To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We develop an intertemporal asset pricing model where cash-flow news, discount-rate news, and their second moments are priced by the market. This model generalizes the market-return decomposition framework, showing that intertemporal considerations imply a decomposition of squared market returns (coskewness risk). Our model accounts for 68% of the return variation across portfolios sorted by size, book-to-market ratio, momentum, investment, and profitability for a modern U.S. sample period. Further, our findings highlight the importance of covariation risk, that is, the risk of simultaneous unfavorable shocks to cash flows and discount rates, in understanding equity risk premia.
We have studied, the relationship between monthly variations of average counting rates of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) at Moscow super neutron monitoring station with mid cut-off rigidities (~2.42 GV), and the solar radio flux at 10.7cm (F10.7) and sunspot number (SSN) during the solar cycles 22 − 24. The F10.7cm (2800 MHz) and SSN is an excellent indicator of solar activity for the study period. We have investigated the patterns of long-term and mid-term periodicities of SSN and F10.7, using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. We have observed the time-lag between ascending phase of CRI with F10.7cm and SSN during solar cycles 22 − 24.
In recent years a number of intergovernmental initiatives have been activated in order to enhance the capacity of countries to improve access to essential medicines, particularly for mental disorders. In May 2013 the 66th World Health Assembly adopted the World Health Organization (WHO) Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, which builds upon the work of WHO's Mental Health Gap Action Programme. Within this programme, evidence-based guidelines for mental disorders were developed, including recommendations on appropriate use of medicines. Subsequently, the 67th World Health Assembly adopted a resolution on access to essential medicines, which urged Member States to improve national policies for the selection of essential medicines and to promote their availability, affordability and appropriate use.
Following the precedent set by these important initiatives, this article presents eleven actions for improving access and appropriate use of psychotropic medicines.
A 4 × 4 framework mapping actions as a function of the four components of access – selection, availability, affordability and appropriate use – and across four different health care levels, three of which belong to the supply side and one to the demand side, was developed. The actions are: developing a medicine selection process; promoting information and education activities for staff and end-users; developing a medicine regulation process; implementing a reliable supply system; implementing a reliable quality-control system; developing a community-based system of mental health care and promoting help-seeking behaviours; developing international agreements on medicine affordability; developing pricing policies and a sustainable financing system; developing or adopting evidence-based guidelines; monitoring the use of psychotropic medicines; promoting training initiatives for staff and end-users on critical appraisal of scientific evidence and appropriate use of psychotropic medicines.
Activating these actions offers an unique opportunity to address the broader issue of increasing access to treatments and care for mental disorders, as current lack of attention to mental disorders is a central barrier across all domains of the 4 × 4 access framework.
This paper enumerates and briefly discusses WHO’s recent contributions to global mental health and the current challenges and opportunities in this area. It briefly discusses response to diversity across countries and communities, the need for innovations and global exchange of information, evidence and knowledge and raises issues like psychological interventions and human rights related to mental health.
The last triennium, and coincidentally the last few years of the 20th century, has been a most remarkable time for Commission 9, and for astronomy in general. Ground-based astronomy in particular has received an enormous boost due to the arrival of an astonishing array of new telescopes, novel instruments and innovative techniques. For those of us closely involved in developing new observatories, instrumentation or detectors, the last few years have been rather hectic! As an astronomer with a long-time interest in the development of new instruments, what amazes me is the breadth of technology and the visionary scope of all these incredible new achievements. Many of the very large 8-10 meter class telescopes are now coming into full operation – yet, just as this is happening, numerous smaller “survey” telescopes are providing a wealth of new sources. Adaptive optics is being practiced at many sites and diffraction-limited imaging from the ground is now a reality. Several optical-IR interferometers are now working and more are coming along very soon. Detectors continue to get bigger and better, especially for the infrared, and instrumentation is increasingly more sophisticated, complex and efficient. Remote observing, robotic telescopes and global networks of telescopes are common, and international collaborations are larger and stronger than ever before.
Globally, over 800 000 people died by suicide in 2012 and there are indications that for each adult who died of suicide there were likely to be many more attempting suicide. There are many millions of people every year who are affected by suicide and suicide attempts, taking into consideration the family members, friends, work colleagues and communities, who are bereaved by suicide. In the WHO Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, Member States committed themselves to work towards the global target of reducing the suicide rate in countries by 10% by 2020. Hence, the first-ever WHO report on suicide prevention, Preventing suicide: a global imperative, published in September 2014, is a timely call to take action using effective evidence-based interventions. Their relevance for low- and middle-income countries is discussed in this paper, highlighting restricting access to means, responsible media reporting, introducing mental health and alcohol policies, early identification and treatment, training of health workers, and follow-up care and community support following a suicide attempt.
