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Synthetic biology has a huge potential to produce the next generation of advanced materials by accessing previously unreachable (bio)chemical space. In this prospective review, we take a snapshot of current activity in this rapidly developing area, focusing on prominent examples for high-performance applications such as those required for protective materials and the aerospace sector. The continued growth of this emerging field will be facilitated by the convergence of expertise from a range of diverse disciplines, including molecular biology, polymer chemistry, materials science, and process engineering. This review highlights the most significant recent advances and addresses the cross-disciplinary challenges currently being faced.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] was recently identified in Brazil, but its resistance mechanism was unknown. This study elucidated the resistance mechanism in this species and developed a molecular marker for rapid detection of this target-site resistance trait. The resistance factor for the resistant biotype was 4.4-fold compared with the glyphosate-susceptible (GS) in greenhouse dose–response experiments. This was accompanied by a similar (4-fold) difference in the levels of in vitro and in planta shikimate accumulation in these biotypes. However, there was no difference in uptake, translocation, or metabolism of glyphosate between the GS and GR biotypes. Moreover, both biotypes showed similar values for 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) copy number and transcription. Sequencing of a 330-bp fragment of the EPSPS gene identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism that led to a Pro-106-Ser amino acid substitution in the enzyme from the GR biotype. This mutation imparted a 3.8-fold increase in the amount of glyphosate required to inhibit 50% of EPSPS activity, confirming the role of this amino acid substitution in resistance to glyphosate. A quantitative PCR–based genotyping assay was developed for the rapid detection of resistant plants containing this Pro-106-Ser mutation.
There may exist stars during and just after the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage. V441 (89) is a candidate star. Fernie and Sasselov (1989) have discussed the evolutionary changes of the pulsation periods based on those of the effective temperature, to compare those with observational data. They used Worell's theorical results (Worell 1986) and have found that the observational changes of the period and the colors are too small compared with the theorical values. To examine the effect of opacities on the pulsations periods, we calculate the periods based on new opacities (OPAL, Iglesias and Rogers 1991), and compare them with the data reported previously.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
Due to the limited availability of selective herbicides to control Sumatran fleabane after soybean emergence, it is essential to develop new options that provide effective control prior to planting. A new herbicide formulation containing diclosulam+halauxifen-methyl was evaluated for effectiveness at two Sumatran fleabane plant heights (5 to 10 cm, and 10 to 50 cm) and for soybean selectivity when applied at 7 or 3 d before planting. Combined results from the two sites showed that diclosulam+halauxifen, applied either alone or in a tank mixture with glyphosate, and the tank mixture of diclosulam+2,4-D amine+glyphosate are effective at all rates tested to control Sumatran fleabane in preplant applications. Crop response was observed with applications 7 days before planting at only one of the sites. A rate-dependent crop response was observed for pre-plant applications performed 3 days before soybean planting. However, crop yield was not significantly affected for either timing across all rates. All rates tested of diclosulam+halauxifen in this study were considered safe to soybean.
The rapid spread of glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations generates concern in the agricultural production sector in Brazil. Nonetheless, there is not much information related to the frequency and dispersion of sourgrass throughout recent years. We investigated the frequency and dispersion of glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations in Brazilian agricultural regions as part of a larger-scale weed resistance monitoring study. A discriminatory rate of 960 g ae ha−1 of glyphosate was used on plants at the 2- to 3-tiller stage, originating from 2,593 populations of sourgrass sampled in 329 counties in 14 Brazilian states between 2012 and 2015. The dispersion of sourgrass populations originated in western Paraná State, next to the Paraguay border, where the first resistance case was reported. Its dispersion to the central region of Brazil, mainly in soybean-producing areas, is most likely a consequence of agricultural equipment movement and wind-mediated dispersal. Glyphosate-resistant sourgrass populations were found in every geographical region across all Brazilian states tested. These data highlight the importance of an appropriate weed resistance monitoring program to track the evolution and dispersion of resistance to mitigate these issues by focusing efforts regionally and raising awareness among stakeholders in each region.
A high time- and spatial-resolution radio interferometer for solar observations has been constructed at Nobeyama (Figure I.; Nakajima et al. 1994). The Nobeyama Radioheliograph consists of 84 antennas, 0.8m in diameter, arranged on a T-shape lines of 500m in the EW and 220m in the NS directions. The time resolution is 50 ms and the spatial resolution is 10”. The field of view is 40’ at the observing frequency 17GHz, which enables us to watch the whole sun. The radioheliograph has observed hundreds of flares during the few months since the beginning of regular observations in July ‘92, and such powerful performance has never before been demonstrated in the history of solar radio observations.
