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Thought about abstract concepts is grounded in more concrete physical experiences. Applying this grounded cognition perspective to Boyer & Petersen's (B&P's) folk-economic beliefs, we highlight its implications for the activation, application, cultural acceptance, and context sensitivity of folk-economic beliefs.
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause serious diseases and complications in the HIV-positive population. Due to successful vaccination programmes measles, mumps and congenital rubella syndrome has become neglected in Germany. However, recent outbreaks of measles have occurred from import-associated cases. In this cross-sectional study the serostatus for MMR and VZV in 2013 HIV-positive adults from three different university outpatient clinics in Bonn (n = 544), Cologne (n = 995) and Munich (n = 474) was analysed. Sera were tested for MMR- and VZV-specific immunglobulin G antibodies using commercial immunoassays. Seronegativity was found in 3% for measles, 26% for mumps, 11% for rubella and 2% for VZV. Regarding MMR, 35% of patients lacked seropositivity against at least one infectious agent. In multivariable analysis younger age was strongly associated with seronegativity against all four viruses, measles, mumps, rubella (P < 0·001, P < 0·001 and P = 0·001, respectively) and VZV (P = 0·001). In conclusion, there is high need for MMR and VZV vaccination in people living with HIV in Germany born in 1970 or later. Thus, systematic MMR and VZV antibody screening and vaccination should be implemented in the HIV-positive population to prevent serious disease and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases.
Data are scarce regarding combined high Se and Mn supplementation in livestock diets, however, as Se and Mn are functionally related as cofactors of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), respectively, beneficial synergistic effects on oxidative stability of tissues may result. This experiment evaluated the effect of an oversupply of Se and Mn within European legal limits compared with recommendations on performance, oxidative stability of the organism and meat quality in a randomised complete block design. A total of 60 crossbred gilts were fed maize–barley–soya bean meal diets formulated in a 2×2 factorial approach with inorganic Se (0.2 v. 0.5 mg/kg Se dry matter (DM)) or inorganic Mn (20 v. 150 mg/kg Mn DM) from 31 to 116 kg BW. Se supplementation reduced feed intake, whereas high Mn diets impaired average daily gain (P<0.05). Qualitative carcass characteristics were impaired by Se and Mn predominantly in the semimembranosus muscle. Activity of GPx in liver was increased by high Se diets (P<0.05). Mn supplementation increased catalase (CAT) activity in liver, GPx in plasma and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) in muscle, whereas it decreased CAT activity in plasma (P<0.05). Cu/Zn-SOD in muscle showed higher activity in high-Se-low-Mn diets but lower activity when both high Se and Mn were combined (Se×Mn P<0.05). Mn supplementation increased Mn concentration in longissimus thoracis et lumborum, but simultaneously reduced Se concentration (P<0.05). Upon retail display, Mn increased lipid oxidation more pronouncedly (higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; P<0.05) than Se (P<0.10). Despite some positive effects (Mn increased TAC, Se increased GPx, Se and Mn increased tenderness), no synergistic effects of high Se and Mn diets or an overall beneficial impact on meat quality, especially during storage, could be observed. Including the negative effects on performance, feeding Se and Mn up to the maximum legal level cannot be recommended.
New observations of the Magellanic Stream were made in December 1976 with the 64-m radio telescope at the Parkes Observatory of CSIRO. The ridges of H I emission of the Stream were traced from near its tip at ℓ = 90°, b = -40° to the Magellanic Clouds. This was the first time that the total length of the Stream was observed with the one system (only possible from the southern hemisphere) and with high spatial (15’ of arc) and velocity (4 km s-1) resolution. The results of this survey are presented in Figures 1 and 2 and the main features are listed below.
Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants’ performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test–retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; p<.001). The criterion validity of the new task was supported, as it exhibited a strong positive correlation with the WAIS Symbol Search (r=.717; p<.001). Predicted convergent and discriminant validity patterns of the FMRI Symbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance. (JINS, 2015, 22, 1–8)
This study examined whether Ascaridia galli infection can be controlled by dietary non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in chickens. One-day-old chicks were fed either a basal diet (CON) or CON plus insoluble NSP (I-NSP), or CON plus soluble NSP (S-NSP) for 11 weeks. Three weeks later, birds from half of each feeding group were inoculated with 250 embryonated eggs of A. galli, and slaughtered 8 weeks post-infection to determine worm counts. Both NSP diets, particularly S-NSP, increased prevalence of infection (P<0·05) and worm burden (roughly +50%) of the birds (P<0·001). A. galli infection caused a less efficient (P=0·013) feed utilization for body weight gain (BWG) resulting in lower body weights (P<0·001) irrespective of type of diet consumed. NSP-fed birds, particularly those on I-NSP, consumed more (+8%) feed per unit BWG and showed retarded (P<0·001) BW development compared to CON-fed birds. Intracaecal pH was lowered by S-NSP (P<0·05). Both NSP diets increased the volatile fatty acids pool size in caeca (P<0·001) with S-NSP exerting a greater effect (+46%) than I-NSP (+24%). It is concluded that both NSPs supplemented diets alter gastrointestinal environment in favour of the nematode establishment, and thus have no potential for controlling A. galli infection in chickens.
