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Children with poor mental health often struggle at school. The relationship between childhood psychiatric disorder and exclusion from school has not been frequently studied, but both are associated with poor adult outcomes. We undertook a secondary analysis of the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Surveys from 2004 and its follow-up in 2007 to explore the relationship between exclusion from school and psychopathology. We predicted poorer mental health among those excluded.
Psychopathology was measured using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, while psychiatric disorder was assessed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment and applying Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM IV) criteria. Exclusion from school and socio-demographic characteristics were reported by parents. Multi-variable regression models were used to examine the impact of individual factors on exclusion from school or psychological distress.
Exclusion from school was commoner among boys, secondary school pupils and those living in socio-economically deprived circumstances. Poor general health and learning disability among children and poor parental mental health were also associated with exclusion. There were consistently high levels of psychological distress among those who had experienced exclusion at baseline and follow-up.
We detected a bi-directional association between psychological distress and exclusion. Efforts to identify and support children who struggle with school may therefore prevent both future exclusion and future psychiatric disorder.
The Livingstone's fruit bat Pteropus livingstonii is endemic to the small islands of Anjouan and Mohéli in the Comoros archipelago, Indian Ocean. The species is under threat from anthropogenic pressure on the little that remains of its forest habitat, now restricted to the islands’ upper elevations and steepest slopes. We report the results of the most comprehensive survey of this species to date, and present recommendations for ongoing field conservation efforts and monitoring. Morning counts were conducted at roost sites in the wet and dry seasons during 2011–2013. Habitat structure around the roosting sites was characterized and roost numbers compared, to investigate the potential effect of habitat loss and degradation. We estimate the population to comprise c. 1,260 individuals distributed across 21 roosts on the two islands. All occupied roosting sites were restricted to a narrow altitudinal range, and roosting populations in agroforestry areas were smaller than those found in degraded and undisturbed forest. Only one of the 16 roosts on Anjouan was found in undisturbed, old-growth forest with no nearby signs of clearance for agriculture or landslides following tree-felling upslope. Following a suspected severe population decline as a result of widespread and long-term forest loss Livingstone's fruit bat has been recategorized as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
The Birmingham Hip Resurfacing procedure (BHR) is metal-on-metal resurfacing procedure for hip arthritis. BHR was associated with low risk of surgical site infection (SSI; 0.6%). In addition to antimicrobials, superficial SSIs were treated with incision and drainage, whereas deep incisional or organ-space SSIs required removal of prosthesis.
Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) indicate that in their central parts a composite motion of emission gas exists. An analysis of broad as well as narrow lines of active galaxies can give information about gas dynamics in central part of these objects (see e.g. Netzer 1990, Osterbrock 1990). Here we present the investigation of the Hβ and O III[4959,5007] line shapes of the two Sy 1 galaxis: Mrk 817 and III Zw2.
We studied the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori virulence markers, e.g. cytotoxin associated gene (cagA), cagA promoter, vacuolating associated cytotoxin A (vacA) alleles induced by contact with epithelium (iceA type), and outer membrane protein Q (hopQ) in expatriates and compared them with those in local residents. Gastric biopsies were obtained at endoscopy for culture, histology and PCR for virulence marker and hopQ. Of 309 patients, 236 (76%) were males with a mean age of 45 years. A total of 102 patients were expatriates. hopQ type 1 was present in 98 (47%) local residents compared to 88 (86%) expatriates (P < 0·001), while hopQ type 2 was present in 176 (85%) local residents, compared to 60 (59%) expatriates (P < 0·001). H. pylori virulence marker cagA was positive in 97 (47%) local residents compared to 86 (84%) expatriates (P < 0·001) while cagA-P was positive in 72 (35%) local residents compared to 87 (85%) expatriates (P < 0·001). iceA type 1 was positive in 157 (76%) local residents compared to 45 (44%) expatriates (P < 0·001), while iceA type 2 was positive in 81 (39%) local residents compared to 86 (84%) expatriates (P < 0·001). Distribution of H. pylori cagA, cagA promoter, iceA and hopQ type in local residents and expatriates was different. H. pylori virulence markers were associated with severe pathology in expatriates.
Food packages were objectively assessed to explore differences in nutrition labelling, selected promotional marketing techniques and health and nutrition claims between countries, in comparison to national regulations.