A systematically peculiar molecular composition has been found in a nearby starburst galaxy M 82. Molecules related to grain surface formation and to production reactions favorable at high-temperature are deficient in M 82 among nearby galaxies with rich gas. These molecules are SO, SiO, NH3, HNCO, CH3OH, and CH3CN. Possible reasons for this peculiarity are discussed.
Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) based on ultra-thin films have become the preferred technology for applications that require high efficiency single-photon detectors with high speed, high timing resolution, and low dark count rates at near-infrared wavelengths. Since demonstration of the first SNSPD using NbN thin films, an increasingly larger number of materials are being explored. We investigate amorphous thin film alloys of MoSi, MoGe, and WRe with the goal of optimizing SNSPDs for higher operating temperature, high efficiency and high speed. To explore material adequacy for SNSPDs, we have measured superconducting transition temperature (Tc) as a function of film thickness and sheet resistance, as well as critical current densities. In this paper we present our results comparing these materials to WSi, another amorphous material widely used for SNSPD devices.
Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
We present the initial results of a spectral line survey of L1157 B1 with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. So far, we have covered the frequencey range of 13.7 GHz (82.0–94.5 GHz and 96.3–97.5 GHz), and have detected 22 species including CH3CHO, HCOOH, HCOOCH3, HNCO, NH2CHO, CH3CN, and CCS. We have also detected the line of CH2DOH. These results demonstrate rich chemistry in this shocked region, which would mainly originate from evaporation of ice mantles by means of shocks.
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films deposited from SiH4 containing plasmas are used in solar cells and thin film transistors for flat panel displays. Understanding the fundamental microscopic surface processes that lead to Si deposition and H incorporation is important for controlling the film properties. An in situ method based on attenuated total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy was developed and used to determine the surface coverage of silicon mono-, di-, and tri-hydrides as a function of deposition temperature and ion bombardment flux. Key reactions that take place on the surface during deposition are hypothesized based on the evolution of the surface hydride composition as a function of temperature and ion flux. In conjunction with the experiments, the growth of a-Si:H on H-terminated Si(001)-(2×1) surfaces was simulated through molecular dynamics. The simulation results were compared with experimental measurements to validate the simulations and to provide supporting evidence for radical-surface interaction mechanisms hypothesized based on the infrared spectroscopy data. Experimental measurements of the surface silicon hydride coverage and atomistic simulations are used synergistically to elucidate elementary processes occurring on the surface during a-Si:H deposition.
Numerical simulation of point defect distributions in a growing Czochralski silicon crystal with an abrupt change in the crystal growth rate from 1.0 to 0.4 mm/min was performed. The result was fitted to the experimental data for the flow pattern defects obtained from a crystal grown under simulated conditions. From the simulation result, it was observed that the axial temperature distribution shifts slightly upwards as a result of the growth rate reduction. Based upon the argument that the flow pattern defects are of vacancy-type, it is proposed that the generation rate of the flow pattern defects during crystal growth can be described by the classical nucleation rate theory proposed by Becker [Proc.Phys.Soc., 52, 71(1940)]. In addition, it is suggested that the vacancy concentration in the flow pattern defects depends upon the reaction time between the silicon interstitials and the flow pattern defects and thus the crystal growth rate.
The degradation mechanism of the Schottky contact of Al/Ti/n-GaAs and Al/Pt/Ti/n-GaAs under the heat treatment of 300°C has been investigated. Barrier height of the Al/Ti/n-GaAs Schottky contact degrades drastically after the heat treatment, in which Ti-Al alloy and Ga out-diffusion have been observed. On the other hand, the barrier height of Al/Pt/Ti/n-GaAs contacts is stable under the heat treatment and, Al-Ti alloying as well as Ga out-diffusion in the metals could not be noticed. From these results, it is presumably concluded that the degradation of the Schottky contacts under the heat treatment is closely correlated with the Ga atom out-diffusion from GaAs surface into the metal films after Al-Ti alloy reach to the GaAs surface. The barrier height reduction after the heat treatment can be explained by the formation of the donor type level at the interface due to the Ga vacancy pile-up arose from the Ga out-diffusion. Pt layer was proved to be an effective barrier suppressing the intermetallic alloying and preventing out-diffusion of Ga.
The growth mode of Si on GaAs(100) substrates and that of GaAs on very thin (1/4 ∼ 3 ML) Si films grown pseudomorphically on GaAs was investigated by observing the behavior of the reflection-high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) specular spot intensity. From the presence of RHEED oscillations during the initial stage of the growth of Si on GaAs we infer a two-dimensional growth with nucleation on the terraces up to a thickness of 3 ML. During the posterior growth of GaAs on the pseudomorphic Si films, a tendency towards three dimensional growth was observed. This tendency increased with the Si interlayer thickness. The causes of the formation of these islands are discussed.
