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Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is widely used for the treatment of stage-I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patient-specific motion correlated with 4DCT could be essential for hypofractionated SBRT. All patients undergoing SBRT do not require motion management during the dose delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate which patient may benefit from Gated SBRT.
Materials and methods
Treatment planning of 20 patients of stage-I NSCLC was analysed. Conventional and 4DCT scans were taken. Internal target volume as well as planning target volume (ITV and PTV) were determined in the CT data sets. PTVall phases created using 4DCT data sets and PTV15mm created using conventional CT data were compared. Also, ITVall phases were compared with ITV created from maximum intensity projections (ITVMIP). Suitability of patients for motion management-based treatment delivery was also evaluated.
The average ITVMIP to ITVall phases ratio is 1·06 indicating good agreement between them. Based on the ratio of intensity projections, 9 out of 17 patients were found suitable for our existing gated treatment.
4D CT is the main requirement in SBRT to identify the patients who can benefit from motion management during the dose delivery.
The existence of plasmons with orbital angular momentum due to the Laguerre–Gaussian-type density and potential perturbations is studied in an unmagnetized quantum plasma. Starting from appropriate hydrodynamic equations for the electrostatic electron dynamics, a dispersion equation is derived in paraxial approximation. The Laguerre–Gaussian beam solutions are obtained and the properties of electric field components, energy flux, and corresponding angular momentum density of plasmons are investigated. The electric field lines are found to form helical structures with a dominant axial component. The results are analyzed numerically and the influence of radial and angular mode numbers on potential and electric field components is illustrated.
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the recently described chondroperichondrial clip myringoplasty technique, and make comparisons with conventional myringoplasty techniques.
The study comprised a select group of patients with chronic otitis media (mucosal disease only), with central tympanic membrane perforations affecting less than 50 per cent of the pars tensa, and an air–bone gap below 35 dB. A modified custom-made cartilage perichondrial graft was placed using the recently described ‘clip’ technique.
The graft success rate was 91.3 per cent. Post-operatively, the air–bone gap was within 10 dB in 52 per cent of cases and within 10–20 dB in 48 per cent of cases. There were few minor complications.
Chondroperichondrial clip myringoplasty can be considered as an alternative minimally invasive technique for the repair of select cases of tympanic membrane perforations. This technique, which showed impressive results, was associated with minimum morbidity and reduced operative time.
Psychotic disorders are highly heritable such that the unaffected relatives of patients may manifest characteristics, or endophenotypes, that are more closely related to risk genes than the overt clinical condition. Facial affect processing is dependent on a distributed cortico-limbic network that is disrupted in psychosis. This study assessed facial affect processing and related brain structure as a candidate endophenotype of first-episode psychosis (FEP).
Three samples comprising 30 FEP patients, 30 of their first-degree relatives and 31 unrelated healthy controls underwent assessment of facial affect processing and structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data. Multivariate analysis (partial least squares, PLS) was used to identify a grey matter (GM) system in which anatomical variation was associated with variation in facial affect processing speed.
The groups did not differ in their accuracy of facial affect intensity rating but differed significantly in speed of response, with controls responding faster than relatives, who responded faster than patients. Within the control group, variation in speed of affect processing was significantly associated with variation of GM density in amygdala, lateral temporal cortex, frontal cortex and cerebellum. However, this association between cortico-limbic GM density and speed of facial affect processing was absent in patients and their relatives.
Speed of facial affect processing presents as a candidate endophenotype of FEP. The normal association between speed of facial affect processing and cortico-limbic GM variation was disrupted in FEP patients and their relatives.
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