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We study the asymptotic behaviour of the powers of a composition operator on various Banach spaces of holomorphic functions on the disc, namely, standard weighted Bergman spaces (finite and infinite order), Bloch space, little Bloch space, Bloch-type space and Dirichlet space. Moreover, we give a complete characterization of those composition operators that are similar to an isometry on these various Banach spaces. We conclude by studying the asymptotic behaviour of semigroups of composition operators on these various Banach spaces.
There are few longitudinal studies about South Asians (SAs) and little information about recruitment and retention approaches for this ethnic group.
We followed 906 SAs enrolled in the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) cohort for 5 years. Surviving participants were invited for a second clinical exam from 2015 to 2018. A new wave of participants was recruited during 2017–2018. We assessed the yields from different methods of recruitment and retention.
A total of 759 (83%) completed the second clinical exam, and 258 new participants were enrolled. Providing a nearby community hospital location for the study exam, offering cab/shared ride reimbursement, and conducting home visits were the most effective methods for enhancing retention. New participant recruitment targeted women and individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and we found that participant referrals and active community engagement were most effective. Mailing invitational letters to those identified by electronic health records had very low yield.
Recruitment and retention strategies that address transportation barriers and increase community engagement will help increase the representation of SAs in health research.
We assessed the impact of an embedded electronic medical record decision-support matrix (Cerner software system) for the reduction of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile. A critical review of 3,124 patients highlighted excessive testing frequency in an academic medical center and demonstrated the impact of decision support following a testing fidelity algorithm.
Background: Reversible splenial lesion syndrome (RESLES) is a rare clinico-radiological entity associated with multiple etiologies including infection, metabolic, and epileptic disorders. We describe the case of a child with a reversible splenial lesion who presented with encephalopathy and prior history of episodic ataxia. Methods: A 3-year-old girl presented to the Stollery Children’s hospital with three days of respiratory symptoms followed by acute onset ataxia and encephalopathy. Blood, respiratory samples, and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were drawn to investigate for infectious, autoimmune, and metabolic causes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain was done and repeated. Results: A respiratory panel tested positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), enterovirus, and rhinovirus. CSF analysis revealed elevated white blood cell count (283). MRI brain demonstrated diffusion restriction involving the posterior body and splenium of the corpus callosum and bilateral middle cerebral peduncles, which resolved nine days later. The patient received high-dose steroids with gradual improvement in the encephalopathy and ataxia. Conclusions: This report contributes to the complexities in clinical understanding of RESLES, as it highlights a novel presentation with ataxia and encephalopathy. The patient’s diagnosis was complicated by previous ataxic episodes of unknown etiology, which allows further consideration of a metabolic or genetic ataxic syndrome and its relationship to encephalopathy.
Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) contribute to the perturbation of solar wind in the heliosphere. Thus, depending on the different phases of the solar cycle and the rate of CME occurrence, contribution of CMEs to solar wind parameters near the Earth changes. In the present study, we examine the long term occurrence rate of CMEs, their speeds, angular widths and masses. We attempt to find correlation between near sun parameters of the CMEs with near the Earth measurements. Importantly, we attempt to find what fraction of the averaged solar wind mass near the Earth is provided by the CMEs during different phases of the solar cycles.
We have studied three Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs) having clear signatures of magnetic cloud (MC) arrival at 1 AU and their associated solar sources during 2011 to 2013. Comparing the axial magnetic field strength (B0) of the near-Sun coronal flux-ropes with that of the MC at 1 AU, we have found that the average inferred value of B0 at 1 AU assuming the self-similar expansion of the flux-rope is two times smaller than the value of B0 obtained from the results of MC fitting. Furthermore, by comparing the initial orientation of the flux-rope near the Sun and its final orientation at 1 AU we have found that the three CMEs exhibited more than 80° rotation during its propagation through the interplanetary medium. Our study suggests that although the near-Sun magnetic properties of coronal flux-ropes can be used to infer the field strength of the associated MC at 1 AU, it is difficult to estimate the final orientation of the MC axis in order to predict the geo-effectiveness of the ICMEs.
Generally Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun into interplanetary space. CMEs are most frequently associated with a variety of phenomena occurring in the lower corona before, during and after onset of eruption and generally are visible in coronagraph observation. Stealth CMEs do not obviously exhibit any of the low-coronal signatures (LCS) like solar flares, flows, jets, coronal dimmings or brightenings, filament eruptions or the formation of flare loop arcades. In this study, five stealth CMEs are selected using LASCO/SOHO CME catalogue and associated ICMEs (Interplanetaty CMEs) are identified using data from STEREO, ACE and WIND.
