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The naturalization of alien Reeves's muntjacs (Muntiacus reevesi) on Izu-Oshima Island, Tokyo, Japan, has proceeded intensively over the last five decades. To clarify whether the gastrointestinal helminths of these animals were brought from their original endemic area or were newly acquired in Japan, 32 Reeves's muntjacs trapped on the island were parasitologically examined. In addition to Gongylonema pulchrum in the oesophagus (34.4% prevalence), Chabaudstrongylus ninhae (Dróżdż, 1967) (Trichostrongylidae: Cooperiinae) and Oesophagostomum muntiacum Jian, 1989 (Chabertiidae: Oesophagostominae) were prevalent in the small (28.1%) and large (46.9%) intestines, respectively. For the first time, these trichostrongylid or chabertiid worms were genetically characterized based on partial nucleotide sequences of the nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox-1), and the phylogenetic relationships with other members of their family were explored. Since these two intestinal nematode species are inherent in muntjacs, this study demonstrates a new distribution of exotic helminth species in Japan in accordance with the naturalization of alien mammalian hosts. The molecular genetic data collected here could assist the taxonomic assessment of morphological variants in different Muntiacus spp. and/or of different geographical origins. Furthermore, our data may help to define the phylogenetic relationships among such isolates.
In order to improve a large posterior glottal gap and/or aspiration, injections of augmentation substances should not only be administered at the mid-membranous vocal fold in the thyroarytenoid muscle, but also at the cartilaginous portion of the vocal fold to make adduction arytenopexy possible.
Ten adult human larynges were investigated using the whole-organ serial section technique.
Vertical thickness of the posterior aspect of the thyroarytenoid muscle was relatively thin (3.4 ± 0.4 mm), especially in females (3.2 ± 0.3 mm). Consequently, care should be taken to ensure the correct depth of needle placement. If the needle is placed too deep, augmentation substances are injected into the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, located beneath the thyroarytenoid muscle, or into the paraglottic space, located inferolateral to the thyroarytenoid muscle.
The injection location and the amount of injected material should be modified based on the pathological conditions of the voice disorder and aspiration.
The gullet worms, classical Gongylonema pulchrum and newly differentiated Gongylonema nepalensis, are prevalent in various mammals in Japan and Sardinia, Italy, respectively. The former species is cosmopolitan in distribution, dwelling in the mucosa of the upper digestive tract of a variety of domestic and wild mammals, and also humans. At present, the geographical distribution of G. nepalensis is known in Nepal and Sardinia, with the nematode having been recorded from the oesophagus of water buffaloes (Nepal), cattle, sheep, goats and wild mouflon (Sardinia). To clarify their natural transmission cycles among domestic and wild mammals, the present study analysed the ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) of worms of various origins: G. pulchrum worms from sika deer, wild boars, Japanese macaques, and feral alien Reeves's muntjacs in Japan, and G. nepalensis worms from a red fox and a wild boar in Sardinia. Although the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA and partial cox1 nucleotide sequences of G. pulchrum from native wild mammals in Japan were distinct from those of the worms in cattle, the worms from feral alien Reeves's muntjacs showed the cattle-type ITS genotype and cox1 cattle-I and II haplotypes. The rDNA and cox1 nucleotide sequences of G. nepalensis from a red fox in Sardinia were almost identical to those of the worms from domestic and wild ruminants on the island. The ecological interaction between domestic and wild mammals and their susceptibility to different Gongylonema spp. must be considered when trying to elucidate this spirurid's transmission dynamics in nature.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Non-uniformity of a temperature field in a 30 cm deep artificial snow cover in a wind tunnel was produced by keeping a selected cross-section, perpendicular to the wind direction, at a temperature different to that in the cold room. Quasi-steady-state temperature distributions in the snow around this cross-section were observed with and without wind, and were significantly different. The difference was attributed to the influence of an air flux inside the snow cover. The mechanism of this influence is discussed. Several temperature conditions and wind speeds over the snow surface were studied. It was concluded that the wind produced the air flux in the pore space of snow, and the air-flux velocity increases with wind speed. The calculated values of the horizontal air-flux velocity in the pore space of snow were of the order of l0–2 m s"1 and decreased with depth.
Cats are known to be the main reservoir for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, which are the agents of ‘cat-scratch disease’ in humans. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of the two Bartonella species on 1754 cat bloods collected from all prefectures in Japan during 2007–2008 by a nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the 16S–23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region. Overall, Bartonella DNA was detected in 4·6% (80/1754) of the cats examined. The nested-PCR showed that 48·8% (39/80) of the positive cats were infected with B. henselae mono-infection, 33·8% (27/80) with B. clarridgeiae mono-infection and 17·5% (14/80) were infected with both species. The prevalence (5·9%; 65/1103) of Bartonella infection in the western part of Japan was significantly higher than that (2·3%; 15/651) of eastern Japan (P < 0·001). Statistical analysis of the cats examined suggested a significant association between Bartonella infection and FeLV infection (OR = 1·9; 95% CI = 1·1–3·4), but not with FIV infection (OR = 1·6; 95% CI = 1·0–2·6).
