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We explored the factors promoting long-term mental health among adolescent survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. We examined the associations of their long-term mental health with disaster-related storytelling and school-based psychoeducation, and of school-based psychoeducation with disaster-related storytelling.
A secondary school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted 6 years after the disaster. Participants with traumatic experiences such as injury, loss, witnessing someone's death/injury and home destruction (N = 1028, mean age 15, standard deviation 1.38, male 51%) were eligible. Mental health/disaster education (MHE/DE) was defined as taking one or more lessons in MHE and/or DE at school since the earthquake. Experiences of storytelling about the disaster involved expressing distressing memories and feelings regarding the earthquake since the disaster happened, according to four groups: never expressed distressing memories and feelings, expressed them through writing/drawing, expressed them through talking to lay supporters and expressed them through talking to health professionals. Analysis of covariance was used to compare mean scores on five selected subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Psychotic-Like Experiences (PLEs) scale among the four storytelling groups. Linear regression analysis was used to identify the relationships between MHE/DE and current mental health as measured by the SCL-90, AIS and PLEs. The relationship between education and storytelling was probed by χ2 test.
The talked-to-lay-supporters group showed better mental health on the SCL-90 (p ⩽ 0.001), AIS (p < 0.001) and PLEs (p = 0.004), while the consulted-health-professionals group showed worse mental health on the three dimensions of the SCL-90: depression (p = 0.05), anxiety (p = 0.02) and fear (p = 0.04), and on PLEs (p = 0.02) compared with the never-expressed group. MHE and DE were inversely associated with SCL-90, AIS and PLE scores. Participants who received these forms of education talked about their disaster experiences to lay supporters more than those who did not.
MHE and DE at school may promote adolescents’ mental health after a disaster. Experience of storytelling about the disaster to lay supporters may be helpful for long-term psychological recovery, and may be a potential mediating factor for school-based education and better mental health. Because of the cross-sectional nature of this study, causality cannot be inferred; therefore, further prospective intervention studies are needed to elucidate the effect of these factors on adolescent survivors’ mental health.
Recently, an epoch-making printing technology called “SuPR-NaP (Surface Photo-Reactive Nanometal Printing)” that allows easy, high-speed, and large-area manufacturing of ultrafine silver wiring patterns has been developed. Here we demonstrate low-voltage operation of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) composed of printed source/drain electrodes that are produced by the SuPR-NaP technique. We utilize an ultrathin layer of perfluoropolymer, Cytop, that functions not only as a base layer for producing patterned reactive surface in the SuPR-NaP technique but also as an ultrathin gate dielectric layer of OTFTs. By the use of 22 nm-thick Cytop gate dielectric layer, we successfully operate polycrystalline pentacene OTFTs below 2 V with negligible hysteresis. We also observe the improvement of carrier injection by the surface modification of printed silver electrodes. We discuss that the SuPR-NaP technique allows the production of high-capacitance gate dielectric layers as well as high-resolution printed silver electrodes, which provides promising bases for producing practical active-matrix OTFT backplanes.
Here we discuss requirements for high performance and solution processable organic semiconductors, by presenting a systematic investigation of 7-alkyl-2-phenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes (Ph-BTBT-Cn’s). We found that the solubility and thermal properties of Ph-BTBT-Cn’s depend systematically on the substituted alkyl-chain length n. The observed features are well understood in terms of the change of molecular packing motif with n: The compounds with n ≤ 4 do not form independent alkyl chain layers, whereas those with n ≥ 5 form isolated alkyl chain layers. The latter compounds afford a series of isomorphous bilayer-type crystal structures that form two-dimensional carrier transport layers within the crystals. We also show that the Ph-BTBT-C10 afford high performance single-crystalline field-effect transistors the mobility of which reaches as high as 15.9 cm2/Vs. These results demonstrate a crucial role of the substituted alkyl chain length for obtaining high performance organic semiconductors and field-effect transistors.
The reverse martensitic (austenite) transformation temperatures (As) were investigated using a diffusion couple of PtTi and CoTi with a continuous compositional gradient. It was found that PtTi and CoTi form a complete solid solution of (Pt, Co)Ti at 1373K. Surface relief was formed by heating due to the austenite transformation. Judging from the formation of the surface patterns and the corresponding chemical compositions, As monotonously decreases with increasing Co content at a rate of -70K/at%Co, and As is estimated to be close to room temperature (RT) when the Co concentration is 15at%Co. Besides, micro Vickers hardness values measured at RT are minimized around 15at%Co.
