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Introduced recently in mathematical finance by Bayer et al. (2016), the rough Bergomi model has proved particularly efficient to calibrate option markets. We investigate some of its probabilistic properties, in particular proving a pathwise large deviations principle for a small-noise version of the model. The exponential function (continuous but superlinear) as well as the drift appearing in the volatility process fall beyond the scope of existing results, and a dedicated analysis is needed.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and stress/trauma exposure are cross-sectionally associated with advanced DNA methylation age relative to chronological age. However, longitudinal inquiry and examination of associations between advanced DNA methylation age and a broader range of psychiatric disorders is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine if PTSD, depression, generalized anxiety, and alcohol-use disorders predicted acceleration of DNA methylation age over time (i.e. an increasing pace, or rate of advancement, of the epigenetic clock).
Genome-wide DNA methylation and a comprehensive set of psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were assessed in 179 Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans who completed two assessments over the course of approximately 2 years. Two DNA methylation age indices (Horvath and Hannum), each a weighted index of an array of genome-wide DNA methylation probes, were quantified. The pace of the epigenetic clock was operationalized as change in DNA methylation age as a function of time between assessments.
Analyses revealed that alcohol-use disorders (p = 0.001) and PTSD avoidance and numbing symptoms (p = 0.02) at Time 1 were associated with an increasing pace of the epigenetic clock over time, per the Horvath (but not the Hannum) index of cellular aging.
This is the first study to suggest that posttraumatic psychopathology is longitudinally associated with a quickened pace of the epigenetic clock. Results raise the possibility that accelerated cellular aging is a common biological consequence of stress-related psychopathology, which carries implications for identifying mechanisms of stress-related cellular aging and developing interventions to slow its pace.
Optical SETI at Lick Observatory is characterized by its robust approach to initial detections. Our three-detector system has distinguished itself by successful rejection of nearly all false positive signals. We present observational progress, discuss use of data analysis procedures such as FFTs and analysis of double coincidences, and mention plans to upgrade our instrumentation.
The seven inch transit circle near Blenheim, New Zealand is intended in conjunction with the six inch circle at Washington, to produce a fundamental catalogue and to re-observe the Southern Reference Stars.
VALKYRIE (Very-deep Autonomous Laser-powered Kilowatt-class Yo-yoing Robotic Ice Explorer) is a NASA-funded project to develop key technologies for an autonomous ice penetrator, or cryobot, capable of delivering science payloads through outer planet ice caps and terrestrial glaciers. This 4 year effort will produce a cylindrical cryobot prototype 280 cm in length and 25 cm in diameter. One novel element of VALKYRIE’s design is the use of a high-energy laser as the primary power source. 1070 nm laser light is transmitted at 5 kW from a surface-based laser and injected into a custom-designed optical waveguide that is spooled out from the descending cryobot. Light exits the downstream end of the fiber, travels through diverging optics, and strikes an anodized aluminum beam dump, which channels thermal power to hot-water jets that melt the descent hole. Some beam energy is converted to electricity via photovoltaic cells, for running on-board electronics and jet pumps. Since the vehicle can be sterilized prior to deployment, and forward contamination is minimized as the melt path refreezes behind the cryobot, expansions on VALKYRIE concepts may enable cleaner access to deep subglacial lakes. This paper focuses on laser delivery and beam dump thermal design.
Background: ETV/CPC has become an increasingly common technique for the treatment of infant hydrocephalus. Both flexible and rigid neuroendoscopy can be used, with little empirical evidence directly comparing the two. We, therefore, used a propensity-matched cohort and survival analysis to assess the comparative efficacy of flexible and rigid neuroendoscopy. Methods: Individual data were collected through retrospective review of infants < 2 years of age, treated at one of 2 hospitals: 1) Boston Children’s Hospital, exclusively utilizing flexible neuroendoscopy, and 2) Nicklaus Children’s Hospital, exclusively utilizing rigid neuroendoscopy. Patient characteristics and post-operative outcome were assessed. A propensity score (PS) model was developed to balance patient characteristics in the case mix. Results: A PS model was developed with 5 independent variables: chronological age, sex, hydrocephalus etiology, prior CSF diversion, and prepontine scarring. PS analysis revealed that compared to flexible neuroendoscopy, rigid neuroendoscopy had an ETV/CPC failure OR of 1.43 and 1.31 respectively, compared to unadjusted OR of 2.40. Furthermore, in a Cox regression analysis controlled by propensity score, rigid neuroendoscopy had a HR of 1.10, compared to unadjusted HR of 1.61. Conclusions: Much of the difference in ETV/CPC outcome between endoscopy types is attributed to the case mix. An observational study or randomized controlled trial is required to provide evidence-based guidelines.
