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This article theorizes the colonial problem of peoplehood that Indian anticolonial thinkers grappled with in their attempts to conceptualize self-rule, or swaraj. British colonial rule drew its legitimacy from a developmentalist conception of the colonized people as backward and disunited. The discourse of “underdeveloped” colonial peoplehood rendered the Indian people “unfit” for self-government, suspending their sovereignty to an indefinite future. The concept of swaraj would be born with the rejection of deferred colonial self-government. Yet the persistence of the developmentalist figuration of the people generated a crisis of sovereign authorization. The pre-Gandhian swaraj theorists would be faced with the not-yet claimable figure of the people at the very moment of disavowing the British claim to rule. Recovering this underappreciated pre-Gandhian history of the concept of swaraj and reinterpreting its Gandhian moment, this article offers a new reading of Gandhi's theory of moral self-rule. In so doing, it demonstrates how the history of swaraj helps trace the colonial career of popular sovereignty.
When do parties respond to their political rivals and when do they ignore them? This article presents a new computational framework to detect, analyze and predict partisan responsiveness by showing when parties on opposite poles of the political spectrum react to each other’s agendas and thereby contribute to polarization. Once spikes in responsiveness are detected and categorized using latent Dirichlet allocation, we utilize the terms that comprise the topics, together with a gradient descent solver, to assess the classifier’s predictive accuracy. Using 10,597 documents from the official websites of radical right and ethnic political parties in Slovakia (2004–2014), the analysis predicts which political issues will elicit partisan reactions, and which will be ignored, with an accuracy of 83% (F-measure) and outperforms both Random Forest and Naive Bayes classifiers. Subject matter experts validate the approach and interpret the results.
Purpose: We measured anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA)-MCA pial filling on single-phase computed tomography angiograms (sCTAs) in acute ischemic stroke and correlate with the CTA-based Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-based American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology (ASITN) score. Methods: Patients with acute stroke and M1 MCA±intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion on baseline CTA were included. Baseline sCTA was assessed for phase of image acquisition. An evaluator assessed collaterals using the Calgary Collateral (CC) Score (measures pial arterial filling in ACA-MCA and PCA-MCA regions separately), the CTA-based MGH score, and on DSA using the ASITN score. Infarct volumes were measured on 24- to 48-hour magnetic resonance imaging/ computed tomography. Results: Of 106 patients, baseline sCTA was acquired in early arterial phase in 9.9%, peak arterial in 50.7%, equilibrium in 32.4%, early venous in 5.6%, and late venous in 1.4%. Variance in ACA-MCA collaterals explained only 32% of variance in PCA-MCA collaterals on the CC score (Spearman’s correlation coefficient rho [rho]=0.56). Correlation between ACA-MCA collaterals and the MGH score was strong (rho=0.8); correlation between PCA-MCA collaterals and this score was modest (rho=0.54). Correlation between ACA-MCA collaterals and the ASITN score was modest (n=53, rho=0.43); and correlation between PCA-MCA collaterals and ASITN score was poor (rho=0.33). Of the CTA-based scores, the CC Score (Akaike [AIC] 1022) was better at predicting follow-up infarct volumes than was the MGH score (AIC 1029). Conclusion: Collateral assessments in acute ischemic stroke are best done using CTA with temporal resolution and by assessing regional variability. ACA-MCA and MCA-PCA collaterals should be evaluated separately.
Protein is the main limiting factor and the second most expensive feed component of poultry ration after energy. In many developing countries, poultry feed prices are consistently increasing because of the dependency on imported soybean meal. In order to decrease the dependency of the poultry feed sector on soybean meal it is necessary to find sustainable alternative protein sources. This review summarises recent findings on the nutritive value of maggot meal, earth worm meal, meal worms and silkworm meal and discusses their potential as an alternative protein source for poultry feed sector.
In the summer of 2009, an outbreak of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) was identified in visitors to a large petting farm in South East England. The peak attack rate was 6/1000 visitors, and highest in those aged <2 years (16/1000). We conducted a case-control study with associated microbiological investigations, on human, animal and environmental samples. We identified 93 cases; 65 primary, 13 secondary and 15 asymptomatic. Cases were more likely to have visited a specific barn, stayed for prolonged periods and be infrequent farm visitors. The causative organism was identified as VTEC O157 PT21/28 with the same VNTR profile as that isolated in faecal specimens from farm animals and the physical environment, mostly in the same barn. Contact with farm livestock, especially ruminants, should be urgently reviewed at the earliest suspicion of a farm-related VTEC O157 outbreak and appropriate risk management procedures implemented without delay.
