The state of the art (SOA) Li-ion cells utilize carbon anodes. However, to improve specific energy, energy density, and safety of cells using carbon anodes, alternative anodes must be developed. Recently, Fuji Film Inc. has suggested the use of tin oxide based anodes in Li-ion cells. It is believed mat cells containing tin oxide based anodes have the potential to meet the need for NASA's future missions. As a result, we conducted an analysis to compare the performance of cells containing carbon anodes and cells containing tin oxide anodes. The comparison between these cells involved the following: 1) reaction mechanisms between Li and carbon and reaction mechanisms between Li and tin oxide, 2) half-cell and full-cell performance characteristics, 3) interactions between the anode materials and electrolyte types and compositions, and 4) the optimization of binder composition.