To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Irregular satellites have eccentric orbits that can be highly inclined or even retrograde relative to the equatorial planes of their planets. These objects cannot have formed by circumplanetary accretion as did the regular satellites which follow un-inclined, nearly circular, pro-grade orbits. Instead, they are likely products of early capture from heliocentric orbit. The study of the irregular satellites provides a unique window on processes operating in the young solar system. Recent discoveries around Jupiter (45 new satellites), Saturn (13), Uranus (9), and Neptune (5) have almost increased the number of known irregular satellites by a factor of ten and suggest that the gas and ice giant planets all have fairly similar irregular satellite systems. Dynamical groupings were most likely produced by collisional shattering of precursor objects after capture by their planets. Jupiter is considered as a case of special interest. Its proximity allows us to probe the fainter, smaller irregular satellites to obtain large population statistics in order to address the questions of planet formation and capture.
There is an opportunity for scaling up, optimizing, and controlling the process of production of nanoparticles due to their numerous diverse applications. We present a system for continuous, high rate production of nanoparticles, particularly those of carbon, using large volume thermal plasma based on a three-phase diverging electrode configuration. The goal of using this 3-phase plasma reactor is to have a plasma arc that is scalable, self-stabilizing, and low maintenance, with sufficient plasma volume to maximize residence time of feed materials for evaporation to atomic species. Plasma carrier gas, typically inert gas such as helium, is injected into the reactor allowing the vaporization of any feedstock due to plasma temperatures >5000 °C. Controlling plasma enthalpy, diffusion/temperature gradients and carbon feed rates allow the controlled growth of clusters leading to nanoparticles less than 100 nm. Once the desired size is achieved the gas stream is expanded to reduce the reaction rate and quenched by natural cooling to chamber walls or injection of a cooling gas stream, preferably of the same composition as plasma carrier gas. Recoverable yields in the nanoparticle-laden gas stream are then isolated by standard means (filtration, cyclone separation, electrostatic precipitation), and the plasma gas and unreacted feedstock are routed to the plasma reactor for recycling. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is employed to measure and predict fluid flow, energy/temperature, and other species distributions in the plasma process.
The present study examines the interaction between a polygenic score and an elementary school-based universal preventive intervention trial. The polygenic score reflects the contribution of multiple genes and has been shown in prior research to be predictive of smoking cessation and tobacco use (Uhl et al., 2014). Using data from a longitudinal preventive intervention study, we examined age of first tobacco use from sixth grade to age 18. Genetic data were collected during emerging adulthood and were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 microarray. The polygenic score was computed using these data. Discrete-time survival analysis was employed to test for intervention main and interaction effects with the polygenic score. We found a main effect of the intervention, with the intervention participants reporting their first cigarette smoked at an age significantly later than controls. We also found an Intervention × Polygenic Score interaction, with participants at the higher end of the polygenic score benefitting the most from the intervention in terms of delayed age of first use. These results are consistent with Belsky and colleagues' (e.g., Belsky, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & van IJzendoorn, 2007; Belsky & Pleuss, 2009, 2013; Ellis, Boyce, Belsky, Bakermans-Kranenburg, & van IJzendoorn, 2011) differential susceptibility hypothesis and the concept of “for better or worse,” wherein the expression of genetic variants are optimally realized in the context of an enriched environment, such as provided by a preventive intervention.
Growth and propagation of fish-infecting microsporidians within cell culture has been more difficult to achieve than for insect- and human-infecting microsporidians. Fish microsporidia tend to elicit xenoma development rather than diffuse growth in vivo, and this process likely increases host specificity. We present evidence that the fish microsporidian, Loma salmonae, has the capacity to develop xenomas within a rainbow trout gill epithelial cell line (RTG-1). Spore numbers increased over a 4 weeks period within cell culture flasks. Xenoma-like structures were observed using phase contrast microscopy, and then confirmed using transmission electron microscopy. Optimization of the L. salmonae-RTG-1 cell model has important implications in elucidating the process of xenoma development induced by microsporidian parasites.
A heritage of considerable research into such phenomena as parental imprinting and carcinogenesis is an almost axiomatic association of the DNA methylation epigenetic mark with the silencing of gene expression. However, the increasing technical resolution afforded by burgeoning -omics technologies reveals that a more elaborate interaction may exist between DNA methylation, within sub-regions of gene structure and/or specific dinucleotide sites, and levels of gene activity. Furthermore, seminal observations from the field of DOHaD, which clearly define the alignment of sequential epigenetic modifications and gene activity appear not to support a strictly causal relationship between DNA methylation and gene silencing. The temporal element implicit within DOHaD studies provides a useful framework within which to further explore the role of epigenetic mechanisms and in particular perhaps, to address the question of ‘deterministic intent’ when implicating the epigenetic regulation of gene activity in the manifestation of phenotype.
