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A high gain ZnO nanowire (NW) based photodetector was fabricated, which was sensitive to photoexcitation at or below 370 nm corresponding to the band-edge of ZnO. At an incident wavelength of 370 nm and a bias field of 5 kV/cm, the maximum responsivity was over 105 A/W corresponding to an extremely high photoconductive gain of the order of 106. Through this work we provide experimental evidence of the role of surface and defects in carrier dynamics, resulting in enhanced photoresponse. Using intensity and temperature dependence of the rise and decay rates of photocurrent, we present a detailed analysis that provides an estimate of the activation energies of carrier trapping mechanisms.
We consider a viscous drop, loaded with an insoluble surfactant, spreading over an inclined plane that is covered initially with a thin surfactant-free liquid film. Lubrication theory is employed to model the flow using coupled nonlinear evolution equations for the film thickness and surfactant concentration. Exploiting high-resolution numerical simulations, we describe the late-time multi-region asymptotic structure of the spatially one-dimensional spreading flow. A simplified differential–algebraic equation model is derived for key variables characterising the spreading process, using which the late-time spreading and thinning rates are determined. Focusing on the neighbourhood of the drop’s leading-edge effective contact line, we then examine the stability of this region to small-amplitude disturbances with transverse variation. A dispersion relationship is described using long-wavelength asymptotics and numerical simulations, which reveals physical mechanisms and new scaling properties of the instability.
Ornithosis outbreaks in poultry processing plants are well-described, but evidence for preventive measures is currently lacking. This study describes a case-control study into an outbreak of ornithosis at a poultry processing plant in the East of England, identified following three employees being admitted to hospital. Workers at the affected plant were recruited via their employer, with exposures assessed using a self-completed questionnaire. Cases were ascertained using serological methods or direct antigen detection in sputum. 63/225 (28%) staff participated, with 10% of participants showing evidence of recent infection. Exposure to the killing/defeathering and automated evisceration areas, and contact with viscera or blood were the main risk factors for infection. Personal protective equipment (goggles and FFP3 masks) reduced the effect of exposure to risk areas and to self-contamination with potentially infectious material. Our study provides some evidence of effectiveness for respiratory protective equipment in poultry processing plants where there is a known and current risk of ornithosis. Further studies are required to confirm this tentative finding, but in the meantime respiratory protective equipment is recommended as a precautionary measure in plants where outbreaks of ornithosis occur.
Manipur is a state in northeastern India and in civil war for > 45 years. Healthcare delivery and access is affected due to poor security, restricted accessibility, and the incapacity of this fragile state.
The burden of morbidity and mortality in the conflict area of Manipur was estimated using data sources (hospital attendance, hospital inpatient, and death registries, national family and health registries, and in-depth interviews of healthcare providers) and compared to national averages. These findings were co-related with violent events reported in the local newspaper.
Excess mortality was observed in the 21–50 year age group, but not in females or the elderly. The major causes of deaths were non-communicable diseases, cerebrovascular accidents, and chronic pulmonary disease. Chronic conflict increased the burden of alcohol liver disease and of mental health diseases. Suicidal deaths were common in the mid-twenty age group and usually due to agricultural pesticide consumption. These deaths were higher in men, and suicide attempts were higher in women. The prevalence of intravenous drug users and of HIV was reported to be five times as higher than the national average. High rates of disappearances, mutilation, torture, kidnapping, and hostage-taking, spousal physical violence and attacks on healthcare facilities and medical personnel were events of concern. There were no reported events of suicide bombers.
Protracted conflict dramatically changes the demographics and disease burden. Humanitarian space constantly is under threat of attack and the insecurity interferes with the provision of sustained preventive and curative services. Recommendations to be implemented would measures to continue treatment in the insecure environment through telephonic or online medical helplines, vaccination, and drug supplies during negotiated ceasefires or curfew times and protecting humanitarian spaces. However, militarization of healthcare may not be favorable solution.
Contrary to existing models, strengths need not be a strong function of porosity for intermediate density, brittle materials. Flaw sizes can remain small (<50μm) if the void space is distributed uniformly in minimum dimension pores. For RBSN, fracture toughness decreases linearly with porosity for 0< porosity <40%. Strains to failure and specific strengths of these materials are higher than fully dense counterparts.