We have succeeded in preparing submicron-sized monodisperse spherical V2O5 particles by hydrolysis of vanadium isopropoxide (VO(OiPr)3) in acetone/pyridine (Py) mixture solution for the first time. These particles had almost perfect spherical shape and were non-agglomerated. Their size could be easily controlled from 200 to 800 nm by changing the concentration of pyridine while keeping narrow size distribution (standard deviation, ca. 7%). Elemental and Fourier Transform Infrared analyses revealed that these particles have a composition of V2O5.xPy.yH2O (x ≈ 0.8, y ≈ 0.9) independent of their size. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that these particles have layered structure similar to that of V2O5.nH2O xerogel with an interlayer spacing of ca. 1.05 nm independent of their size, possibly due to the intercalation of H2O and pyridine between the V2O5 sheets.
RTP will be replaced with some of the conventional thermal processing employed in ULSI fabrication lines in near future. We show at first the device characteristics demanded for next generation DRAM which is a typical example of ULSIs and some issues to satisfy the demands. Next we show some candidates for RTP in the ULSI processes and discuss difference between RTP and the conventional thermal processes. We think one of the largest difference is the quenching Si wafers after short time annealing and by the quenching the deep levels due to fast diffusing atoms and point defects in Si are introduced. Experimental results of N2 and Cu related deep levels are shown as the examples of the deep levels induced by the quenching in Si. Finally, we propose the gettering method for them in RTP.
The bulk crystal of silicon germanium was grown by vertical Bridgman method with germanium composition, x, varying from 0.6 to 1.0. The temperature dependent variation of the mobility is indicative of alloy scattering dominantly for the bulk wafer. Phosphorus was diffused in as-grown p-type bulk wafer at 850 °C to form pn-junction, and the diffusion coefficient of phosphorus was evaluated as a function of x. The diffusion behavior of phosphorus in silicon germanium is closely correlated with the germanium self-diffusion with changing x. For specimens with lower content x, P concentration profiles indicated “kink and tail” shape, while it was not observed for higher x. For current-voltage characteristics measurement, an ideality factor was obtained.
HCl was added to SiH4 containing plasmas to grow a-Si:H(Cl) films with dangling bonds terminated with Cl instead of H. Bulk and surface infrared spectra, film thickness and optical band gap were examined by in situ multiple total internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. SiH2Cl2 was also used as a conventional Cl source for reference a-Si:H(Cl) film deposition experiments. The introduction of HCl does not affect the deposition rate significantly, and the deposited a-Si:H(Cl) films contain over 1021cm-3 Cl atoms. HCl addition to the gas phase changes the surface compositions of the growing films drastically from higher silicon hydride to chlorinated lower hydride. The surface reaction control eliminates unfavorable hydride bonding structures such as SiH2 and/or SiH in voids in the deposited films. The a-Si:H(Cl) films deposited from mixtures of SiH4 and HCl do not show significant optical band gap widening in spite of containing over 1021cm-3 Cl atoms, a concentration that is comparable to that of hydrogen. In contrast, a conventional chlorine source of SiH2Cl2 increases the deposition rate significantly compared to HCl. The increase in the deposition rate results in monotonic decrease of the refractive index and the optical band gap widening.
Production technologies of a-Si/a-SiGe flexible film solar cells have been established. The film solar cells having a unique monolithic device structure using through-hole contacts are continuously fabricated on flexible plastic films. Production technologies, such as (1) low temperature and high speed textured electrode deposition method, (2) high speed amorphous silicon deposition method, (3) modified roll-to-roll deposition apparatus technology, (4) large-area high quality transparent electrode deposition method, and (5) very high speed laser patterning method were developed. Increasing deposition rate of textured metal electrode was developed for improving production capacity. We developed and proposed low-temperature textured electrode deposition technique named “selective reactive sputtering”. In the deposition method, Ag-based electrode is deposited using small amount of Al containing Ag alloy targets. Ar/O2 mixed gas is used for reactive sputtering. In the deposition conditions, Ag is not oxidized and maintains low resistivity, whereas Al is oxidized selectively and changes the surface morphology drastically. The oxide incorporation affects on the surface reaction and enhances surface roughness formation. We also developed an amorphous silicon deposition control method which can increase deposition rate without deteriorating film properties. We found peak-to-peak voltage at the cathode (Vpp) had information of the plasma and could be used for optimizing the deposition conditions. Vpp has a strong relationship with stabilized efficiency of solar cells. Very high laser patterning method was also developed. The laser patterning method using a galvano scanner improves the pattering speed remarkably. Our new factory in Kumamoto started commercial production in the last year. We can produce 12MW/Y of solar cells using the new production line that can apply 1m-wide and 2000m-long film substrates at this time. We are planning to install more production lines and have 40MW/Y production capacity in FY 2008.