Three topics are discussed dealing with interplanetary phenomena. They are: (i) sudden commencement of magnetic storms; (ii) main phase of magnetic storms; (iii) cosmic ray effects associated with solar corpuscular emission.
To explain the sudden commencement(SC) of magnetic storms, the reverse sudden commencement (SC*), and the pre-SC disturbances, we invoke the following model: The solar eruption produces a shock-wave which arrives at the earth 22–34 hr later. High velocity particles having a smaller interaction precede the shock-wave and cause the pre-SC bay-like disturbances at high latitudes. The shock-wave itself is retarded by the body forces produced by the geomagnetic field, but speeds up as it enters the auroral zones. In pushing out lines of force it creates the polar SC* events. Charge separation in the shock-wave produces the driving force for the SC currents which flow in the atmosphere (in accordance with Vestine's analysis).
The storm decrease is produced by the high velocity particles following the shock-wave (up to 9 hr later) which enter because of field perturbations into the normally inaccessible Störmer regions around the dipole. Here they are trapped and will drift producing the ring-current which gives rise to the storm decrease. Particles with small pitch angle, however, can reach the earth's atmosphere and contribute to aurora, the air-glow, and ionospheric ionization. These particles are replenished by perturbations produced by solar influences having a 27-day recurrence. Many other particles are absorbed or scattered out of the trapping regions so that their number diminishes rapidly in a day or so, as does the magnetic storm decrease.
The model thus attempts to explain for the first time the cause of the reverse sudden commencement events (SC*), the atmospheric nature of SC, the delay between SC and the main phase, the formation and decay of the ring-current. A by-product is auroral particle acceleration by a shock-wave.
New experimental tests are suggested by the model: (i) Acoustic observations with balloons to look for the shock-wave penetrating into the atmosphere in the auroral zones. (ii) Observations with rockets or satellites to establish the location of the SC and main phase currents. (iii) Measurements of the nature and energy of the auroral particles.
It is suggested that the cosmic ray decrease occurring with magnetic storms (Forbush events), as well as the 27-day decreases of cosmic ray intensity, are modulation effects produced primarily by the deceleration of cosmic rays in interplanetary space due to the expansion of turbulent gas clouds from the sun. The detailed mechanism depends on a statistical decrease of the initially high turbulent fields and can therefore be called an ‘inverse Swann effect’ or ‘inverse Fermi effect’. The cosmic ray intensity variation during the solar cycle is accounted for as the cumulative effect of this mechanism which operates in connexion with emission of solar gas. In this way it is possible also to account for the decrease lasting six months observed by Forbush starting in February 1946. Some experimental tests are suggested to discriminate between different theories for the origin of cosmic ray time variations.