The formation of bubbles during high dose implantation of oxygen into silicon, and the subsequent transformation of the bubbles during annealing, were studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). There was a threshold for bubble formation at a minimum dose of 0.3 × 1018 oxygen/cm2 and a lower temperature of 550°C. As dose increased the bubbles grew larger and the bubble trails lengthened. However, increasing beam current by a factor of 10 or increasing temperature to 700°C did not affect bubble formation. Bubble evolution during intermediate temperature annealing was also studied using TEM techniques. For 2 hour anneals between 1000 and 1100°C the oxygen bubbles transform into SiO2 particles by first forming a “shell” of SiO2, which then facets, grows inward, and finally completely transforms the bubble into an oxide particle. At temperatures greater than 1100°C the oxide particles dissolve by outdiffusion of the oxygen to the wafer surface.