layers, eggs from alternative systems have been proven in numerous studies to have better nutritional properties. Moreover, research results indicate differences within rearing systems. In view of this, this overview of the literature on the use of different rearing systems in table egg production can serve as a tool in determining the future direction of research as well as an indicator of its practical application.
Alternative laying hen rearing systems have been rapidly introduced into poultry production in an effort to harmonise poultry health and welfare with consumer, producer, industry and environmental demands. They are an integral part of modern egg production. Husbandry systems for keeping laying hens have an impact on, inter alia, the chemical composition of eggs. The subject matter of this study is a comparative review of the results obtained by different authors on the effect of rearing system on chemical composition (proteins, lipids, cholesterol, vitamins and fatty acids content) and hygienic conditions of eggs from different rearing systems of laying hens. Eggs from these laying hen rearing systems have been proven by a large body of literature data to have better nutritional properties. Moreover, the results analysed also indicate differences within rearing systems. Rearing systems also have an influence on hygienic and microbiological quality of eggs. In view of the above, this comparable overview of the literature on the use of different rearing systems in table egg production can serve as a tool in determining the future direction of research as well as an indicator of its practical application.
Poultry rearing systems have been the focus of scientific research for many years as a result of consumer demand for high-quality products and legal poultry welfare requirements. Given these requirements, the following study was carried out as a comparative review of the results obtained by different authors on the effect of rearing systems on productive traits (growth, feed conversion and mortality) and meat quality traits (dressing percentage, yield and percentage of primal cuts, and chemical composition of meat) in broilers.
Most authors reported a lower final body weight and poorer feed conversion efficiency in free-range systems compared to intensive rearing. Conversely, better meat quality traits, most notably in terms of chemical composition of meat, were observed in non-intensive and organic broilers. The above traits showed differences within the same rearing system, due to the effect of a range of genetic and non-genetic factors.
In view of the above, it is hoped that the following review on the use of different rearing systems in broiler meat production can serve as a tool in determining the future direction of research as well as an indicator of its practical applications.
This study aimed to compare the prognostic impact of comorbidity grading by the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 index and the Charlson Comorbidity Index on the five-year overall and disease-specific survival in patients undergoing surgery for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
The impact of comorbidity and other factors on survival was examined retrospectively in a group of 177 patients with previously untreated tumour stage one to four laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma surgically treated at the Clinic of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, between 2000 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify independent prognostic factors.
On univariate analysis, comorbidity had an impact on prognosis regardless of which index was used. On multivariate analysis, the significant predictors of patients' five-year overall and disease-specific survival were tumour–node–metastasis stage and comorbidity as graded by the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 index.
The Adult Comorbidity Evaluation 27 index is a more reliable predictor of survival than the Charlson Comorbidity Index in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Cerianite-(Ce), ideally CeO2, occurs as rounded grains up to 5 μm across in a block of highly altered calcite carbonatite lava from the Kerimasi volcano, and as euhedral crystals up to 200 μm across in carbonatite-derived eluvial deposits in the Kisete and Loluni explosion craters in the Gregory Rift, northern Tanzania. X-ray powder diffraction data (a = 5.434(5) Å) and Raman spectroscopy (minor vibration modes at 184 and 571 cm—1 in addition to a strong signal at 449 cm—1) suggest the presence of essential amounts of large cations and oxygen vacancies in the Kisete material. Microprobe analyses reveal that the mineral contains both light and heavy trivalent rare earth elements (REE) (7.9-15.5 wt.% LREE2O3 and 4.9-9.7 wt.% HREE2O3), and that it is enriched in yttrium (7.1 — 14.5 wt.% Y2O3) and fluorine (2.2—3.5 wt.%). Single-crystal structure refinement of the mineral confirms a fluorite-type structure with a cation—anion distance of 2.3471(6) Å. The cerianite-(Ce) is considered to be a late-stage secondary mineral in the carbonatitic rocks.
Fullerite nanotubules of 100 nm to 2 μm radius, up to 200 nm wal thickness and 10 μm length were produced inside etched swift heavy ion tracks in a polymer, by letting fullerence precipitate from a concentrated C60 solution within the tracks. After contacting the tubules on both sides with silver paste, their resistivity was measured as a function of temperature. All of the 13 prepared samples show a complex behaviour that can be described by tw Arrhenius curves, the low temperature branch with activation energy Eact = (1.77 ± 0.2) eV stemming from pure C60, and the high temperature branch being tentatively ascribed to C60Agx with x ≍ 12.4 and Eact = (0.68 ± 0.2) eV, as the letter compound has found to be produced at ambient temperature by C60 / Ag thermal intermixture. Such samples with tw branches of negative temperature coefficients of resistance might be useful to construct advanced thermoresistors.
The dielectric response of La- and Dy- doped BiFeO3 thin films to electric- and magnetic fields was measured at microwave frequencies (up to 12GHz) in a temperature range from 25 °C to 300 °C. Interesting phenomena were observed. Significant oscillations in the C(f) characteristic which were unaffected by the electric field or by elevated temperature but which were dampened by a magnetic field. We also observed ‘N’-type I-V characteristics. A possible explanation for this mesoscopic response is the presence of structural features that cause resonance (e.g. grains, grain-boundaries, domains, domain walls etc), with a contribution strong enough to be averaged by the system. The exact origin of these features is unknown at present.