The magnetic field geometry in the central regions of two dark clouds has been mapped by measuring the polarization at 2.2 μm of background stars and of stars embedded in the clouds. The observations were done with the Kyoto polarimeter on the Agematsu 1m IR telescope in December 1984 for Heiles Cloud 2 in the Taurus dark cloud complex, and on the UKIRT 3.8m in May and July 1985 for the ρ Ophiuchus dark cloud core. The main results are:
i)Most of the stars in both regions show polarization and their maxima are 2.7% in Heiles Cloud 2 and 7.6% in ρ Oph, respectively. There are similar positive relations between polarization degree and extinct ion Av's.
ii)The distribution of position angles for Heiles Cloud 2 shows a single mode at about 50° and that for ρ Oph shows a bimode, at about 50° and 150°.
iii)The magnetic fields, as delineated by the infrared polarization, appear perpendicular to the flattened elongations of the molecular clouds.
Extensive reflection nebulae have been discovered around GGD27 IRS and around W75N IRS by mapping the infrared polarization in the K band.
It was found that the infrared radiation from both objects is extended at λ = 2.2 μm, by using the Agematsu 1-m, the UH 2.2-m, and the UKIR 3.8-m telescopes. We have carried out polarization mapping with the Kyoto polarimeter on the UKIRT in August 1985.
A good correlation was found between the ablation of snow and degree day index (cumulative values of positive daily mean air temperature) during the summer of 1978 on the Yukikabe snow patch in the Daisetsu mountains, central Hokkaido. The volume change of the snow patch in the ablation season of any year can hence be estimated from air temperature using this relationship. Each of the heat-balance terms controlling the ablation is evaluated separately by using empirical equations and assumed values for meteorological parameters at the snow patch. Triangular diagrams are constructed in order to illustrate the relative contributions of sensible heat, latent heat, and net radiation, the main three heat sources. A higher contribution from sensible and latent heat is found for the snow patches of Japan than for many glaciers and ice caps elsewhere. This may be due to higher mid-summer air temperatures than in other glaciated parts of the world.
In the fields of engineering, nanoscience, and biomechanics, thin structural members, such as beams, plates, and shells, that are supported by an elastic medium are used in several applications. There is a possibility that these thin structures might buckle under severe loading conditions; higher-order, complicated elastic buckling modes can be found owing to the balance of rigidities between the thin members and elastic supports. In this study, we have shown a new and simple ‘power law’ relation between the critical buckling strain (or loads) and rigidity parameters in structural members supported by an elastic medium, which can be modelled as a Winkler foundation. The following structural members have been considered in this paper: i) a slender beam held by an outer elastic support under axial loading, ii) cylindrical shells supported by an inner elastic core under hydrostatic pressure (plane strain condition), and iii) complete spherical shells that are filled with an inner elastic medium.
Maternal dietary restriction is often associated with cardiovascular disease in offspring. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) intake during lactation on macrophage infiltration, and activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and serine-threonine kinase Akt (Akt) in the hearts of weanlings exposed to maternal dietary protein restriction. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed control (C) or low-protein diets (LP) throughout gestation. Following delivery, the dams received a control or a GTE-containing control diet during lactation: control diet during gestation and lactation (CC), low-protein diet during gestation and lactation (LPC), low-protein diet during gestation and 0.12% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPL), and low-protein diet during gestation and 0.24% GTE-containing low-protein diet during lactation (LPH). The female offspring were sacrificed at day 22. Biochemical parameters in the plasma, macrophage infiltration, degree of fibrosis and expression levels of AMPK and Akt were examined. The plasma insulin level increased in LPH compared with LPC. Percentage of the fibrotic areas and the number of macrophages in LPC were higher than those in CC. Conversely, the fibrotic areas and the macrophage number in LPH were smaller (21 and 56%, respectively) than those in LPC. The levels of phosphorylated AMPK in LPL and LPH, and Akt in LPH were greater than those in LPC. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction may induce macrophage infiltration and the decrease of insulin levels. However, GTE intake during lactation may suppress macrophage infiltration and restore insulin secretion function via upregulation of AMPK and insulin signaling in weanlings.
Little is known about the economic benefits of cognitive remediation and supported employment (CR + SE). The present study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of CR + SE compared with traditional vocational services (TVS).
Individuals with mental illness and low cognitive function were recruited at six sites in Japan. A total of 111 participants were randomly allocated to the CR + SE group or the TVS group. Clinical and vocational outcomes were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Service utilization data were collected monthly. The data on outcomes and costs were combined to examine cost-effectiveness.
