To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence fetal growth; however, the available evidence is controversial. We aimed to assess whether maternal diet of Japanese women in mid-pregnancy can affect their offspring’s birth size via collection of questionnaire and medical record data. The studied sample was a large cohort of paired mothers and their singleton offspring (n 78 793) from fifteen areas all over Japan who participated in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. The mid-pregnancy intakes of total energy, macronutrients and vitamins were lower than the recommended intakes for pregnant Japanese women. Maternal total energy intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth weight; there was a 10-g mean difference in the offspring’s birth weight of mothers in the lowest (3026 g) v. highest (3036 g) quartiles of energy intake. Carbohydrate intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth length (mean difference of 0·7 cm) and inversely associated with the ponderal index (mean difference of 0·8 g/cm3). Offspring of mothers in the highest v. lowest quartiles of total dietary fibre intake were on average 9 g heavier and had 0·3 cm longer birth length and 0·2 cm longer head circumference. The highest in reference to lowest intake quartile of vitamin C was associated with 13 g and 0·7 cm mean differences in the offspring’s birth weight and length, respectively. Several other associations were evident for maternal intakes of vitamins and the offspring’s birth size. In conclusion, maternal dietary intakes of energy, dietary fibre, carbohydrate and vitamins during pregnancy were associated with the offspring’s birth size.
Studies on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) related to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in Asia are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and microbiological determinants of hospitalised CAP and PP after PCV13 was introduced in Japan. This observational hospital-based surveillance study included children aged ⩽15 years, admitted to hospitals in and around Chiba City, Japan. Participants had bacterial pneumonia based on a positive blood or sputum culture for bacterial pathogens. Serotype and antibiotic-susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with bacterial pneumonia were assessed. The CAP hospitalisation rate per 1000 child-years was 17.7, 14.3 and 9.7 in children aged <5 years and 1.18, 2.64 and 0.69 in children aged 5–15 years in 2008, 2012 and 2018, respectively. There was a 45% and 41% reduction in CAP hospitalisation rates, between the pre-PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively. Significant reductions occurred in the proportion of CAP due to PP and PCV13 serotypes. Conversely, no change occurred in the proportion of CAP caused by H. influenzae. The incidence of hospitalised CAP in children aged ⩽15 years was significantly reduced after the introduction of PCV13 in Japan. Continuous surveillance is necessary to detect emerging PP serotypes.
Attention bias (AB) is a biased information processing towards threat among competing stimuli occurred in early stage of sensory input. Substantial evidence indicates that AB is involved in the development and maintenance of anxiety and depressive disorders. However, little is known about the relationships between AB and individual differences of endocrine and neuropsychological functions.
Thirty healthy participants without major physical illness or axis I/II mental disorders as evaluated with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were enrolled. Participants completed a dot-probe task, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, and the Trail Making Test (TMT). Salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points per day for consecutive 2 days: immediately and 30 min after awaking in the morning and before sleep at night. Correlation analyses were performed between AB and psychological measures, cortisol levels, and attention measures.
As predicted, AB significantly correlated with BDI-II and Harm avoidance sub-dimension of the TCI. Above all, when those variables that were significantly correlated with AB were included in a step-wise multivariate regression analysis, higher cortisol level at night remained the most influential predictor for AB.
Our results suggest that AB is significantly influenced not only by anxious personality traits and depressive symptoms but also by individual differences of attention function and stress hormonal levels. Particularly, AB modification approach might have a beneficial effect on anxiety in individuals who have high cortisol levels.
Catatonia is a complication of bipolar disorder, which is a constellation of symptoms such as catalepsy, mutism, and stupor. Standard therapy for catatonia contains benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy. An uncomplicated catatonia is usually a benign condition. On the other hand, malignant catatonia is a life-threatening condition that is complicated with fever, autonomic instability, delirium, and rigidity. The syndrome is typically fulminant and progresses rapidly within a few days without appropriate intervention. Several previous reports suggested that some catatonia are associated with the overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and that amantadine may have an effectiveness for catatonia, as a NMDA receptor antagonist. We report a case of successful treatment for malignant catatonia refractory to benzodiazepines, by using amantadine.
Materials and methods/case
A 64-year-old Japanese woman with bipolar disorder was referred to our hospital because of 8-week prolonged fever. On admission, she was in febrile and stuporous states. Severe rigidity was observed in her extremities. Blood tests, lumbar puncture, and blood cultures were all negative. Brain MRI was normal. Consequently, we reached a diagnosis of malignant catatonia, and thus we gave additional benzodiazepines for her catatonic symptoms. However, there was no improvement, and we finally add a 50 mg/day amantadine for her malignant catatonic state.
Her fever resolved in a few days. Gradual dose-titration of amantadine led her clinical manifestation to completely disappeared.
