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Pregnancy and calving are elements indispensable for dairy production, but the daily milk yield of cows decline as pregnancy progresses, especially during the late stages. Therefore, the effect of stage of pregnancy on daily milk yield must be clarified to accurately estimate the breeding values and lifetime productivity of cows. To improve the genetic evaluation model for daily milk yield and determine the effect of the timing of pregnancy on productivity, we used a test-day model to assess the effects of stage of pregnancy on variance component estimates, daily milk yields and 305-day milk yield during the first three lactations of Holstein cows. Data were 10 646 333 test-day records for the first lactation; 8 222 661 records for the second; and 5 513 039 records for the third. The data were analyzed within each lactation by using three single-trait random regression animal models: one model that did not account for the stage of pregnancy effect and two models that did. The effect of stage of pregnancy on test-day milk yield was included in the model by applying a regression on days pregnant or fitting a separate lactation curve for each days open (days from calving to pregnancy) class (eight levels). Stage of pregnancy did not affect the heritability estimates of daily milk yield, although the additive genetic and permanent environmental variances in late lactation were decreased by accounting for the stage of pregnancy effect. The effects of days pregnant on daily milk yield during late lactation were larger in the second and third lactations than in the first lactation. The rates of reduction of the 305-day milk yield of cows that conceived fewer than 90 days after the second or third calving were significantly (P<0.05) greater than that after the first calving. Therefore, we conclude that differences between the negative effects of early pregnancy in the first, compared with later, lactations should be included when determining the optimal number of days open to maximize lifetime productivity in dairy cows.
Integrated safety assessment methodology that analyzes radionuclide migration reflecting the spatial and temporal changes of disposal systems was developed for a geological disposal site with uplift and denudation, and then some case analyses for an assumed site were carried out. The combination of uniform uplift and denudation has the largest effect on the radionuclide migration because the ground water flow velocity increases with decreasing depth from the ground surface. In the case without denudation, tilted uplift has more effect than uniform uplift because flow velocity in tilted uplift increases with increasing hydraulic gradient. The long-term change of the geological structures including the uplift and denudation, the hydraulic conditions, and the recharge and outlet of the ground water around a candidate site should be carefully investigated to determine the appropriate the place, depth and layout of the repository.
In the current research, we have utilized sol-gel electrophoresis technique to grow PbTiO3 nanotube arrays in porous anodic alumina template channels. By using this method high quality and more condense nanotubes are obtained compared with other usual sol-gel methods. Also, the effect of the anodizing parameters on the diameter of the template pores, and effect of electrophoresis voltage on wall thickness were investigated.
Pentacene-based ferroelectric gate transistors with croconic acid (CrA) thin film was fabricated for the first time. The memory window (MW) of 1.9 V was obtained from the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of Al/CrA(50 nm)/SiO2/Si(100) metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) diode, where the deposition temperature of CrA was room temperature (RT). Butterfly type C-V characteristics was observed for Al/CrA(50 nm)/Al/SiO2/ Si(100) metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) diode. Furthermore, a pentacene-based p-type organic field-effect transistor (OFET) with CrA gate insulator was fabricated, and clockwise hysteresis loop was observed in ID-VG characteristic, which is attributed to the ferroelectric properties of CrA gate insulator.
In this paper, we explore the interfacial effects appearing in highly strained La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (LCMO) ultra-thin films (10-12nm) grown on BaTiO3 (BTO) ferroelectric substrates. The strong tendency to phase separation of this optimally doped manganite contributes to the exotic phenomena observed in magnetism and transport experiments: the so-called Matteucci magnetic loops, magnetic granularity and a second metal insulator transition are observed between 50K and the LCMO Curie temperature, 180K. All these properties define the multiferroic character of these heterostructures, which in LCMO//BTO system is strongly linked to magnetoelastic coupling.
This chapter discusses the diagnosis and epidemiology of panic disorder (PD). Genetic studies, while instrumental, cannot alone address the etiological complexities of most psychiatric disorders. The chapter turns to two integrative approaches that combine genetics with other clinical or biological methods to target the underlying mechanisms. First, it discusses exploiting the relationship between psychiatric and non-psychiatric medical manifestations (the expanded spectrum approach). This approach is particularly relevant to PD, where the panic attacks are accompanied by a range of physiological responses that may be central to the etiology. Second, the chapter describes neurobiological phenotypes, and in particular, on using measures of brain structure and function to identify genetic variation, and studies the mechanisms via which genes can impact behavior. The chapter concludes with an overview of imaging genetic studies of PD, and particularly, of how data from imaging studies can be used to enhance the tractability of genetic targets.
NEWAGE is a direction-sensitive dark matter search experiment with a gaseous
time-projection chamber. We improved the direction-sensitive dark matter limits by our
underground measurement. In this paper, R&D activities sinse the first underground
measurement are described.
