Pattanam is an important mutton-breed sheep of Tamil Nadu, India and is popular among the farmers for its heavy body weight. Despite its economic importance and distinct identity, this breed is not included in the list of descript sheep breeds at the national level, as it is not researched so far. Hence, a study has been made to document the habitat, distribution, physical traits, production and reproduction performances and the existing management practices of Pattanam sheep of Tamil Nadu, India. The preliminary study revealed that Pattanam sheep is a large-sized breed with compact body and uniformly creamy white in colour with black colour in the ventral region from the inner side of the jowl extending up to the inguinal region. Pure breed animals were distributed in the Paramakudi, Mudukulathur and Kamuthi taluks of Ramanathapuram district and Aruppukottai and Thiruchuli taluks of Virudunagar district of southern agroclimatic zone of Tamil Nadu, India. The means of body length, height at withers and chest girth in adult rams were 80.65 ± 0.49, 85.58 ± 0.58 and 93.65 ± 0.35 cm and in adult ewes were 70.05 ± 0.45, 72.80 ± 0.65 and 78.34 ± 0.35 cm, respectively. The body weight in adult rams and ewes were 51.50 ± 1.20 and 36.95 ± 0.51 kg, respectively. Pattanam sheep are used extensively for breeding purposes with other native breeds especially from Coimbatore, Kilakarsal and Ramnad White sheep of Tamil Nadu.