From U, B, V photometry of 104 stars in a field of radius ~ 30′ centered on the X-ray binary star Cyg X-1 (HDE 226868), we have studied the color excess E(B–V) as a function of distance. Spectral types were observed de novo for 42 of these stars. We conclude that HDE 226868 cannot be nearer than 1 kpc, and is probably at a distance of 2.5 kpc or more. The primary component is therefore a luminous OB star of mass ~30 M⊙, and the X-ray component has a minimum mass ~6 M⊙.
The surface radiation budget of the polar regions strongly influences ice
growth and melt. Thermodynamic sea-ice models therefore require accurate yet
computationally efficient methods of computing radiative fluxes. In this
paper a new parameterization of the downwelling shortwave radiation flux at
the Arctic surface is developed and compared to a variety of existing
schemes. Parameterized llnxes are compared to in situ measurements using
data for one year at Barrow, Alaska. Our results show that the new
parameterization can estimate the downwelling shortwave flux with mean and
root mean square errors of 1 and 5%, respectively, for clear conditions and
5 and 20% for cloudy conditions. The new parameterization offers a unified
approach to estimating downwelling shortwave fluxes under clear and cloudy
conditions, and is more accurate than existing schemes.
Dunes adjacent to the Snow Water Lake playa in Elko County of northeastern Nevada rise up to ~10 m above the playa surface in seven distinct clusters. The dunes are composed of tan silty loam containing calcite, quartz, plagioclase, and dioctahedral clay. Abundances of trace elements, along with relative proportions of quartz and calcite, are distinct between dunes along the north and south sides of the playa, reflecting proximity to streams draining different lithologies in the neighboring mountains. Luminescence (optically stimulated luminescence and infrared-stimulated luminescence) dating of dune crest samples demonstrates that the last episode of dune accumulation occurred in the mid-eighteenth century. Moisture-sensitive tree ring records from a nearby site indicate that dune accumulation coincided with an interval of below-average precipitation immediately following a very wet decade. This sequence is consistent with models requiring wetter climatic conditions to move coarse sediment onto a playa surface, followed by dune building under drier conditions. Younger luminescence ages from a sand-dominated unit exposed in an arroyo cut through the dunes may reflect a wetter, more erosive climatic regime ca. AD 1800. The Snow Water Lake dunes are currently eroding, signaling a reduction in the amount of sediment reaching the playa.
Background: The degree of overlap between schizophrenia (SCZ) and affective psychosis (AFF) has been a recurring question since Kraepelin’s subdivision of the major psychoses. Studying nonpsychotic relatives allows a comparison of disorder-associated phenotypes, without potential confounds that can obscure distinctive features of the disorder. Because attention and working memory have been proposed as potential endophenotypes for SCZ and AFF, we compared these cognitive features in individuals at familial high-risk (FHR) for the disorders. Methods: Young, unmedicated, first-degree relatives (ages, 13–25 years) at FHR-SCZ (n=41) and FHR-AFF (n=24) and community controls (CCs, n=54) were tested using attention and working memory versions of the Auditory Continuous Performance Test. To determine if schizotypal traits or current psychopathology accounted for cognitive deficits, we evaluated psychosis proneness using three Chapman Scales, Revised Physical Anhedonia, Perceptual Aberration, and Magical Ideation, and assessed psychopathology using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist -90 Revised. Results: Compared to controls, the FHR-AFF sample was significantly impaired in auditory vigilance, while the FHR-SCZ sample was significantly worse in working memory. Both FHR groups showed significantly higher levels of physical anhedonia and some psychopathological dimensions than controls. Adjusting for physical anhedonia, phobic anxiety, depression, psychoticism, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms eliminated the FHR-AFF vigilance effects but not the working memory deficits in FHR-SCZ. Conclusions: The working memory deficit in FHR-SZ was the more robust of the cognitive impairments after accounting for psychopathological confounds and is supported as an endophenotype. Examination of larger samples of people at familial risk for different psychoses remains necessary to confirm these findings and to clarify the role of vigilance in FHR-AFF. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1026–1037)
The Caltech imaging γ-ray telescope was launched by balloon from Alice Springs, NT, Australia and performed observations of the galactic center during the period 12.62 to 13.00 April 1988 UT. The first coded-aperture images of the galactic center region at energies above 30 keV show a single strong γ-ray source which is located 0.7±0.1° from the galactic nucleus and is tentatively identified as 1E1740.7-2942. If the source is at the distance of the galactic center, it is one of the most luminous objects in the galaxy at energies from 35 to 200 keV.