We searched the time lag between the intra-day variables (IDVs) of Sagittarius A* at 22, 43, and 86 GHz bands using the Korean VLBI Network (KVN). The time lags between the IDV flare peaks at 22 and 43 GHz are reported, and they suggest that the flare emissions come from adiabatically expanding plasma blobs, ejected close to the Galactic center black hole. We searched the time lags between light curves at 90 and 102 GHz using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, but could not find significant time lags. In order to detect the diversity of the time lags of Sgr A* flares, we performed observations of Sgr A* in the 22, 43, and 86 GHz bands using the KVN in the winter of 2013. Because the receiver system of KVN can observe Sgr A* in these three bands simultaneously, the KVN is very useful to detect the time lags of Sgr A* flares.
Organised haematomas of the maxillary sinus are rare, non-neoplastic, haemorrhagic lesions which can extend into the nasal cavity and/or the other paranasal sinuses. This study aimed to investigate the pathology of maxillary sinus organised haematoma, and also proposes a new aetiological hypothesis based on the observed pathology.
Biopsies, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and post-surgical histopathological examination of resected specimens were carried out.
Distinct pathological differences were observed between the basal and peripheral portions of organised haematomas. We propose that an organised haematoma originates from the exudation of blood components between vascular endothelial cells. As a result, the basal portion consists of aggregated, dilated vessels around the natural ostium of the maxillary sinus. In addition, pseudovessels, without endothelial cells, arise from endocapillary vessels within the haematoma. Exudation of additional blood components from the pseudovessels advances the growth of the organised haematoma.
The Zn-bearing beaverite of Sato et al. (2008) has been named ‘beaverite-(Zn)’ in accordance with the alunite supergroup nomenclature of Bayliss et al. (2010), and data for the mineral have been approved by the IMA-CNMNC. Beaverite-(Zn) occurs as a dark-brown secondary mineral in the hydrothermal Cu-Zn-Pb ore deposit of the Mikawa mine, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Electron microprobe analysis gave an empirical formula of Pb0.95(Fe1.88Al0.10)(Zn0.83Cu0.03)(SO4)2[(OH)5.36O0.38] on the basis of S = 2. The Rietyeld analysis (Sato et al, 2008) indicated it to be trigonal, R3̄m, a = 7.3028(2), c = 17.0517(4) Å, V = 787.56(4) Å3.
Ultra-thin hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films have been deposited by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) to prepare smooth top surface of the films avoiding the ion bombardment. Rapid thermal oxidation of thermal CVD a-Si:H results in nanocrystalline dots in the ultra-thin silicon films. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to investigate the optical and structural properties of both ultra-thin a-Si:H and nanocrystalline silicon films. To analyze the ellipsometric data of ultra-thin a-Si:H films, a new parameterization i.e., the combination of Sellmeier law and four Lorentz peaks, has been successfully introduced. Width of the Lorentz peaks are directly related with the change of optical functions with the thickness of a-Si:H films. It has been certified that the dense Si matrix with smaller degree of disorder is formed when the thickness exceeds 8nm and the films with the thickness of less than 3.8 nm becomes voided. To interpret the ellipsometric data for nanocrystalline silicon films, three layer model (SiO2, poly-Si+a-Si+void and SiO2) has been adapted. It is inferred from SE and TEM analyses that the size and the density of nanocrystalline dots can be controlled by the morphology of initial ultra-thin a-Si:H films and RTO conditions.
Diffusivities of Cs, Sr and Co were measured in several kinds of water-saturated concretes. The measured penetration profile of every tracer was composed of two parts. Those were a steep slope near the surface and a gradual slope in the deeper part. This profile was successfully explained by considering two diffusion paths in concrete. One diffusion path was possibly fissure with a width of a few microns and another was network of submicron pores. The volume of submicron pores was approximately 90% of the total free space volume in every concrete. The orders of magnitude of apparent diffusivities for all tracers were 10−12–10−11 m2/s through the fissure and l0−16–10−15 m2/s through the network of pores. The difference between the diffusivities of the two paths is thought to be caused by small geometrical factor of the network of submicron pores.