The parameters of processing of large-scale (50-100 kg) radwaste-containing blocks were studied. Batches consisted of exothermic mixture, oxidizer, mineral additive, and radwaste surrogate. Such mixtures provide process temperature up to ˜2400 K. In the present work exothermic mixtures composed of Ca-Fe silicide, zirconium, silicon, and boron were intermixed with oxidizer (mixture of KMnO4 and V2O5), natural zircon concentrate as mineral additive, and cerium oxide (actinide surrogate). Tests were carried out in a bench-scale plant. Burning of the reaction mixture was remotely initiated from electric supply unit. Melt formation started in the nearbottom area sustained upwards frontally, The melt temperature ranged between 1600 and 1900 K. The melt formation rate during the tests ranged between 0.7 and 2.5 kg/s. Melt cooling after reaction completion was kept for about 15-18 hours. Volatile aerosols were essentially retained in the bulk. The initial volume of the mixture was reduced after reaction by factors of 2 to 3. The densities of the blocks were ranged between 3.2 and 3.9 kg/dm3.
Samples of the materials obtained were examined by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The product consisted of glass-like body with metallic spheres (˜0.5-1.5 mm) distributed within. The base was composed of glass (˜60-80 vol.% of total) and crystalline phases (mainly zirconia). Monoclinic baddeleyite was found to be the major crystalline phase. The minor phase was tetragonal zirconia. Cerium (actinide surrogate) was partitioned among the glass and zirconia. The Ce2O3 concentration in glass ranged between ˜0.4 wt.% and ˜0.8 wt.% whereas its content in zirconia was found to be lower (up to ˜0.3 wt %). The metallic constituent consisted of vanadium and Fe-V-Si alloy whose average composition wasFe7O2V19.3Mn1.1 Si9.4.
A polycrystalline Pb(ZrTi)O3 (PZT) film with Pb excess is considered as a heterophase medium that consists of PZT grains and semiconductor PbO phase. The latter is segregated on PZT grain boundaries during the PZT formation and forms conducting channels between the electrodes. In such medium, uncompensated polarization charge of PZT grains generates an electric field both inside PZT grains and PbO phase. This electric field affects on ferroelectric polarization itself and stimulates carrier transport through the PbO channels. A theory is developed, where the reciprocal effect of the electric field on the polarization is taken into account. The polarization is found due to this effect to be increased up to ∼30% near the interfaces, which differs from reduction of the polarization near the interfaces in homogeneous PZT films. Using the theory, the electric field, electrostatic potential and carriers transport in PbO channels are calculated. A comparison is made with the results calculated for the approach of the polarization constancy.
The features of the structure of nanorystalline Ce1-xPrxO2-y system (0 ≤ × ≤ 0.5) prepared via a complex polymerized precursor (Pechini) route have been elucidated by using a combination of spectroscopic (XANES, XPS) and structural (TEM, neutron diffraction) methods. Within the studied range of composition, the structure of all samples air annealed at 500 °C corresponds to single-phase fluorite-like solid solution. The relative content of Pr3+ both in the bulk and in the surface layer appears to be as high as 20–50%. The Rietveld refinement revealed non-monotonous variation of structural parameters (lattice parameter, domain size, microstrain density, Ce-O and O-O distances) and residual lattice hydroxyls concentration with Pr content. Clustering of defects along with variation of the mean Pr cation radius/charge state and disordering of the surface layer/ domain boundaries appear to be responsible for the observed features.
A comparative study of microstructure and electrical properties of BaxSr1-xTiO3 films made by single- and multi-target pulsed laser deposition was carried out. The films were epitaxially grown on both LaAlO3 and MgO substrates. The structural properties of all samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The elemental composition of the samples was investigated using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. For electrical properties examination, a simple capacitor structure was patterned on the film surface. Thin films made using both methods exhibit similar structural and electrical properties; however the samples made by a multi-target method underwent phase transition in a broader temperature region. The results prove the possibility of using the multi-target pulse laser deposition as a more flexible method for engineering thin film stoichometry.
The results of structural and electrical characterizations of SrTiO3 thin films deposited onto LaAlO3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique are presented. The appearance of the ferroelectric phase in these films has been experimentally documented, the transition temperature being in the range of 90–120K. The hysteresis loops have been monitored in a wide temperature range by using thin film planar capacitors, the driving field being predominantly in the plane of the film. The switching properties of the films has been studied at low temperatures (∼25K) and well saturated loops have been observed with relatively low coercive field (<6kV/cm for 10μm gap). The presence of the imprint phenomenon has been also found at low temperatures.
The microstructure of the investigated SrTiO3 thin films has been studied by using a high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM). It has been found that the annealed and as-deposited thin films, being of the same composition, have quite different microstructures. The difference observed in the polarization response of the films is related to that in their microstructure.
This paper examines the problem of evaluating the microwave properties of thin ferroelectric films patterned as planar capacitors. Two types of microwave measurements of ferroelectric thin films are considered: reflection and resonance type measurements. Algorithms are presented for evaluation of capacitance-permittivity and dielectric loss. Using sensitivity analysis, the error and limitations associated with these measurements are estimated. The end result is a series of formulae that use the network analyser's measurement data to calculate the capacitance-permittivity, the dielectric loss, and the associated error.
In the current work we report results of tribological testing of stable colloidal dispersions of detonation nanodiamond (DND) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in mineral oil based greases as well as in polyalphaolefin (PAO) oil. Testing has been performed on these formula-tions using ring-on-ring, shaft/bushing and four ball test techniques. The test results demon-strated significant improvements for tribological characteristics (friction coefficient, extreme pressure failure load and diameter of wear spot) for certain formulations. A strong synergistic effect when using a combination of DND/PTFE additives was observed by a sharp decrease of friction coefficient. It was also demonstrated that using DND with smaller aggregate size (10nm versus 150nm) resulted in better lubricating performance of PAO-based composition.