Chip and sweet biscuit packages were collected from sixteen countries at different levels of economic development in the EPOCH (Environmental Profile of a Community’s Health) study between 2008 and 2010.
Seven hundred and thirty-seven food packages were systematically evaluated for nutrition labelling, selected promotional marketing techniques relevant to nutrition and health, and health and nutrition claims. We compared pack labelling in countries with labelling regulations, with voluntary regulations and no regulations.
Overall 86 % of the packages had nutrition labels, 30 % had health or nutrition claims and 87 % displayed selected marketing techniques. On average, each package displayed two marketing techniques and one health or nutrition claim. In countries with mandatory nutrition labelling a greater proportion of packages displayed nutrition labels, had more of the seven required nutrients present, more total nutrients listed and higher readability compared with those with voluntary or no regulations. Countries with no health or nutrition claim regulations had fewer claims per package compared with countries with regulations.
Nutrition label regulations were associated with increased prevalence and quality of nutrition labels. Health and nutrition claim regulations were unexpectedly associated with increased use of claims, suggesting that current regulations may not have the desired effect of protecting consumers. Of concern, lack of regulation was associated with increased promotional marketing techniques directed at children and misleadingly promoting broad concepts of health.
The impact of the 2013 NHSN CAUTI definition on CAUTI rates was analyzed. A total of 107 CAUTI episodes were identified; 60 according to NHSN 2013 definitions only and 47 according to the 2012 and 2013 definitions. Physician-diagnosed “other infections” were more common among patients who had CAUTI only according to NHSN 2013 definitions (P<.001).
We investigate the correlation of star formation quenching with internal galaxy properties and environment by comparing observation and theoretical models. We first classify galaxies as the most massive “central” or “satellite” in each halo in order to investigate the environmental effect. For observed central galaxies, we are unable to determine whether star formation quenching is primarily connected with halo mass or stellar mass, because these two quantities are strongly correlated. For satellite galaxies, a nearly equal dependence on halo mass and stellar mass is seen. We find that theoretical models with AGN feedback reproduce the dependence on colours and specific star formation rates for central galaxies reasonably. However, the same models seriously fail to reproduce the star formation rates of satellite galaxies by over-quenching star formation via strong strangulation: satellite over-quenching problem.
The aim of this study was to determine the nationwide prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) in Bangladesh. A multi-stage cluster survey of a random sample of persons aged ⩾15 years was included in 40 clusters (20 urban, 20 rural). Two sputum samples were collected from study participants and tested initially by fluorescence microscopy and confirmed by the Ziehl–Neelsen method. The crude and adjusted prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using standard methods. A total of 33 new smear-positive TB cases were detected among 52 098 individuals who participated in the study. The average participation rate was over 80%. The overall crude prevalence of new smear-positive TB in persons aged ⩾15 years was estimated as 63·3/100 000 (95% CI 43·6–88·9) and the adjusted prevalence was 79·4/100 000 (95% CI 47·1–133·8). TB prevalence was higher in males (n=24) and in rural areas (n=20). The prevalence was highest in the 55–64 years age group (201/100 000) and lowest in 15–24 years age group (43·0/100 000). The prevalence was higher in persons with no education (138·6/100 000, 95% CI 78·4–245·0). The overall prevalence of smear-positive TB was significantly lower than the prevalence estimate of the previous nationwide survey in Bangladesh in 1987–1988 (870/100 000).
Fiber-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for remote in-situ monitoring of organometallic delivery in organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) is presented. The measurement is based on infrared absorbance of the organometallic reagent in a short single pass gas cell placed in the gas delivery line of an OMCVD system. The performance of the set-up is demonstrated for monitoring concentration transients during the delivery of two common OMCVD precursors, trimethylgallium (TMG) and trimethylindium (TMI). The time to reach saturation is shown to be faster for a TMG bubbler than for a TMI bubbler. This difference in delivery behavior is interpreted through a mathematical model of the gas handling lines and the monitoring gas cell. The utility of the system in monitoring temporal variations in TMI delivery is also demonstrated. Finally, the ability of the system to detect the chemical species unintentionally present in the feed lines is illustrated with the observation of methane gas from TMG and TMI bubblers that have been dormant for a period time. The methane gas is shown to quickly disappear with repeated used of the bubblers.
Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is an economically important fruit crop for folk and marginal farmers and local tribal populations in the high-altitude difficult terrains of north-western Himalayas in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh states of India. This is a multi-purpose fruit tree species which, besides its fresh edible fruits, is preserved for use in diverse ways depending upon the type of cultivar. Seed kernel of apricot is used as edible nut and for the production of edible oil. In the present study, 147 diverse accessions of wild and cultivated apricot belonging to 28 folk cultivars were collected and characterized for fruit, stone and kernel characters. Indigenous traditional uses and importance of fruits and kernels of these folk cultivars have been recorded and described. Promising table-type cultivars identified were Margulam, Lodi, Shakarpara, Narmo and Khurmani, while drying-type cultivars were Halman, Shakarpara, Rakchey Karpo and Tachu. Cultivars Chuli and Shadi were the most common types and widely distributed with vast variability, while other cultivars had localized presence. Some of these folk cultivars have high potential for promotion as commercial cultivars of apricot in this high-altitude area basically depending upon traditional production system. Genetic resource management including collection, characterization and documentation of existing variability of apricot is of immense importance for safe conservation and commercialization of potential cultivars to enhance farmer's livelihood in this fragile agroecosystem.
THE HIV EPIDEMIC IN South Africa has evolved over the last 25 years and is now characterised by a levelling off of prevalence rates, amidst persistently high HIV incidence rates. The national incidence rate of HIV infection in antenatal clinic attendees is estimated to have peaked at 6.5% in 1997 and HIV transmission models have suggested that incidence has continued to hover at this level for the past five years. South Africa is now dealing with the full impact of the clinical burden of AIDS and the concomitant deaths that result. The introduction of free antiretroviral therapy in the public sector is a turning point that enables South Africa to purposefully and deliberately choose the future path of the HIV epidemic in this country. Choosing to implement treatment programmes without concomitant prevention interventions will result in an upward trend in the epidemic curve and an evergrowing unsustainable level of demand for antiretroviral therapy. However, South Africa has an opportunity to choose a better future; a future including the integration of HIV treatment and prevention programmes, which will result in a downward trend in the epidemic and our best hope for a bright future for South Africa.
It is well established in many industrialised countries that antiretroviral therapy can transform the natural course of hiv infection by reducing morbidity and mortality. Antiretroviral therapy also symbolises hope for many communities.
THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE infected with HIV worldwide has increased exponentially from just a handful of cases in the early 1980s to about 33 million by the end of 2007 and more than 20 million people have already died of AIDS. Catastrophically, the extent of its impact turned out to be far worse than ever predicted.
In South Africa, the early phase of the epidemic was restricted to just a few hundred cases among men who have sex with men and persons receiving unsafe blood transfusions. However, by the early 1990s, heterosexual transmission came to dominate as the mode of spread of hiv infection, and with it, the concomitant hiv epidemic in newborns and young children through perinatal transmission. South Africa now is the country estimated to have the largest number of people (5.3 million hiv positive people as at December 2007) living with hiv/Aids. Despite this, the South African response to the hiv epidemic over the past decade has been characterised by a unique form of denialism in the highest echelons of political power. However, with the change in government following the 2009 elections, together with heartening progress on the South African government's national antiretroviral rollout programme, there is renewed optimism that South Africa can turn the tide of the epidemic.
AIDS epidemic first identified in USA
The report published by the Atlanta-based Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (cdc) in June of 1981 was the first to take note of the disease and marked the beginning of awareness of the epidemic potential of aids in the usa.
NO SINGLE STRATEGY OR TECHNOLOGY will be able to solve the AIDS pandemic. Rather, a host of prevention strategies such as behaviour change, voluntary counselling and testing, STI diagnosis and treatment, widespread access to male and female condoms, antiretroviral therapy, positive prevention as well as enhanced technologies like vaccines and microbicides will be required.
There have been significant advances in aids vaccine research including the identification of anti-hiv antibodies with broadly neutralising potential. The recent results from a vaccine trial conducted in Thailand has injected new enthusiasm into this field, which has suffered several setbacks in the past. An aids vaccine remains an important hope for the control of hiv/aids, but its realisation is still several years away.
