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The conceptualization of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the upcoming International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11 differs in many respects from the diagnostic criteria in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The consequences of these differences for individuals and for estimation of prevalence rates are largely unknown. This study investigated the concordance of the two diagnostic systems in two separate samples at two separate waves.
Young survivors of the 2011 Norway attacks (n = 325) and their parents (n = 451) were interviewed at 4–6 months (wave 1) and 15–18 months (wave 2) after the shooting. PTSD was assessed with the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-IV adapted for DSM-5, and a subset was used as diagnostic criteria for ICD-11.
In survivors, PTSD prevalence did not differ significantly at any time point, but in parents, the DSM-5 algorithm produced significantly higher prevalence rates than the ICD-11 criteria. The overlap was fair for survivors, but amongst parents a large proportion of individuals met the criteria for only one of the diagnostic systems. No systematic differences were found between ICD-11 and DSM-5 in predictive validity.
The proposed ICD-11 criteria and the DSM-5 criteria performed equally well when identifying individuals in distress. Nevertheless, the overlap between those meeting the PTSD diagnosis for both ICD-11 and DSM-5 was disturbingly low, with the ICD-11 criteria identifying fewer people than the DSM-5. This represents a major challenge in identifying individuals suffering from PTSD worldwide, possibly resulting in overtreatment or unmet needs for trauma-specific treatment, depending on the area of the world in which patients are being diagnosed.
One thousand thirteen post myocardial infarction patients were observed for 4.5 years to determine whether their type A (coronary-prone) behavior could be altered and the effect such alteration might have on the subsequent cardiac morbidity and mortality rates of these individuals. Eight hundred sixty-two of these individuals were randomly assigned either to a control section of 270 participants who received group cardiac counseling or an experimental section of 592 participants who received both group cardiac counseling and type A behavioral counseling. The remaining 151 patients, serving as a “comparison group,” did not receive group counseling of any kind. Using the “Intention-to- Treat” principle, we observed markedly reduced type A behavior at the end of 4.5 years in 35.1% of participants given cardiac and type A behavior counseling compared with 9.8% of participants given only cardiac counseling. The cumulative 4.5-year cardiac recurrence rate was 12.9% in the 592 participants in the experimental group that received type A counseling. This recurrence rate was significantly less (p< 0.005) than either the recurrence rate (21.2%) observed in the 270 participants in the control group or the recurrence rate (28.2%) in those of the comparison group not receiving any special treatment. After the first year, a significant difference in number of cardiac deaths between the experimental and control participants was observed during the remaining 3.5 years of the study. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate for the first time, within a controlled experimental design, that altering type A behavior reduces cardiac morbidity and mortality in post infarction patients. (AM HEART J 1986; 112:653).
Persons who exhibited an emotional syndrome characterized by a continuously harrying sense of time urgency and easily aroused freefloating hostility (i.e. type A behavior pattern) were observed in 1959 to have a sevenfold greater prevalence and in 1975 a significantly greater incidence of clinical coronary heart disease (CHD) than persons not exhibiting these two emotional components (i.e., type B persons).
Ever since this observed associational relationship between the presence of type A behavior and the prevalence and incidence of clinical CHD, hundreds of studies have been designed to investigate further the nature of this association.
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