Electromigration (EM) and stress-induced voiding (SIV) in Cu and Cu alloys thin films were studied separately. The characterization of EM was evaluated in a modified interconnect structure where the effect of current density can be observed in the absence of stress disturbance. SIV, on the other hand, is examined in detail by applying a uniform stress to Cu films without electric current. Results of EM tests clearly showed that void and hillock formations were concentrated mainly in the region with high current density gradient without stress disturbance. SIV test performed under the high stress of 1GPa showed that voids were observed to form at grain boundaries and grain boundary triple junctions. Under the high stress, SIV is shown to be generated in the absence of stress gradient. Also, the effect of alloying to EM and SIV was investigated in detail.
Potentially biodegradable polyamide (poly(imino-3, 3'-dithiodipropionylimmo-2, 2'-dithiodiethyl), -(NHCOCH2CH2-S-S-CH2CH2CO-NHCH2CH2-S-S-CH2CH2)n-, PIDI) and polyester (crosslinked poly(oxy-3, 3'-dithiodipropionyloxymethylene-l,4-phenylenemethylene,-(ICOCH2CH2-S-S-CH2CH2COO-CH2-C6H5-CH2)n- c-PODOM)) were prepared by interfacial polymerization between 3,3'-dithiodipropionic acid and cystamine, or 1, 4-benzenedimethanol. PIDI and c-PODOM showed the electrochemical responses based on reduction of the disulfide bonds in the polymer chains and re-oxidation of the produced thiolate anions. Degradation of PIDI and PODOM was investigated in various pH buffer solution. The apparent rate constant of c-PODOM at 25 °C was 1.3 × 103 % day−1 at pH 7 and that of PIDI at 37 °C was 3.5 × 103 % day−1 at pH 7. Estimated period for 90 % degradation of the polymers at pH 7 is about 1800 days (c-PODOM, 25 °C) and 630 days (PIDI, 37 °C).
Ferroelectric tead zirconate titanate, Pb(Zrx Tibx)O3 (hereafter abbreviated as PZT), thin films were prepared by annealing precursor films of multilayered structures composed of alternating layers of PZT aiKL lead titanate (hereafter abbreviated as PT). This method (which we refer to as multi-seeding) was used in order to lower the processing temperature of PZT. The precursor films were prepared from alkoxide precursor solutions. Effects of zirconium to titanium ratios and stacking structures of the multi-layered precursor films on crystallization behavior were studied to improve the electrical properties of the resultant PZT thin films. Layers of PT were inserted between every PZT layer in order to seed the crystallization of the desired perovskite phase. PT has previously been shown to crystallize with a pure perovskite structure at temperatures as low as 450 °C. Precursor layers of PZT with different compositions, ranging from x = 1 to x = 0.53 were prepared. In this process, the compositions of the PZT precursors and/or the stacking structure, as well as the heating schedule, had a large effect on the crystallization behavior. Nucleation control of the PT seeding layer by changing the heating schedules played an important role in preparing perovskite PZT thin films at low temperatures. Dielectric properties of the resultant films depended on the compositions and annealing temperatures. It was demonstrated that the composition of the resultant PZT film was controllable in the multi-seeding process, and that dielectric properties of the resultant films were improved.
In order to understand the deformation and fracture behavior of Nb-Si alloys, in-situ observation was conducted during bending of small specimens at room and high temperatures. Nb-Si alloy ingots containing 18.1 at.%Si, 1.5 at.%Zr and 100 ppmMg were prepared by arc melting, followed by uni-axial solidification in an optical floating zone apparatus and a heat-treatment to obtain Nb/Nb5Si3 two-phase microstructure. Chevron-notched specimens with a dimension of 1x2x10mm were used for in-situ observation of bending tests under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) at room temperature and at 1140 °C. At room temperature the Nb-Si alloy shows a fracture toughness of 8 MPa m1/2 and the crack propagation velocity seems to be not uniform, presumably due to the ductile Nb. At 1140 °C the toughness of the alloy was about 20 MPa m1/2 and slower plastic deformation prior to the cracking was observed. The SEM observation of crack surfaces revealed that plastic deformation of Nb enhances the toughness of the alloy.