Likewise, substantial progress has been made in the microbicide development field. Despite the disappointing results of the phase iii trials of cellulose sulphate, carraguard, and pro 2000, there is still much hope that a safe and effective antiretroviral microbicide is possible. Microbicides provide real potential to influence the course of the hiv epidemic and are likely to be available and accessible sooner than hiv vaccines and fill an important gap for womencontrolled prevention methods. Even after a safe and effective vaccine is discovered, vaccines and microbicides will have different but complementary approaches towards a global hiv prevention strategy with the same urgent objective, i.e. abating the global hiv pandemic.
AT PRESENT, AFRICA BEARS the brunt of the HIV epidemic. And it is southern Africa that has the highest burden of disease on the continent. In South Africa alone, by the end of 2007 around five million adults were living with HIV. That figure is growing. Every day several thousand people are estimated to become infected with the virus. The disease has rightly been likened to a whirlwind, sweeping everything before it as millions become infected, fall ill and die.
hiv is a particularly fascinating virus. As a retrovirus it inserts itself into the dna of its host, becoming a Trojan horse in the immune system and systematically weakening the host until the body can no longer efficiently fight infection. What is particularly devious is the way in which the body's initial response to the infection is incorporated into hiv's attack strategy. The very immune cells produced in defence allow the virus to penetrate further and further into the host's tissues, ensuring a lifetime of infection. It is probably the infinitely fascinating science of the virus that initially stimulated researchers around the world to spend so much time elucidating the cause of the mysterious syndrome that first appeared in the medical literature in 1981.
Since then it has become clear that hiv affects all aspects of our lives – even those who are not infected with the virus; from the molecular level, to the level of the immune system, to the way in which the virus causes disease – to the community level.
We report new precision measurements of the properties of our Galaxy's supermassive black hole. Based on astrometric (1995-2007) and radial velocity (2000-2007) measurements from the W. M. Keck 10 meter telescopes, the Keplerian orbital parameters for the short period star S0-2 imply a distance of 8.3 ± 0.3 kpc, an enclosed mass of 4.8 ± 0.3 × 106M⊙, and a black hole position that is localized to within ± 1 mas and that is consistent with the position of SgrA*-IR. Astrometric bias from source confusion is identified as a significant source of systematic error and is accounted for in this study. Our black hole mass and distance are significantly higher than previous estimates. The higher mass estimate brings the Galaxy into better agreement with the relationship between the mass of the central black hole and the velocity dispersion of the host galaxy's bulge observed for nearby galaxies. It also raises the orbital period of the innermost stable orbit of a non-spinning black hole to 38 min and increases the Rauch-Tremaine resonant relaxation timescales for stars in the vicinity of the central black hole. Taking the black hole's distance as a measure of R0, which is a fundamental scale for our Galaxy, and other measurements of galactic constants, we infer a value of the Galaxy's local rotation speed (θ0) of 255 ± 13 km s−1. With the precisions of the astrometric and radial velocity measurements that are now possible with Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics, we expect to be able to measure Ro to an accuracy of ~ 1% within the next ten years, which could considerably reduce the uncertainty in the cosmological distance ladder.
Demonstrating the equivalence of constructs is a key requirement for cross-cultural empirical research. The major purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to assess measurement and functional equivalence or invariance using the 9-item, 3-factor Love of Money Scale (LOMS, a second-order factor model) and the 4-item, 1-factor Pay Level Satisfaction Scale (PLSS, a first-order factor model) across 29 samples in six continents (N = 5973). In step 1, we tested the configural, metric and scalar invariance of the LOMS and 17 samples achieved measurement invariance. In step 2, we applied the same procedures to the PLSS and nine samples achieved measurement invariance. Five samples (Brazil, China, South Africa, Spain and the USA) passed the measurement invariance criteria for both measures. In step 3, we found that for these two measures, common method variance was non-significant. In step 4, we tested the functional equivalence between the Love of Money Scale and Pay Level Satisfaction Scale. We achieved functional equivalence for these two scales in all five samples. The results of this study suggest the critical importance of evaluating and establishing measurement equivalence in cross-cultural studies. Suggestions for remedying measurement non-equivalence are offered.