Acute diarrhoea remains a major public health challenge in developing countries. We examined the role of a probiotic in the prevention of acute diarrhoea to discover if there was an effect directed towards a specific aetiology. A double-blind, randomized, controlled field trial involving 3758 children aged 1–5 years was conducted in an urban slum community in Kolkata, India. Participants were given either a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota or a nutrient drink daily for 12 weeks. They were followed up for another 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was the occurrence of first episodes of diarrhoea. We assessed this during 12 weeks of intake of study agent and also for 12 weeks of follow-up. There were 608 subjects with diarrhoea in the probiotic group and 674 subjects in the nutrient group during the study period of 24 weeks. The level of protective efficacy for the probiotic was 14% (95% confidence interval 4–23, P<0·01 in adjusted model). The reduced occurrence of acute diarrhoea in the probiotic group compared to nutrient group was not associated with any specific aetiology. No adverse event was observed in children of either probiotic or nutrient groups. The study suggests that daily intake of a probiotic drink can play a role in prevention of acute diarrhoea in young children in a community setting of a developing country.
ASTRO-H is a next-generation JAXA X-ray satellite to be launched in 2014. The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD) onboard ASTRO-H is a semi-conductor Compton camera with a narrow field-of-view (FOV) to achieve very low background. Although the SGD is primarily a spectrometer in the 40–600 keV energy band, it is also sensitive to polarization in the 50–200 keV energy band. This paper describes instrument design, expected performance, and experimental validation of polarimetric performance of the SGD.
ASTRO-H, the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is a combination of
high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3–10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics (SXT, Soft X-ray Telescope) and a microcalorimeter array (SXS, Soft X-ray Spectrometer);
soft X-ray imaging spectroscopy (0.5–12 keV) provided by SXT and a CCD (SXI, Soft X-ray Imager);
hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy (3–80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors (HXT, Hard X-ray Telescope) and silicon (Si) and cadmium telluride (CdTe) cross-strip detectors (HXI, Hard X-ray Imager);
soft gamma-ray spectroscopy (40–600 keV) provided by semiconductor Compton camera with narrow FOV (SGD, Soft Gamma-ray Detector).
The SXT-SXS and SGD systems will be developed by an international collaboration led by Japanese and US institutions.
The SXS will use a 6×6 format microcalorimeter array. The energy resolution is expected to be better than 7 eV. The FOV and the effective area will be, respectively, about 3 arc minutes and about 210 cm2 combined with the ∼6 m focal-length SXT.
Sixty-nine strains of Vibrio cholerae 01 isolated at different times were analysed to investigate if there were any differences among the 01 strains isolated before, during and after the advent of the O139 serogroup. Of the 69 01 strains examined, 68 belonged to the Ogawa serotype while one belonged to the Inaba serotype. With the exception of one strain all other strains of V. cholerae 01 belonged to the eltor biotype. A single O1 strain isolated before the emergence of the O139 serogroup could not be classified as either eltor or classical biotype because it was resistant to both classical and eltor specific bacteriophages. Marked variations in the susceptibility to antibiotics of V. cholerae O1 isolated during the different periods were observed. In addition, strains of V. cholerae isolated after the epidemic of serogroup O139 in Calcutta showed an expanding R-type with resistance to a variety of drugs as compared to the 01 strains isolated before the advent of the O139 serogroup. From this study, it is clear that there is a substantial mobility in genetic elements of V. cholerae Ol which necessitates a continuous monitoring to keep abreast of the changing traits of the etiologic agent of cholera.
The distribution and virulence of Vibrio cholerae serogroups other than O1 and O139 in India before, during and after the advent of O139 serogroup was investigated. A total of 68 strains belonging to 31 different ‘O’ serogroups were identified during the study period. With the exception of O53, there was no spatial or temporal clustering of any particular non-O1 non-O139 serogroup at any given place. Two of the 68 strains examined produced cholera toxin (CT) which could only be partially absorbed with anti-CT immunoglobulin G. Tissue culture assay revealed that some of the non-O1 non-O139 strains produced factors which evoked either a cell rounding or cell elongation response depending upon the medium used. This study indicates that serogroups other than O1 and O139 should also be continuously monitored.
Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a major cause of severe community-acquired pneumonia but the source and mode of transmission are not always apparent, especially in sporadic cases. We hypothesized that LD can be acquired from the air-conditioning systems of motor cars. Swabs were taken from the evaporator compartments of the air-conditioning system of scrapped cars. Healthy subjects who were mainly employees of regional transportation companies were tested for antibody to Legionella pneumophila serogroups 1–6; they also completed a questionnaire. Legionella species were detected in 11/22 scrapped cars by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method. The prevalence of microplate agglutination titres ⩾1:32 was significantly higher in subjects who sometimes used car air-conditioning systems. Although we did not prove a direct link between Legionella spp. in the car evaporator and LD, our findings point to a potential risk of car air-conditioning systems in LD, which needs further investigation.