We have recently proposed revival of the name Entamoeba nuttalliCastellani, 1908 for a virulent amoeba (P19-061405 strain) isolated from a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) and located phylogenetically between E. histolytica and E. dispar. In this study, E. nuttalli was isolated from feces of captive Japanese macaques (M. fuscata) in an open-air corral in Japan. The sequence of the 18S rRNA gene in the isolates differed from the P19-061405 strain in 2 nucleotide positions, but was identical to the EHMfas1 strain isolated previously from a cynomolgus monkey (M. fascicularis). One of the E. nuttalli isolates from Japanese macaques, named the NASA6 strain, was axenized and cloned. In isoenzyme analysis, the mobilities of hexokinase and phosphate glucose isomerase in the NASA6 strain were identical to those in the P19-061405 and EHMfas1 strains, but the mobility of phosphoglucomutase was different. These results were supported by gene analyses of these enzymes. Inoculation of NASA6 strain trophozoites into the liver of hamsters led to formation of an amoebic liver abscess. The liver lesions were characterized by extensive necrosis associated with inflammatory reactions. These results demonstrate that the NASA6 strain is potentially virulent and that E. nuttalli should be recognized as a common parasite in macaques.
Whiskerlike-shaped hydroxyapatite single crystals with the calcium-deficient nature were hydrothermally grown under natural convection by using a temperature-gradient-applied pressure vessel. With this method, crystals grew thinner with a smaller tapering angle than those grown under the nonconvection. Maximum length of the crystals grown under natural convection was 8.3 nm. The grown crystals survived without fracture through at least ten times maximum indentation (25 µm) of the three-point bending tests, showing the maximum bending angle of 62°. Average tensile strength of the crystals was 410.0 MPa.
The structure of the human gene for deoxyribonuclease II (DNase
II; EC 220.127.116.11) was
determined using several specific primers based on the human DNase II cDNA
sequence [Yasuda et
al. (1998). J. Biol. Chem.273, 2610–2616]
in a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy. The gene
spanned about 6 kb and consisted of 6 exons. No canonical TATA or CAAT
boxes could be identified
within the 1341 nucleotides upstream of the putative transcription start
site, although the 5′-flanking
region contained a CpG island and several putative binding motifs for transcription
Sp1 and ETF. These properties indicate that the DNase II gene is a housekeeping
gene and this is
compatible with its ubiquitous expression in human tissues. Three different
sites were identified in the 3′-flanking region, leading to the production
of multiple DNase II mRNA
species. However, a comparison of the entire translated sequences of the
gene from a pair of subjects
with homozygous DNase II phenotypes H and L revealed no differences in
the nucleotide sequences.
A basic lead carbonate-montmorillonitec omplexw as prepared by treating a natural montmorillonite hydrothermally for 120 h at 250°C with lead powder, dry ice and lead nitrate solution. The product is a non-swelling material showing well-outlined, hexagonal, thin plates <1 µm in size; the symmetry is pseudo-orthorhombic, a = 5·141(7) Å, b = 9·005(5) Å, c = 17·420(4) Å, and Z = 2. The X-ray powder pattern is characterized by a 17·4 Å reflection and an integral series to the 14th order. The TG-DTA curves of this 17 Å-mineral showed one endotherm around 400°C accompanied by weight loss and two exthotherms at about 680 and 780°C By applying hightemperature X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy, it was found that the endotherm is due to decomposition of carbonate hydroxide in the interlayer, while the two exthotherms are caused by crystallization of a hexagonal phase of PbAl2Si2O8 and by the conversion of this phase into lead feldspar, respectively. The crystal structure of the 17 Å-mineral was determined and refined as a 2:1 dioctahedral smectite interlayered with a hydrocerussite-like layer by a one-dimensional Fourier synthesis method.
Ba2NaNb5,O15 and eighteen additional compositions in the NaNbO3-BaNb2O6 system from 60 to 85 mole % BaNb2O6 have been prepared and studied by X-ray powder diffraction. A calculated pattern has been used to aid in indexing the powder pattern of stoichiometric Ba2NaNb5O15(BNN-S). The lattice parameters of BNN-S have been determined from repeated measurements of 2 higher order reflections and are a=b=17.5994(8)Å and c=7.9771(9)Å. A comparison with the Powder Diffraction File (PDF) 34-210 indicates that the present data provide a more precise match to the unit cell, include additional weak reflections and cover a greater 2θ range. There is a tungsten bronzetype solid solution range from 60 to 75 mole % BaNb2O6.
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