The data were obtained from a total of 92 participants. The CR + SE group resulted in better vocational and clinical outcomes (employment rate, 62.2%; work tenures, 78.6 days; cognitive improvement, 0.5) than the TVS group (19.1%, 24.9 days and 0.2). There was no significant difference in mean total costs between the groups (CR + SE group: $9823, s.d. = $6372, TVS group: $11 063, s.d. = $11 263) with and without adjustment for covariates. However, mean cost for medical services in the CR + SE group was significantly lower than that in the TVS group after adjusting covariates (Β = −$3979, 95% confidence interval −$7816 to −$143, p = 0.042). Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves for vocational outcomes illustrated the high probabilities (approximately 70%) of the CR + SE group being more cost-effective than TVS when society is not willing to pay additional costs.
CR + SE appears to be a cost-effective option for people with mental illness who have low cognitive functioning when compared with TVS.
Infrared polarimetry is one of the most useful methods to delineate the magnetic field structure in dark clouds and star-forming regions, where the intracloud extinction is so large that optical polarimetry is inaccessible. We have been conducting a near-infrared polarization survey of background field stars and embedded sources toward nearby dark clouds and star-forming regions (Tamura 1988). Particularly, the magnetic field structure in the denser regions of the clouds are well revealed in Heiles Cloud 2 in Taurus, ρ Oph core, and NGC1333 region in Perseus (Tamura et al. 1987; Sato et al. 1988; Tamura et al. 1988). This survey also suggests an interesting geometrical relationship between magnetic field and star-formation: the IR polarization of young stellar sources associated with mass outflow phenomena is perpendicular to the magnetic fields. This relationship suggests a presence of circumstellar matter (probably dust disk) with its plane perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Combining with another geometrical relationship that the elongation of the denser regions of the cloud is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the geometry suggests that the cloud contraction and subsequent star-formation have been strongly affected by the magnetic fields. Thus, it is important to study the universality of such geometrical relationship between IR polarization of young stellar sources and magnetic fields. In this paper, we report the results on a 2 micron polarization survey of 39 T Tauri stars, 8 young stellar objects and 11 background field stars in Taurus dark cloud complex.
There is growing evidence that the cells in the maculae flavae are tissue stem cells of the human vocal fold mucosa, and that the maculae flavae are a candidate for a stem cell niche. The role of microenvironment in the maculae flavae of the human vocal fold mucosa was investigated.
Anterior maculae flavae from six surgical specimens were cultured in a mesenchymal stem cell growth medium or a Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium.
Using mesenchymal stem cell growth medium, the subcultured cells formed a colony-forming unit, and cell division reflected asymmetric self-renewal. This indicates that these cells are mesenchymal stem cells or stromal stem cells in the bone marrow. Using Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, the subcultured cells showed symmetric cell division without a colony-forming unit.
A proper microenvironment in the maculae flavae of the human vocal fold mucosa is necessary to be effective as a stem cell niche that maintains the stemness of the contained tissue stem cells.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
Based on the ASCA observations, the X-ray features like spatial extentions and spectral properties of their component were analyzed for nearby four compact groups of galaxies; HCG62, NGC2300 group, HCG42 and HCG48. We found wide variety in their X-ray features. One of the brightest source of HCG62 shows the presence of cool component and enhanced abundance at its center, while HCG42 shows less extention and low abundance ratio of α-element to iron. For NGC 2300 group, we also found interesting feature which may be related to galaxy-intragroup medium interaction.
There is growing evidence to suggest that cells in the maculae flavae are tissue stem cells of the human vocal fold and maculae flavae are a stem cell niche.
Three newborn vocal folds were investigated. Immunoreactivity to antibodies directed to cytokeratin, desmin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, cluster of differentiation 34, cluster of differentiation 45, collagen type I, telomerase reverse transcriptase, SOX17 and stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 was investigated.
The cells in the newborn maculae flavae expressed haematopoietic markers (cluster of differentiation 34, cluster of differentiation 45) and collagen type I, which are the major makers of bone marrow derived circulating fibrocytes. The cells expressed epithelium, muscle, neural and mesenchymal cell associated proteins, and endodermal marker, indicating that they are undifferentiated and express proteins of all three germ layers. The cells also expressed stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 and telomerase reverse transcriptase.
The cells in the newborn maculae flavae are undifferentiated cells arising from the differentiation of bone marrow cells. The results of this study are consistent with the hypothesis that the cells in maculae flavae are tissue stem cells.
The observation of 8B solar Neutrinos in the Kamiokande-II detector is presented. Based on 450 days of data in the time period of January 1987 through May 1988, the measured flux obtained with Ee ≥ 9.3 MeV was 0.46 ± 0.13 (stat) ± 0.08 (sys) of the value predicted by the standard solar model. The detector and analysis methods were improved since June 1988 and the background level has been decreased by a factor of about three since then.