In a quasineutral plasma, electrons undergo collective oscillations, known as plasma oscillations, when perturbed locally. The oscillations propagate due to finite temperature effects. However, the wave can lose the phase coherence between constituting oscillators in an inhomogeneous plasma (phase mixing) because of the dependence of plasma oscillation frequency on plasma density. The longitudinal electric field associated with the wave may be used to accelerate electrons to high energies by exciting large amplitude wave. However when the maximum amplitude of the wave is reached that plasma can sustain, the wave breaks. The phenomena of wave breaking and phase mixing have applications in plasma heating and particle acceleration. For detailed experimental investigation of these phenomena a new device, inverse mirror plasma experimental device (IMPED), has been designed and fabricated. The detailed considerations taken before designing the device, so that different aspects of these phenomena can be studied in a controlled manner, are described. Specifications of different components of the IMPED machine and their flexibility aspects in upgrading, if necessary, are discussed. Initial results meeting the prerequisite condition of the plasma for such study, such as a quiescent, collisionless and uniform plasma, are presented. The machine produces δnnoise/n ⩽ 1%, Luniform ~ 120 cm at argon filling pressure of ~10−4 mbar and axial magnetic field of B = 1090 G.
Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is an important herbaceous medicinal plant with a worldwide distribution. The herb possesses a medicinal value and is used extensively in traditional systems of medicine. The medicinal properties of the herb are attributed to the presence of characteristic triterpenoids and their saponins in the leaves. The major triterpenoids are asiaticoside, madecassoside and their aglycones asiatic acid and madecassic acid, respectively, among others. The present study reports a remarkable qualitative and quantitative variability in secondary metabolites in different accessions of C. asiatica L. as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The accessions analyzed in this study can be considered as the core set of discrete chemotypes of C. asiatica. Considerable and contrasting biochemical variations were observed in the terpenoid profiles of the chemotypes. From the basic and applied phytochemical utility, this chemotypic variability in the total content of triterpenoids is important and interesting.
Maximization of non-coking coal in coal blend is eloquent interest among researchers in
coke making throughout the world. To maximize the non-coking coals in coal blend with the
scarce and expensive coking coals is an essential practice in the iron and steel industry.
The fundamental aspect of the coal blending theory of low value coals to produce good
quality of metallurgical coke in non-recovery coke making process was investigated in this
study by using the composite coking potential technique. The implementation of the
technique has yielded use of up to 25% pulverized coal injection, 20% raw petroleum coke
as a component of coal blend. Results show that the coal blend having composite coking
potential value of
⩾4.8 is desired to achieve the targeted coke strength
after reaction of
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a regulatory enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway from Brugia malayi, was cloned, expressed and biochemically characterized. The Km values for glucose-6-phosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) were 0·25 and 0·014 mm respectively. The rBmG6PD exhibited an optimum pH of 8·5 and temperature, 40 °C. Adenosine 5′ [γ-thio] triphosphate (ATP-γ-S), adenosine 5′ [β,γ-imido] triphosphate (ATP-β,γ-NH), adenosine 5′ [β-thio] diphosphate (ADP-β-S), Na+, K+, Li+ and Cu++ ions were found to be strong inhibitors of rBmG6PD. The rBmG6PD, a tetramer with subunit molecular weight of 75 kDa contains 0·02 mol of SH group per mol of monomer. Blocking the SH group with SH-inhibitors, led to activation of rBmG6PD activity by N-ethylmaleimide. CD analysis indicated that rBmG6PD is composed of 37% α-helices and 26% β-sheets. The unfolding equilibrium of rBmG6PD with GdmCl/urea showed the triphasic unfolding pattern along with the highly stable intermediate obtained by GdmCl.
The most abundant biopolymer, cellulose, occurs as a supra-molecular organisation of poly-glucan chains. The cellulose produced by bacteria has been characterised by various techniques including SEM, AFM, PXRD and SAXS, to elucidate the multi-level organisation. A model has been developed to relate this organisation to the cellulose biosynthetic machinery in bacteria.
A new technology to size nanoparticles in liquids is presented. The technique is based on aerosol technology coupled to a nanoparticle nebulizer. This allows number concentration measurements in the size range ca. 5 to 500 nm with high peak resolution.
Here we show that microtubular bundles bend flexibly under a hydrodynamic flow to form teardrop patterns. In a highly concentrated microtubular solution, patterns of same-sized teardrops form according to the maximum critical curvature, which is determined by the specific rigidity of the microtubules. Our understanding is that these micropatterns grow when microtubular bundles with hydrodynamic flow energy are converted into stable teardrop patterns as a higher structure. This conversion is generated by the combined effect of multiple kinds of energy, including heat and hydrodynamic flow, as well as life systems. These self-generating patterns in a spatio-temporal stream are reminiscent of what the artist Edward Munch called a scream of nature. We also envision that microtubular pattering with hierarchical structure will broaden the potential application of these geometrical structures and guide biomimetic material engineering towards areas such as integrated energy conversion, soft material patterning, and living signal transduction.