Somatic cell count (SCC) is generally regarded as an indicator of udder health. A cut-off value of 100×103 cells/ml is currently used in Germany to differentiate between normal and abnormal secretion of quarters. In addition to SCC, differential cell counts (DCC) can be applied for a more detailed analysis of the udder health status. The aim of this study was to differentiate somatic cells in foremilk samples of udder quarters classified as normal secreting by SCC <100×103 cells/ml. Twenty cows were selected and 72 normal secreting udder quarters were compared with a control group of six diseased quarters (SCC >100×103 cells/ml). In two severely diseased quarters of the control group (SCC of 967×103 cells/ml and 1824×103 cells/ml) Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected. DCC patterns of milk samples (n=25) with very low SCC values of ⩽6·25×103 cells/ml revealed high lymphocyte proportions of up to 92%. Milk cell populations in samples (n=41) with SCC values of (>6·25 to ⩽25)×103 cells/ml were also dominated by lymphocytes (mean value 47%), whereas DCC patterns of milk from udder quarters (n=6) with SCC values (>25 to ⩽100)×103 cells/ml changed. While in samples (n=3) with SCC values of (27–33)×103 cells/ml macrophages were predominant (35–40%), three milk samples with (43–45)×103 cells/ml indicated already inflammatory reactions based on the predominance of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) (54–63%). In milk samples of diseased quarters PMN were categorically found as dominant cell population with proportions of ⩾65%. Macrophages were the second predominant cell population in almost all samples tested in relationship to lymphocytes and PMN. To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating cell populations in low SCC milk in detail. Udder quarters classified as normal secreting by SCC <100×103 cells/ml revealed already inflammatory processes based on DCC.
This study used statistical methods to investigate linkages in phenotypic resistance profiles in a population sample of 321 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from sporadic salmonellosis cases in Lower Saxony, Germany, collected during 2008–2010. A resistance index was applied to calculate the conditional probability of resistance to one antimicrobial agent given the resistance to one or more other antimicrobial agent(s). A susceptibility index was defined analogously. A contingency plot, which visualizes the association between resistances to two antimicrobial agents, facilitated the interpretation. Linkages between minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were analysed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and jittered scatter plots. Applying these methods provided a compact description of multi-resistance and linkages between resistance properties in large datasets. Moreover, this approach will improve monitoring of antimicrobial resistance dynamics of bacteria in human or animal populations by identifying linked resistance to antimicrobial agents (cross- or co-resistance) with a non-molecular method.
Mechanical energy harvesting from ambient vibrations is an attractive renewable source of energy for various applications. Prior research was solely based on lead-containing materials which are detrimental to the environment and health. Therefore, lead-free materials are becoming more attractive for harvesting applications. The present work is focused on the development of lead-free piezoelectric materials based on solid solution having composition (KNa)NbO3-xABO3, (where A = Li, and B = Nb; x = 0, 5, 5.5, 6, and 6.5 wt%). The solid solutions of the above ceramics were prepared by using solid-state reaction method. The X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited single phase formation and good crystallinity with LiNbO3 addition up to x = 6.5 wt%. Dielectric studies reveal that the composition with LiNbO3 = 6.5 wt% exhibits superior properties suitable for piezoelectric energy harvesting applications. The nanoscale piezoelectric data obtained with piezoresponse force microscopy provide a direct evidence of strong piezoelectricity with LN doping. The best piezoelectric properties are obtained for the composition K0.5Na0.5NbO3 – 6.5%LiNbO3.
In the present article, the experimental investigation of optical breakdown induced by ns/mJ pulses at two wavelengths, 1064 nm and 532 nm, in air of atmospheric pressure is reported and discussed. The obtained breakdown thresholds were compared with theory and are in good agreement. The generated plasmas have been characterized by their amount of scattered laser light, energy transmission, and change of the transmitted temporal shape. Laser-induced plasma formation in a gas, in air, also generates an acoustic pressure wave. The acoustic energy is compared to the laser pulse energy and is found to be linearly dependent. Moreover, the frequency distribution of the characteristic acoustic pressure wave was analyzed. The experiments described were accomplished in order to optimize a laser ignition system with regard to efficiency and costs. The laser system employed for these investigations is a compact high peak power, passively Q-switched, longitudinally diode-pumped solid-state laser. Such a “laser spark plug” should replace conventional spark plugs in internal combustion engines because conventional ignition has reached its limits in terms of efficiency and durability. Thereby, a reduction of pollutant emission should also be feasible.
Pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO thin films were exposed to a 1.5 MeV helium ion beam to study the changes in radiative and non-radiative recombination. We first measured photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 4.2 K excited with the 325 nm line of a HeCd laser. The as-deposited films showed a donor-bound exciton peak at 3.3567 eV attributed to Zn interstitials. After irradiation the donor-bound-exciton dominated PL spectra shifted to acceptor-bound behaviour with a signal at 3.3519 eV, tentatively attributed to Li or Na acceptors. In contrast to the approximately 30 % decrease of the PL signal near the band edge, we observed a strong concomitant enhancement of the green/orange PL band, located between 2.1 eV and 2.8 eV, by a factor of over 4. Candidates for those transitions are Li impurities and/or O vacancies. For comparison, the steady-state photocurrent decreased strongly in the irradiated region, which can also be attributed to increased non-radiative recombination through oxygen-related defects.
We report on a measles outbreak originating in an anthroposophic community in Austria, 2008. A total of 394 (94·9%) cases fulfilled the outbreak case definition including 168 cases affiliated to the anthroposophic community. The source case was a school pupil from Switzerland. The Austrian outbreak strain was genotype D5, indistinguishable from the Swiss outbreak strain. A school-based retrospective cohort study in the anthroposophic school demonstrated a vaccine effectiveness of 97·3% in pupils who had received a single dose of measles-containing vaccine and 100% in those who had received two doses. The vaccination coverage of the cases in the anthroposophic community was 0·6%. Of the 226 outbreak cases not belonging to the anthroposophic community, the 10–24 years age group was the most affected. Our findings underline the epidemiological significance of suboptimal vaccination coverage in anthroposophic communities and in older age groups of the general population in facilitating measles virus circulation. The findings of this outbreak investigation suggest that the WHO European Region is unlikely to achieve its 2010 target for measles and rubella elimination.
Of eight acute infections in German tourists caused by sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana (TOS). and diagnosed clinically and serologically, seven were acquired during visits to Tuscany, Italy, and one to Coimbra, Portugal. An indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using infected cells, and a newly developed enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) using crude virus antigen prepared from infected Vero-E6 cells was used to detect anti-TOS IgM and IgG. In a seroepidemiological survey of 859 health care workers and medical students, anti-TOS IgG was detected in 1·0% by IFA, and in 0·7% by EIA. In 2034 German patients hospitalized for various diseases, 1·6% were positive for anti-TOS IgG by IFA, and 0·8% by EIA. Anti-TOS IgG was detected in 43 samples of commercial immunoglobulins at titres of 10–1000 by EIA. Although the seroprevalence of antibodies to TOS is low in Germany, TOS infection should be considered in patients returning from endemic areas who complain of fever, and headaches, and have symptoms of meningitis.
AlGaN/GaN pH sensitive devices were functionalized and passivated for the use as selective bio-sensors. For the passivation, a multilayer of SiO2 and SiNx is proposed, which stabilizes the pH-sensor, is biocompatible and has no negative impact on the following bio-functionalization. The functionalization of the GaN-surface was achieved by covalent bonding of 10-amino-dec-1-ene molecules by a photochemical process. After two different surface preparations islands of TFAAD are growing on the sensor surface by exposure with UV-light. In dependence on the surface pre-treatment and the illumination wavelength the first monolayer is completed after 3 h or 7 h exposure time dependent on the pre-treatment and illumination wavelength. Further exposure results in thicker films as a consequence of cross polymerization. The bonding to the sensor surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while the thickness of the functionalization was determined by atomic force microscopy scratching experiments. These functionalized devices based on the pH-sensitive AlGaN/GaN ISFET will establish a new family of adaptive, selective biomolecular sensors such as selective, reusable DNA sensors.
In this paper we report on the investigation of electrostatic forces between a conductive probe and semiconducting materials by means of Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements. Due to the formation of an asymmetric electric dipole at the semiconductor surface, the measured KPFM bias is related with the energy difference between Fermi energy and respective band edge. Quantitative Kelvin probe force microscopy measurements on semiconductors, namely on a conventional dynamic random-access memory cell and on a cross-sectionally prepared Si epilayer structure, are presented.
Electrical characterization of CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics with scanning probe based techniques has been carried out. In particular, conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) and scanning impedance microscopy (SIM) have been used to demonstrate the presence, shape and size in CCTO ceramics of the different electrically domains, both at the grain boundaries and within the grains. The electrical characteristics of single grains and of single domains have been evaluated and it has been observed that the conductive grains are surrounded by insulating grain boundaries.
We present generalized theoretical analysis and experimental realization of active quality factor control for the self-oscillating quartz tuning-fork (QTF). The quality factor Q and resonance frequency can be controlled by adding a phase shifted signal of proper gain with respect to the QTF motion. It is demonstrated that the analysis of QTF can be extended to other quartz resonators which are analyzed by an equivalent circuit-a combination of a parallel circuit of an harmonic L-R-C and a stray capacitance C0. Finally, we suggest the prospect of several applications by using the active Q control of QTF such as increasing force sensitivity, reducing scanning time in scanning probe microscopy, and feedback cooling of electromechanical resonator.