In August 2012, an explosive outbreak of severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-8 occurred in a highly vaccinated elderly institutionalized population in England. Fifteen of 23 residents developed LRTI over 4 days (attack rate 65%); 11 had confirmed S. pneumoniae serotype-8 disease, and two died. Following amoxicillin chemoprophylaxis and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) re-vaccination no further cases occurred in the following 2 months. No association was found between being an outbreak-associated case and age (P = 0·36), underlying comorbidities [relative risk (RR) 0·84 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·34–2·09], or prior receipt of PPV (RR 1·4, 95% CI 0·60–3·33). However, the median number of years since PPV was significantly higher for cases (n = 15, 10·2 years, range 7·3–17·9 years) than non-cases (n = 8, 7·2 years, range 6·8–12·8 years) (P = 0·045), provided evidence of waning immunity. Alternative vaccination strategies should be considered to prevent future S. pneumoniae outbreaks in institutionalized elderly populations.
Climate change, comprising an increase in carbon dioxide levels coupled with elevated temperature, may favor invasive plants, as they possess traits that will facilitate adaptation to a new climate. In particular, alien plants of subtropical origin introduced to a colder region are expected to increase the number and size of their populations and spread farther with climate change. Seedlings of three such woody alien species in New Zealand (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Psidium guajava, and Schefflera actinophylla) were grown in environmental chambers under the combination of two temperature (23.7 and 26 C [74.7 and 78.8 F]) and two CO2 (450 and 900 ppmv) regimes, simulating current conditions and conditions projected for the end of the century. Total biomass of S. actinophylla was 45% higher and total leaf area 35% larger under doubled CO2 compared to current CO2. Root : shoot ratio was higher under doubled CO2 across all species, and the number of branches was increased for P. guajava. The only significant interactive effect of elevated temperature and doubled CO2 was for relative growth rate of the height of S. actinophylla seedlings. This study provides strong evidence of more vigorous growth of S. actinophylla under future conditions, particularly increased CO2, whereas the other two species appear likely to maintain current growth rates. Better knowledge of the types of future conditions that may benefit such species, together with results of species distribution models and competition and eco-physiology studies will ensure robust weed risk assessments.
Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden.
This trial aimed to compare the guillotine technique of tonsillectomy with ‘cold steel’ dissection, the current ‘gold standard’.
A single centre, randomised, controlled trial.
One hundred children aged 3 to 11 years who were listed for bilateral tonsillectomy were recruited. Patients had one tonsil removed by each technique, and were blinded to the side. The operative time, intra-operative blood loss, haemostasis requirement and post-operative pain scores were recorded and compared.
Operative time and intra-operative blood loss were both significantly less for the guillotine technique (p < 0.001) and there was a significantly reduced haemostasis requirement (p < 0.001). Pain was also less on the guillotine side (p < 0.001). There were no tonsillar remnants or palatal trauma for either technique. There was no significant difference between techniques in the frequency of secondary haemorrhage.
This study provides level Ib evidence that guillotine tonsillectomy in children with mobile tonsils is an effective and time-efficient procedure which produces less intra-operative blood loss and post-operative pain than cold steel dissection.
The as-produced high hardness of rapidly solidified aluminium powder alloys make TEM specimen preparation difficult. Conventional methods, i.e. electrothinning or ion-beam thinning of electroplated foils or compacts, although adequate for some powders, are not suitable for many other new and novel alloy powders. In this paper we discuss ultramicrotomy of such powders and the prospects and limitations of the method.
SiC MESFET's have shown an RF power density of 4.6 W/mm at 3.5 GHz and a power added efficiency of 60% with 3 W/mm at 800 MHz, demonstrating that SiC devices are capable of very high power densities and high efficiencies. Single devices with 48 mm of gate periphery were mounted in a hybrid circuit and achieved a maximum RF power of 80 watts CW at 3.1 GHz with 38% PAE.
Single crystal thin films with compositions from the A1N-InN-GaN system were grown via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on single crystal 6H-SiC substrates. Blue light emitting (LED) and laser diode (LD) structures were fabricated. The conducting buffer layer LEDs employed an AlGaN buffer layer which provides a conduction path between SiC and the active device region. The external quantum efficiency of the LEDs was 3% at 20 mA- 3.6V and peak emission wavelength of 430 nm. Violet and blue LDs were fabricated and consisted of an 8-well InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well (MQW) active region in a separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) design. Lasing was obtained both on structures using an insulating buffer layer, and also on structures using a conducting buffer layer. The resulting lasers operated at room temperature using pulsed and continuous wave operation with an emission wavelength of 404-435 rim. The lowest threshold current density obtained for lasing was 11 kA/cm2.
