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Since the discovery of fading X-rays from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) with BeppoSAX (Piro et al. 1997, Costa et al. 1997), world-wide follow-up observations in optical band have achieved the fruitful results. The case of GRB 970228, there was an optical transient, coincides with the BeppoSAX position and faded (Paradijs et al. 1997, Sahu et al. 1997). These optical observations also confirmed the extended component, which was associated with the optical transient. The new transient are fading with a power-law function in time and the later observation of HST confirmed the extended emission is stable (Fruchter et al. 1997). This extended object seems to be a distant galaxy and strongly suggests to be the host.
A new approach for functionalising oxidised MWCNTs using hydroxylated imidazolium bromide via esterification reaction is reported. The bromide anion of a functionalised MWCNTs was exchanged with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (TFSI) through a metathesis reaction to improve its solubility in the IL medium. Composite was characterized with IR, XPS, EDX and TGA analysis, which clearly confirmed that the MWCNTs were functionalized with IL. For potential application as lubricant, the tribological properties of the IL-functionalised MWCNTs (MWCNT-IL) were also evaluated. It was confirmed that even low concentrations of MWCNT-IL composite in ILs causes a significant improvement in the anti-wear and friction properties.
A Monte Carlo simulation of wear-out process in thin silicon dioxide films is performed to investigate the correlation between the electron trap distribution and the dielectric breakdown. Non-uniformity of the trap generation and its dependence on the stress conditions are monitored by the measurements of the charge centroid. In order to include these experimental observations into Degraeve's percolation model [IEDM Tech. Dig., pp.863-866 (1995)], we introduce exponential trap profiles decaying from the Si/SiO2 interface. Our new model successfully reproduces critical threshold voltage shifts from the information about critical charge centroids for various stress conditions. Finally, as a reasonable explanation of the stress dependent breakdown properties, we suggest that the bond strain caused by lattice mismatch at the interface is accelerated by the electric field.
We report a method to fabricate thin films of large-domain organic semiconductor single crystals dispersed over the whole surface of centimeter-scale substrates for field-effect transistors. Growing less than 500-nm thick film-like organic crystals of sub-millimeter sizes densely in a furnace independently of substrates by physical vapor transport, the collection of the single crystals is mechanically attached to the surface of gate dielectric layers. The organic transistors made of large-domain benzo-annulated pentathienoacene crystals exhibited pronounced transistor performances with mobility values of ∼ 0.2-2 cm2/Vs, which is as high as devices of one-piece crystals. The result demonstrates that the above technique provides a method to apply high performance of organic single crystal transistors to real circuitry devices on large-area substrates.
Sol-gel derived silane hybrid films composing of (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane–tetramethoxysilane (APTMS-TMOS) have been shown to have properties that make the films suitable for DNA microarray applications. The ability of the films to bind DNA was studied using aminated 25-mer oligonucleotide DNA and 1, 4-phenylenediisothiocyanate linker. The binding of DNA onto the films was shown to depend on films' composition i.e. the binding rate decreased with the decrease of APTMS content in the film. The arrayed primer extension (APEX) analysis showed reversed tendency – fluorescence signals of bound probes increased with the decrease of APTMS content in the film. The background noise was low and the fluorescent probes were clearly outlined. The density of functional amino groups on the films was estimated by fluorescence spectroscopy.
Light-weight, large-area and flexible solar cells and modules were developed. Roll-to-roll processes including an improved film deposition process named “Stepping-roll process” are used to fabricate large-area hydrogenated amorphous silicon-based solar cells in succession on plastic film substrates. A unique device having through-hole contacts was developed and applied to simplify the production processes and to generate high voltage using connection in series. Production technologies, such as (1) light-weight and large area module fabrication, (2) plasma condition controlled chemical vapor deposition, (3) low substrate temperature selective reactive sputtering, and (4) large-area uniform transparent conductive oxide film deposition are reviewed.
The number of pertussis cases in Japan has decreased dramatically following the nationwide use of an acellular pertussis vaccine combined with diphtheria-tetanus toxoids (DTaP vaccines) which began in 1981. However, the effectiveness of the DTaP vaccine has not been systematically evaluated using appropriate epidemiological methods during a non-epidemic period in Japan. We evaluated the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the Kaketsuken DTaP vaccine which contains two-component pertussis antigens in Japanese children from 1999 to 2001 using a matched case-control design and data from the Basic Resident Registration and Maternal and Child Health Handbooks. The DTaP vaccination history of 15 children with pertussis and 59 controls was obtained. The VE of 3 or 4 pertussis vaccinations compared with non-vaccination (baseline) was 96·9% for coughing attacks that lasted ⩾7 days, 96·4% for those lasting ⩾14 days, and 95·9% for those lasting ⩾21 days. These findings suggest that DTaP vaccination effectively prevented pertussis during a non-epidemic period in Japan.
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