Immobilization of oligonucleotide-functionalized magnetic nanobeads by hybridization in DNA-coils formed by rolling circle amplification has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The TEM results supported earlier made observations that small beads with low oligonucleotide surface coverage preferably immobilize in the interior of the DNA-coils and do not tend to link several DNA-coils together whereas large beads with high surface coverage to a larger extent connect several DNA-coils together to clusters of several DNA-coils with beads. AFM provided direct visualization of the DNA-coils as thread-like objects. DNA-coils with immobilized beads appeared as a collection of beads with thread-like features in their near vicinity.
The optimal management of moderate-to-severe hypothermia with hemodynamic instability remains unclear. Although cardiopulmonary bypass offers the most rapid rate of rewarming and has been suggested as the method of choice in the presence of circulatory arrest, there is no evidence to support the use of this highly invasive technique over other rewarming modalities in the absence of circulatory collapse. We report the successful treatment of hemodynamically unstable hypothermia with conventional hemodialysis in a patient with normal renal function, after initial efforts of rewarming using conventional strategies had failed. This case report and review of the literature highlights the advantages and the challenges of using hemodialysis in this setting, and suggests a potential role for hemodialysis in the routine management of moderate-to-severe hypothermia in the absence of circulatory arrest.
In this paper, B diffusion in Si with BF2-implanted CoSi2 as a diffusion source has been studied using SIMS analysis. The concentration-dependent diffusivity of B in single crystal Si is obtained by Boltzmann-Matano analysis. The data show that the B diffusivity in single crystal Si is more than one order of magnitude higher than the published data where a conventional B diffusion source (BN or B2H2) is used. Anomalous concentration dependence of the B diffusivity in Si for ultra-shallow B SIMS profiles was also observed. Possible physical mechanisms which involve implant damage in the Si substrate, the generation of point defects such as Si vacancies and interstitials during silicide formation, and B-defect interactions are discussed.
Narrow-gap PbSe and PbSe1−xTex films were grown by MBE on 3n-Si(111) wafers. The layers are used for IR-sensor array applications. Epitaxy was achieved by using an intermediate CaF2/BaF2 bilayer to overcome the large difference in lattice constants (14%) and thermal expansion coefficients (700%). While PbSe is rather soft, the hardness increases with x (x<0.5) in PbSe1−xTex. Thermal stresses are relieved by dislocation glide on (100)-planes, leading to slip lines on the surface. The surface morphology and step heights were studied with the scanning tunneling microscopy technique, and a model for the resulting (111)-surface structure is presented. The value of the remaining strain was determined with precision Rutherford backscattering spectrometry absolute angle measurements, X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence in the temperature range down to 10 K. It is found that no appreciable strain builds up even at cryogenic temperatures and after many temperature cycles. In contrast to PbSe, ternary PbSe1−xTex layers are strained elastically below room temperature owing to solid solution strengthening, and plastic deformation occurs only at higher temperatures.
The relative failure of symptomatic therapeutic trials for Alzheimer's disease using non-selective cholinergic agonists brings about the need for longitudinal studies with parallel designs aimed at disease stabilization, using trophic substances or amyloid suppressors.
Hydatid fluid collected from the lungs and livers of sheep and humans was analysed for protein and lipid composition. There were no marked differences in the composition of these parameters and the major lipids were triglycerides and diglycerides. The phospholipids, which formed the minor fraction, were mainly phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl inositol. Cholesterol present was in the free form.
Inorganic elements as micronutricnts play a vital role in metabolism and in immune mechanisms (Ballerker & Prasad, 1983) and a significant role in the physiology of parasites. Their importance is shown by the harmful effects of mineral deficiencies in the host diet, particularly on gastro-intcstinal parasites (Von Brand, 1966). The presence of aluminium, cadmium, iron, manganese, nickel, sodium and tin has been shown in the corpuscles of Echinococcus granulosus which causes hydatid disease in man (Agosin, 1968). In this preliminary report, the quantities of trace elements in hydatid fluid from sheep and man are reported to show their possible importance as nutrients or as cofactors in the metabolism of the parasite.
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