This paper reports the events at NCSU leading up to and including those of June 5, 1997 which produced the first demonstration of a nitride laser diode on silicon carbide – and the very first nitride laser demonstration outside of Japan. All of the laser diode samples tested at NCSU were designed, grown, and fabricated into cleaved cavity test structures at Cree Research. Laser testing at NCSU consisted of spectral emission versus current measurements, light output power versus current (L-I) measurement, and light output polarization measurements versus current. The first successful laser on silicon carbide emitted at 402.6 nm. Subsequently, lasers displaying outputs ranging from 402.6 to 430.2 have been successfully tested at NCSU.
A process for forming thin (1-3 μm) stacks of Si/SiO2 or SiO2/Si/SiO2 layers into spherical shells 0.5-3.0 mm in diameter is demonstrated as the baseline for realizing sub-mm3 micro-robots. The fabrication process combines bulk and thin-film micromachining, design of novel masks, and multistage wet and dry etching to release the layers from the substrate. The released layers curl up, self assembling into a spherical shell. The radius of curvature of the released stack is a function of the type, thickness, and residual stresses in the layers. The diameter of the resulting shells is calculated using a mechanical model of the multi-layer stacks. This calculation is compared with measurements of fabricated spheres. The fabrication process is compatible with CMOS circuitry, and future work will focus on realizing spheres with embedded solar cell as a power source and a capacitor for energy storage, which will result in a functional micro-robot.
In this work, we report the post-growth investigation of the microstructure and stress in the AlN films grown on patterned amorphous dielectrics through micro-Raman spectroscopy. The surface texture of AlN/SiO2 structures was characterized by randomly oriented crystallites typical of polycrystalline films. Post growth analysis of the AlN/SiO2 structures using micro Raman spectroscopy did not reveal phonon modes corresponding to wurtzite AlN. The presence of randomly oriented crystallites with a possibility of oxidized Al phase in the AlN film could have suppressed the appearance of wurtzite AlN phonon peaks in the Raman spectrum. Profiling the stress and the microstructure of AlN/SiO2 structures across the width of the bridges is thus limited by these factors. AlN structures on SiO2 when subjected to wet etching in buffered HF (10:1) showed a clear change in texture. Micro-raman spectroscopy on the etched areas revealed wurtzite AlN like phonon modes. The appearance of wurtzite AlN modes can be attributed to the removal of oxidized Al phase in the AlN film after wet etching.
As Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) continue to mature and increase in design complexity, the need to exploit rotation in MEMS devices has become more apparent. An in-plane piezoelectric rotational actuator is proposed that provides free deflections on the order of 1.5° with applied biases of less than 35V and nanoampere currents. Moments up to 6×10−8 N·m, corresponding to forces of 125 μN, were measured using MEMS cantilever springs. The actuator utilizes the low-power, high-force characteristics of lead zirconate titanate and a coupled, dual offset-beam design to provide efficient rotational displacement. The resulting power consumption is three orders of magnitude less than current electrothermal rotational designs.
Progress in the state of the art of nanofabrication now allows devices that may enable the experimental sensing of bubble nucleation in nanochannels, and the direct measurement of the bubble nucleation rate in nanoconfined water and other fluids. In this paper we report on two aspects in achieving this goal: 1) new molecular dynamics simulations of nanobubble formation in nanoconfined argon and water model systems and 2) an ultrasensitive nanofluidic device architecture potentially able to detect individual nanobubble nucleation events.
Among different MEMS wafer level bonding processes glass frit bonding provides reliable vacuum tight seals in volume production. The quality of the seal is a function of both seal glass materials and the processing parameters used in glass frit bonding. Therefore, in this study Taguchi L18 screening Design of Experiment (DOE) was used to study the effect of materials and process variables on the quality of the glass seal in 6” silicon wafers bonded in EVG520IS bonder. Six bonding process variables at three levels and two types of sealing glass pastes were considered. The seals were characterized by Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM), cross sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). The results were quantified into four responses for DOE analysis. Key results are a) peak temperature has the strongest influence on seal properties, b) hot melt paste has significantly lower defects compared to liquid paste, and c) peak firing temperatures can be as low as 400°C under certain conditions.
Nanofluidic devices are finding growing interest for a variety of applications. An initial report is presented here on a wide range of parameters influencing transport of ionic species as they translocate across solid-state nanopores. AC electrical bias at low ionic concentration with overlapping electric double layers provides an enhancement of ionic flux over pure DC bias. Furthermore, results also indicate that concentration and pH gradients can be maintained across solid-state nanopores for extended periods of time that can last for several hours in the absence of driving forces such as electric fields.