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been reported to rapidly reduce psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. This has the potential to revolutionize treatment for schizophrenia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that SNP leads to a reduction in psychotic symptoms and an improvement in spatial working memory (SWM) performance in patients with schizophrenia.
This was a single-centre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial performed from 27 August 2014 to 10 February 2016 (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02176044). Twenty patients with schizophrenia aged 18–60 years with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were recruited from psychiatric outpatient clinics in the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust, London, UK. Baseline symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-18), and SWM was assessed using the CANTAB computerized test. Participants received either an infusion of SNP (0.5 μg/kg per min for 4 h) or placebo and were re-assessed for symptoms and SWM performance immediately after the infusion, and 4 weeks later.
SNP did not lead to any reduction in psychotic symptoms or improvement in SWM performance compared to placebo.
Although this study was negative, it is possible that the beneficial effects of SNP may occur in patients with a shorter history of illness, or with more acute exacerbation of symptoms.
We present preliminary results of two monitoring projects on AGNs and BL Lacs with four intermediate-band optical filters at Lick Observatory, South African Astronomical Observatory, and Siding Spring Observatory. We applied differential photometry between the target and non-variable field stars to derive the variability amplitudes. All the AGNs varied in all wavebands, with amplitudes from 30% to 90%. The variations in shorter wavelength filters are always larger than in longer wavelength filters. We did not observe significant continuum slope changes. Continuum variations of BL Lacs up to 0.2 mag in 20 minutes were observed. Interestingly, we found a time lag of 6–8 minutes between two seemingly correlated variations observed in the intermediate U band with the 1-m telescope and in broad V band with the 24-in. telescope at SSO.
This study used a prospective longitudinal design to examine the early developmental pathways that underlie language growth in infants at high risk (n = 50) and low risk (n = 34) for autism spectrum disorder in the first 18 months of life. While motor imitation and responding to joint attention (RJA) have both been found to predict expressive language in children with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development, the longitudinal relation between these capacities has not yet been identified. As hypothesized, results revealed that 15-month RJA mediated the association between 12-month motor imitation and 18-month expressive vocabulary, even after controlling for earlier levels of RJA and vocabulary. These results provide new information about the developmental sequencing of skills relevant to language growth that may inform future intervention efforts for children at risk for language delay or other developmental challenges.
The disease- and mortality-related difference between biological age based on DNA methylation and chronological age (Δage) has been found to have approximately 40% heritability by assuming that the familial correlation is only explained by additive genetic factors. We calculated two different Δage measures for 132 middle-aged female twin pairs (66 monozygotic and 66 dizygotic twin pairs) and their 215 sisters using DNA methylation data measured by the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip arrays. For each Δage measure, and their combined measure, we estimated the familial correlation for MZ, DZ and sibling pairs using the multivariate normal model for pedigree analysis. We also pooled our estimates with those from a former study to estimate weighted average correlations. For both Δage measures, there was familial correlation that varied across different types of relatives. No evidence of a difference was found between the MZ and DZ pair correlations, or between the DZ and sibling pair correlations. The only difference was between the MZ and sibling pair correlations (p < .01), and there was marginal evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). For weighted average correlation, there was evidence that the MZ pair correlation was greater than the DZ pair correlation (p < .03), and marginally greater than twice the sibling pair correlation (p < .08). The varied familial correlation of Δage is not explained by additive genetic factors alone, implying the existence of shared non-genetic factors explaining variation in Δage for middle-aged women.