Nanoporous gold is a material with many possible applications e.g. in catalysts, sensors and electrode materials. We studied the functionalization of the nanoporous gold with TiO2 particles. Aiming at the low temperature oxidation of CO, the nanoporous gold can be coated with TiO2 in order to enhance catalytic activity. Structure and distribution of the TiO2 on the gold surface are important structural features, which were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The preparation of the porous gold was tested with focused ion beam - preparation, conventional Ar+ ion beam preparation of nanoporous gold embedded in epoxy and ultramicrotome preparation of nanoporous gold embedded in epoxy. Considering the beam damage on the structure and the contamination of the surface, ultramicrotome preparation turned out to be the best solution. It was shown, that the gold ligaments are abundantly covered by approximately 5 nm TiO2 particles. The determination of the largest lattice fringe distance in high resolution mode revealed that the crystalline nanoparticles consist of the anatase phase. The spatial Ti distribution was measured with energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. Scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography was applied to reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the gold coated with TiO2 particles.
Environmental concerns emphasize the urgent need for the development of biodegradable polymers. In this study, poly (lactic acid) (PLA), being a biodegradable polymer matrix, was used together with poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) to enhance its low toughness. In addition, the deterioration in mechanical properties owing to plasticization was tried to be overcome by addition of nanofiller. As nanofiller, two nanotubular halloysite (HNT) types, one local (ESAN HNT) and an imported one (Nanoclay HNT) supplied by Aldrich, were used. As the first step, characterization and purification of local HNT was performed. In the second step, plasticized and unplasticized PLA matrix composites containing 3, 5 and 10 wt % were prepared and their morphological and mechanical analysis were performed. Upon the addition of both ESAN HNT (local HNT) and Nanoclay HNT (imported HNT) no improvement was observed in the basal spacing of the clay layers owing to poor interaction between the matrix and the surface of the nanotubes which should be modified for better dispersion.
The body and elytra of the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is studded with numerous brightly colored scales. The scales exhibit brilliant reflections because they contain unusually large diamond-type photonic crystals. The scales are concentrated in pits on the otherwise black elytra. This framing enhances the color contrast when the weevil is observed from nearby. From a distance the diamond weevil looks green, alike green foliage. Another weevil, Eupholus cuvieri, has also scales with green reflective photonic crystals, but here the scales are arranged closely apposed on the planar elytra. Both weevils use photonic crystals for camouflage, but the display methods are different.
Pigeonpea is an important legume crop of the semi-arid tropics. In India, pigeonpea is mostly grown in areas prone to waterlogging, resulting in major production losses. It is imperative to identify genotypes that show tolerance at critical crop growth stages to prevent these losses. A selection of 272 diverse pigeonpea accessions was evaluated for seed submergence tolerance for different durations (0, 120, 144, 168 and 192 h) under in vitro conditions in the laboratory. All genotypes exhibited high (0·79–0·98) survival rates for up to 120 h of submergence. After 192 h of submergence, the hybrids as a group exhibited significantly higher survival rates (0·79) than the germplasm (0·71), elite breeding lines (0·68) and commercial varieties (0·58). Ninety-six genotypes representing the phenotypic variation observed during laboratory screening were further evaluated for waterlogging tolerance at the early seedling stage using pots, and survival rates were recorded for 8 days after completion of the stress treatment. Forty-nine of these 96 genotypes, representing the phenotypic variation for waterlogging tolerance, were chosen in order to evaluate their performance under natural field conditions. The following cultivated varieties and hybrids were identified as tolerant after three levels of testing (in vitro, in pots and in the field): ICPH 2431, ICPH 2740, ICPH 2671, ICPH 4187, MAL 9, LRG 30, Maruti, ICPL 20128, ICPL 332, ICPL 20237, ICPL 20238, Asha and MAL 15. These materials can be used as sources of waterlogging tolerance in breeding programmes.
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, EC 184.108.40.206) is an essential regulatory enzyme of glycolysis in helminths in contrast to its role in gluconeogenesis in their host. Previously we have reported that phytochemicals from Flemingia vestita (Family: Fabaceae), genistein in particular, have vermifugal action and are known to affect carbohydrate metabolism in the cestode, Raillietina echinobothrida. In order to determine the functional differences of PEPCK from the parasite and its avian host (Gallus domesticus), we purified the parasite enzyme apparently to homogeneity, and characterized it. The native PEPCK is a monomer with a subunit molecular weight of 65 kDa. The purified enzyme displayed standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics with Km value of 42·52 μM for its substrate PEP. The Ki for the competitive inhibitors GTP, GMP, ITP and IMP for the carboxylation reaction were determined and discussed. In order to identify putative modulators from plant sources, phytochemicals from F. vestita and Stephania glabra were tested on the purified PEPCK, which resulted in alteration of its activity. From our results, we hypothesize that PEPCK may be a potential target site for anthelmintic action.