We have used the Coronagraphic and Heliospheric Imaging data from Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) to observe a prominence which is erupted on June 7th 2011. This prominence is subjected to the morphological evolution of MRT instability from the lower solar corona upto the inter-planetary space. The unstable structures are converted into the bunch of localized plasma spikes due to the turbulent mixing, and propagate in the inter-planetary space upto 1 A.U.
Using HINODE/XRT, GOES, SDO/AIA observations, we study a compact C-1.4 class flare outside a major sunspot of AR 12178 on 4 October 2014. This flare is associated with a peculiar coronal jet, which is erupted in two stages in the overlying corona above the compact flaring region. At the time of flare maximum, the first stage of the jet eruption occurs above the flare energy release site, and thereafter in the second stage its magneto-plasma system interacts with the overlying distinct magnetic field domain in its vicinity to build further the typical jet plasma column.
It has been established that Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) may have significant impact on terrestrial magnetic field and lead to space weather events. In the present study, we selected several CMEs which are associated with filament eruptions on the Sun. We attempt to identify the presence of filament material within ICME at 1AU. We discuss how different ICMEs associated with filaments lead to moderate or major geomagnetic activity on their arrival at the Earth. Our study also highlights the difficulties in identifying the filament material at 1AU within isolated and in interacting CMEs.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
Avian tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by M. avium including four subspecies Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium; M. avium hominissuis; M. avium paratuberculosis; M. avium silvaticum. This disease is characterised by the formation of granulomatous lesions in viscera, a progressive weight loss and death. It can be transmitted to healthy birds in the flock, and occasionally to human beings. It is important to diagnose avian tuberculosis in order to prevent the spread of infection and epidemiology. This paper reviews the available techniques for the diagnosis of avian tuberculosis along with their pros and cons. The main problem in diagnosis is poor availability of samples due to infrequent shedding in faeces, pattern and colour of feathers, wattle and comb and lack of specific signs and symptoms. Any single technique is not effective in diagnosing the disease due to the lack of required sensitivity and specificity. Application of two or more techniques is not a feasible option in developing countries due to financial constraints. In the short term, more research is needed to develop multidisciplinary approaches which can help fully understand the aetiology and epidemiology of disease.
Mission simulation is a critical activity in the development and operation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It is important to ascertain the feasibility of a trajectory in a mission. In this work, an algorithm has been developed for feasibility study of a trajectory of a UAV using prescribed path optimal control through an inverse simulation method. This has been done under a Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE)/Inequalities (DAI) framework. The UAV model together with constraints is represented as a high index DAE system. The trajectory that UAV shall take is prescribed as one of the constraint equations. The solution for the DAE system is obtained using a variation of the alpha method that is capable of handling both equality and inequality constraints on system dynamics. The algorithm involves direct numerical integration of a DAI formulation in a time-stepping manner using a Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) solver that detects and satisfy active path constraints at each time step (mesh point). In this unique approach, the model and the constraints are always solved together. The method ensures stable solution at each time step, local minimum at each iteration of simulation and provides a regularised basis to the solver. A typical UAV trajectory has been simulated and demonstrated in this paper. This new approach can be used for path planning of UAVs before the actual control law is designed for flight control computer. Compared to other existing computationally intensive techniques, this approach is computationally simple, ensures continuous constraint satisfaction and provides a viable option for model predictive control of UAVs.
Overuse of acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides in rice has led
to the evolution of halosulfuron-resistant rice flatsedge in Arkansas and
Mississippi. Resistant accessions were cross-resistant to labeled field
rates of ALS-inhibiting herbicides from four different families, in
comparison to a susceptible (SUS) biotype. Resistance index of Arkansas and
Mississippi accessions based on an R/S ratio of the lethal dose required for
50% plant mortality (LD50) to bispyribac-sodium, halosulfuron,
imazamox, and penoxsulam was ≥ 21-fold. Control of Arkansas, Mississippi,
and SUS accessions with labeled field rates of 2,4-D, bentazon, and propanil
was ≥ 93%. An enzyme assay revealed that an R/S ratio for 50% inhibition
(I50) of ALS for halosulfuron was 2,600 and 200 in Arkansas
and Mississippi, respectively. Malathion studies did not reveal enhanced
herbicide metabolism in resistant plants. The ALS enzyme assay and
cross-resistance studies point toward altered a target site as the potential
mechanism of resistance. Trp574–Leu amino acid substitution
within the ALS gene was found in both Arkansas and
Mississippi rice flatsedge accessions using the Illumina HiSeq platform,
which corresponds to the mechanism of resistance found in many weed species.
Field-rate applications of 2,4-D, bentazon, and propanil can be used to
control these ALS-resistant rice flatsedge accessions.