Amantadine can be a potential option as one of the pharmacological therapies for refractory malignant catatonia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This study aims to create controlled fine space by electrospinning, and to develop the electrode materials for high-performance energy devices. With the popularization of mobile devices, household appliances, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and the like, the use of power storage devices is expanding, and further performance improvements are required. In this study, a novel electrode material was developed by compositing Si with carbon nanofibers derived from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) by electrospinning and heat treatment. The texture and structure of the nanofibers were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with image processing. Nano spaces were created in the CNFs and Si particles were able to be contained in the CNFs. In the second and subsequent cycles of the charge/discharge experiments of lithium ion battery (LIB) electrode made from the materials, the capacity was more than twice the theoretical capacity using graphite, and good cycle performance was obtained.
The naturalization of alien Reeves's muntjacs (Muntiacus reevesi) on Izu-Oshima Island, Tokyo, Japan, has proceeded intensively over the last five decades. To clarify whether the gastrointestinal helminths of these animals were brought from their original endemic area or were newly acquired in Japan, 32 Reeves's muntjacs trapped on the island were parasitologically examined. In addition to Gongylonema pulchrum in the oesophagus (34.4% prevalence), Chabaudstrongylus ninhae (Dróżdż, 1967) (Trichostrongylidae: Cooperiinae) and Oesophagostomum muntiacum Jian, 1989 (Chabertiidae: Oesophagostominae) were prevalent in the small (28.1%) and large (46.9%) intestines, respectively. For the first time, these trichostrongylid or chabertiid worms were genetically characterized based on partial nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox-1), and the phylogenetic relationships with other members of their family were explored. Since these two intestinal nematode species are inherent in muntjacs, this study demonstrates a new distribution of exotic helminth species in Japan in accordance with the naturalization of alien mammalian hosts. The molecular genetic data collected here could assist the taxonomic assessment of morphological variants in different Muntiacus spp. and/or of different geographical origins. Furthermore, our data may help to define the phylogenetic relationships among such isolates.
In order to improve a large posterior glottal gap and/or aspiration, injections of augmentation substances should not only be administered at the mid-membranous vocal fold in the thyroarytenoid muscle, but also at the cartilaginous portion of the vocal fold to make adduction arytenopexy possible.
Ten adult human larynges were investigated using the whole-organ serial section technique.
Vertical thickness of the posterior aspect of the thyroarytenoid muscle was relatively thin (3.4 ± 0.4 mm), especially in females (3.2 ± 0.3 mm). Consequently, care should be taken to ensure the correct depth of needle placement. If the needle is placed too deep, augmentation substances are injected into the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, located beneath the thyroarytenoid muscle, or into the paraglottic space, located inferolateral to the thyroarytenoid muscle.
The injection location and the amount of injected material should be modified based on the pathological conditions of the voice disorder and aspiration.
The gullet worms, classical Gongylonema pulchrum and newly differentiated Gongylonema nepalensis, are prevalent in various mammals in Japan and Sardinia, Italy, respectively. The former species is cosmopolitan in distribution, dwelling in the mucosa of the upper digestive tract of a variety of domestic and wild mammals, and also humans. At present, the geographical distribution of G. nepalensis is known in Nepal and Sardinia, with the nematode having been recorded from the oesophagus of water buffaloes (Nepal), cattle, sheep, goats and wild mouflon (Sardinia). To clarify their natural transmission cycles among domestic and wild mammals, the present study analysed the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) of worms of various origins: G. pulchrum worms from sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, and feral alien Reeves's muntjacs in Japan, and G. nepalensis worms from a red fox and a wild boar in Sardinia. Although the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA and partial cox1 nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum from native wild mammals in Japan were distinct from those of the worms in cattle, the worms from feral alien Reeves's muntjacs showed the cattle-type ITS genotype and cox1 cattle-I and II haplotypes. The rDNA and cox1 nucleotide sequences of G. nepalensis from a red fox in Sardinia were almost identical to those of the worms from domestic and wild ruminants on the island. The ecological interaction between domestic and wild mammals and their susceptibility to different Gongylonema spp. must be considered when trying to elucidate this spirurid's transmission dynamics in nature.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Cats are known to be the main reservoir for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, which are the agents of ‘cat-scratch disease’ in humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of the two Bartonella species on 1754 cat bloods collected from all prefectures in Japan during 2007–2008 by a nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region. Overall, Bartonella DNA was detected in 4·6% (80/1754) of the cats examined. The nested-PCR showed that 48·8% (39/80) of the positive cats were infected with B. henselae mono-infection, 33·8% (27/80) with B. clarridgeiae mono-infection and 17·5% (14/80) were infected with both species. The prevalence (5·9%; 65/1103) of Bartonella infection in the western part of Japan was significantly higher than that (2·3%; 15/651) of eastern Japan (P < 0·001). Statistical analysis of the cats examined suggested a significant association between Bartonella infection and FeLV infection (OR = 1·9; 95% CI = 1·1–3·4), but not with FIV infection (OR = 1·6; 95% CI = 1·0–2·6).
In the fields of engineering, nanoscience, and biomechanics, thin structural members, such as beams, plates, and shells, that are supported by an elastic medium are used in several applications. There is a possibility that these thin structures might buckle under severe loading conditions; higher-order, complicated elastic buckling modes can be found owing to the balance of rigidities between the thin members and elastic supports. In this study, we have shown a new and simple ‘power law’ relation between the critical buckling strain (or loads) and rigidity parameters in structural members supported by an elastic medium, which can be modelled as a Winkler foundation. The following structural members have been considered in this paper: i) a slender beam held by an outer elastic support under axial loading, ii) cylindrical shells supported by an inner elastic core under hydrostatic pressure (plane strain condition), and iii) complete spherical shells that are filled with an inner elastic medium.