Formation of CoSi2 in Co implanted Si sample has been studied using
glancing incidence X-ray diffraction and depth resolved
positron annihilation techniques. The implanted sample exhibits near-surface amorphization in the temperature range between 300 K and 670 K. It is found that recrystallization of Si occurs at 870 K which inturn, triggers the formation of the CoSi2 phase at lower temperatures as compared to that obtained in thin film systems. The results are discussed in the light of enhanced intermixing brought by defect migration, associated with recrystallization.
The hormetic influence on silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) of the juvenile hormone mimic ω-formyl longifolene oxime propargyl ether (NL13) was assayed. Emulsions containing 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 ppm of the compound were administered topically as a single dose, to two popular commercial silkworm hybrids, viz. KA × NB4D2 and PM × NB4D2, at 24,48, 72 and 96 h into the 5th instar, and economic characters of the larvae and resultant cocoons measured. A medium and absolute control were maintained in parallel. It was found that administration of 5 ppm of NL13 to 48-h-old 5th instars resulted in the maximum improvement in commercial traits. The possible role of exogenous JH-like compounds in eliciting this response in silkworm is discussed.
Fortification of salt with iron has been developed by the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) as a strategy for the control of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in India, similar to iodization of salt for control of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). Stability of the iron fortified salt (IFS), its bioavailability and organoleptic evaluation of food items containing the IFS have been demonstrated. Acceptability and effectiveness of the IFS in school children and in multicentric community trials have been demonstrated. With the introduction of universal iodization of salt as a national policy in 1988, NIN has developed a formulation for double fortification (DFS) of salt with iodine and iron. The stability of the nutrients under laboratory conditions along with their bioavailability were found to be good but varying with the quality of salt used. The DFS has been evaluated in controlled trials in tribal communities and in residential school children. The findings of these studies are discussed. Overall, in these trials, DFS effectively controlled iodine deficiency but a clear impact on reducing anaemia was not demonstrated. In residential schoolchildren, increased urinary excretion of iodine as well as reduced anaemia were observed. The quality of salt has been found to be an important determinant of the stability of iodine in DFS. Further evaluation of this potentially important intervention is in progress.
This paper is concerned with the preservation of unimodality under coherent structures of independent components having a common life distribution function. This result in a way generalizes a result of Alam , as Alam's result indirectly also deals with preservation of unimodality for (n – i + 1)-out-of-n systems of independent and identically distributed components. The usefulness of this property of coherent systems in obtaining sharper upper bounds on the reliability of the concerned system has been illustrated below for a bridge structure with components having a gamma life distribution function.
The ability of three anti-juvenile hormone agents (AJHAs) to prevent the juvenile hormone dependent phase of larval-pupal transformation has been investigated. Neck-ligated post-feeding last instar larvae of Spodoptera mauritia were treated topically with different doses of a juvenile hormone analog (JHA) or the AJHAs, tetra-hydro-4-fluoromethyl-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran-2-one (FMev), ethyl-4-[2-(tert-butyl carbonyloxy)butoxy] benzoate (ETB) and ethyl-[E]-3-methyl-2-dodecanoate (EMD). Untreated ligated larvae or those treated with acetone survived for 12 ± 1 days without showing any sign of pupal cuticle secretion. On the other hand treatments of ligated larvae with different doses of JHA induced pupation. Among the three AJHAs tested treatments of ETB promoted pupation. Treatments of ligated larvae with lower doses of EMD induced the formation of larval-pupal intermediates whereas those treated with higher dose moulted into either pupae or larval-pupal intermediates. FMev-treated larvae exhibited a complete inhibition of moulting and metamorphosis. In order to study whether AJHAs would prevent the JHA induced pupation, neck-ligated larvae were treated simultaneously with different doses of AJHAs and 1 μg JHA. Co-application of JHA with different doses of EMD induced pupation in majority of the ligated larvae and thus appears to a certain extent to counteract the effects of treatments of same doses of EMD alone. Co-application of JHA with different doses of ETB elicited pupation in all the surviving ligated larvae. To a large extent co-application of JHA with different doses of FMev failed to induce pupation. The significance of the findings is discussed in the context of the mode of action of these AJHAs.
Leaves of each of six cruciferous plant species investigated contained glucosinolates. There was no correlation between the total glucosinolate concentration of the species (identity of the glucosinolates unknown) and the oviposition response of the adult cabbage maggot, Hylemya brassicae (Bouché). Tests with chemical fractions isolated from rutabaga root tissue indicated that glucosinolates are the major, and perhaps the only, oviposition-inducing substances present in cruciferous plants. It is suggested that oviposition preferences are governed by the presence of some ’key’ glucosinolates and the absence of inhibitory chemicals.
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