We describe three approaches to identify novel product affordances: affordance of absence; insights from lead users, specifically do-it-yourselfers (DIYers); and natural-language searches. While these approaches were separately pursued, we show their connection to each other in this paper. We begin by describing the affordance of absence, inspired by insights on affordances arising from a lack of resources. For example, in the absence of specialized tools, more general tools are used to accomplish similar tasks. Such absence clarifies how other tools could be modified to add relevant features and identifies critical features of the absent tool. In addition, the temporary removal of physical features and objects enables user interaction in ways that may not emerge in their presence. Affordance of absence has the potential to more fully specify affordances for a given object and to help overcome functional fixedness. For the second approach, we describe insights from DIYers obtained from the “IKEA hackers” online community. We consider DIYers lead users for seeking out and exploiting product affordances, often transforming product functions dramatically. We also discuss their projects through the lens of affordance of absence. For the third approach, we outline our natural-language approach to affordance extraction, beginning with consumer product reviews provided for Canadian Tire, a major Canadian retailer. We describe efforts toward automatically identifying less common affordances, and the use of cue phrases to highlight insightful DIY transformations from the IKEA hackers community. Finally, we comment on the potential value of this work for product design in general.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the oldest and most nutritional oilseed crops, of which domestication history has been poorly understood. This study suggested that sesame has undergone domestication bottleneck during its use for a long time. In this investigation, the molecular analysis included 4.4 Mbp of the genomic DNA of sesame comprising stearoyl acyl desaturase (sad), fatty acid desaturase 2 (fad2) and omega 3 fatty acid desaturase (o3fad) genes in 99 accessions of four populations of sesame germplasm namely: wild species, landraces, improved cultivars and introgressed lines. Results indicated that the improved cultivars and landraces lost 46.6 and 36.7% of nucleotide diversity, respectively, which indicate that the genetic diversity of the crop had been eroded due to selection after domestication. However, there was no significant reduction in genetic diversity of improved cultivars compared with landraces, indicating that unique improved cultivars generated through crosses were of less frequency in this population. Moreover, introgressed lines retained only 17.77% (π) and 4.57% (θ) of landrace diversity. To evaluate the impact of selection across fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, individual nucleotide diversity at three major genes involved in the pathway was surveyed. The analysis between wild and improved cultivars supported positive selection in fad2 and o3fad loci. Though locus-to-locus sequence variation was observed, positive results with two most important loci supported selection after domestication. Reduced diversity in these critical quality governing genes in improved cultivars suggested that future sesame cultivation would benefit from the incorporation of alleles from sesame's wild relatives.
To describe modification to endoscopic medial maxillectomy for treating extensive Krouse stage II or III inverted papilloma of the nasal and maxillary sinus.
Ten patients with inverted papilloma arising from the nasoantral area underwent diagnostic nasal endoscopy, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scanning of the paranasal sinus and pre-operative biopsy of the nasal mass. They were all managed using endoscopic medial maxillectomy and followed up for seven months to three years without recurrence.
Most patients were aged 41–60 years at presentation, and most were male. Presenting symptoms were nasal obstruction, mass in the nasal cavity and epistaxis. In each case, computed tomography imaging showed a mass involving the nasal cavity and maxillary sinus, with bony remodelling. The endoscopic medial maxillectomy approach was modified by making an incision in the pyriform aperture and removing part of the anterolateral wall of the maxilla bone en bloc.
Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy providing full access to the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses is described in detail. This effective, reproducible technique is associated with reduced operative time and morbidity.
The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are a group of 572 large and small islands & islets in the southeastern part of the Bay of Bengal. This preliminary study reports on husbandry practices and phenotypic characterization of indigenous Nicobari pig, in its home tract (Nicobar group of islands). A total of 377 families were surveyed in randomly selected villages on Car Nicobar, Nancowrie, Teressa, Katchal and Chowra islands. Results of the study revealed that Nicobari pigs were mostly semi feral in nature and reared under a free range system. Pigs were fed mainly with coconut and other locally available resources. The Nicobari pigs appeared short with long body. They showed high prolificacy with an average litter size of 8–10 numbers. These pigs were considered as a family asset among the Nicobari tribe. No commercial farms and slaughter was practiced by the tribes. It is concluded that the Nicobari pigs are considered as an indigenous pig breed/germplasm (Sus scrofa Nicobaricus) belonging to this island territory. Owing to its adaptation and performance under resource-driven island ecosystem, Nicobari pig warrants conservation and improvement. In addition, genetic characterization this pig using SNP would help to confirm their genetic distinctiveness and recognition as a new breed for conservation and sustainable utilization.