Maternal dietary restriction is often associated with cardiovascular disease in offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation on macrophage infiltration, and activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and serine-threonine kinase Akt (Akt) in the hearts of weanlings exposed to maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed control (C) or low-protein diets (LP) throughout gestation. Following delivery, the dams received a control or a GTE-containing control diet during lactation: control diet during gestation and lactation (CC), low-protein diet during gestation and lactation (LPC), low-protein diet during gestation and 0.12% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPL), and low-protein diet during gestation and 0.24% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPH). The female offspring were sacrificed at day 22. Biochemical parameters in the plasma, macrophage infiltration, degree of fibrosis and expression levels of AMPK and Akt were examined. The plasma insulin level increased in LPH compared with LPC. Percentage of the fibrotic areas and the number of macrophages in LPC were higher than those in CC. Conversely, the fibrotic areas and the macrophage number in LPH were smaller (21 and 56%, respectively) than those in LPC. The levels of phosphorylated AMPK in LPL and LPH, and Akt in LPH were greater than those in LPC. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction may induce macrophage infiltration and the decrease of insulin levels. However, GTE intake during lactation may suppress macrophage infiltration and restore insulin secretion function via upregulation of AMPK and insulin signaling in weanlings.
Little is known about the economic benefits of cognitive remediation and supported employment (CR + SE). The present study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of CR + SE compared with traditional vocational services (TVS).
Individuals with mental illness and low cognitive function were recruited at six sites in Japan. A total of 111 participants were randomly allocated to the CR + SE group or the TVS group. Clinical and vocational outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Service utilization data were collected monthly. The data on outcomes and costs were combined to examine cost-effectiveness.
The data were obtained from a total of 92 participants. The CR + SE group resulted in better vocational and clinical outcomes (employment rate, 62.2%; work tenures, 78.6 days; cognitive improvement, 0.5) than the TVS group (19.1%, 24.9 days and 0.2). There was no significant difference in mean total costs between the groups (CR + SE group: $9823, s.d. = $6372, TVS group: $11 063, s.d. = $11 263) with and without adjustment for covariates. However, mean cost for medical services in the CR + SE group was significantly lower than that in the TVS group after adjusting covariates (Β = −$3979, 95% confidence interval −$7816 to −$143, p = 0.042). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves for vocational outcomes illustrated the high probabilities (approximately 70%) of the CR + SE group being more cost-effective than TVS when society is not willing to pay additional costs.
CR + SE appears to be a cost-effective option for people with mental illness who have low cognitive functioning when compared with TVS.
There is growing evidence that the cells in the maculae flavae are tissue stem cells of the human vocal fold mucosa, and that the maculae flavae are a candidate for a stem cell niche. The role of microenvironment in the maculae flavae of the human vocal fold mucosa was investigated.
Anterior maculae flavae from six surgical specimens were cultured in a mesenchymal stem cell growth medium or a Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium.
Using mesenchymal stem cell growth medium, the subcultured cells formed a colony-forming unit, and cell division reflected asymmetric self-renewal. This indicates that these cells are mesenchymal stem cells or stromal stem cells in the bone marrow. Using Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, the subcultured cells showed symmetric cell division without a colony-forming unit.
A proper microenvironment in the maculae flavae of the human vocal fold mucosa is necessary to be effective as a stem cell niche that maintains the stemness of the contained tissue stem cells.
There is growing evidence to suggest that cells in the maculae flavae are tissue stem cells of the human vocal fold and maculae flavae are a stem cell niche.
Three newborn vocal folds were investigated. Immunoreactivity to antibodies directed to cytokeratin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, cluster of differentiation 34, cluster of differentiation 45, collagen type I, telomerase reverse transcriptase, SOX17 and stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 was investigated.
The cells in the newborn maculae flavae expressed haematopoietic markers (cluster of differentiation 34, cluster of differentiation 45) and collagen type I, which are the major makers of bone marrow derived circulating fibrocytes. The cells expressed epithelium, muscle, neural and mesenchymal cell associated proteins, and endodermal marker, indicating that they are undifferentiated and express proteins of all three germ layers. The cells also expressed stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 and telomerase reverse transcriptase.
The cells in the newborn maculae flavae are undifferentiated cells arising from the differentiation of bone marrow cells. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that the cells in maculae flavae are tissue stem cells.
The goal of this study was to investigate analytically the buckling phenomena of slender beam structures embedded in an elastic medium. In such cases, there is a possibility that spiral-shaped buckling modes can occur due to the restraining effect of the surrounding medium. As a result of analytical investigations, helical buckling occurs radically. Furthermore the pitch of the helix does not fluctuate as the radius of the helix increases. The interesting mechanical implications of the embedding effect are demonstrated by the theoretical approach established in this study.