Erbium (Er) was co-implanted with ( i ) nitrogen (N), ( ii) oxygen (0) and (iii) N and 0 into Al0.7Ga0.3As substrates. Compared with the Al0.7Ga0.3As:Er sample, the 20 K Er3+ -related 1.54 μm integrated photoluminescence (PL) intensity from the Al0 7Ga0.3As:Er,N and Al0.7Ga0.3As:Er,N,O samples were enhanced approximately fifteen and ten times more, respectively. Thermal quenching of Er3+-related emission from Al0.7Ga0.3As:Er,N,O was smaller than that of Er3+-related emission from Al0.7.Ga0.3As-Er,N The 20 K Er3+-related 0.98 μm PL which was radiated by transition from the second excited state (4I1/2) to the ground state (4I1/2) was observed. The 0.98 μm PL intensity from Al0.7Ga0.3As:Er,N,O generally decreased with increasing 0 dosage from 1 × 1013 cm−2 to 1 × 1015 cm−2. These results suggest the formation of different complexes composed of Er and the impurities (N,O). This leads to the generation of complex related traps in the band-gap of Al0.7Ga0.3As as a result of the co-implantation of the impurities. It was found that the trap level of the Er-N complex center lay between 2.05 eV and 1.26 eV, and that of the Er-N-O complex center lay between 1.26 eV and 0.82 eV.