Thailand and Germany's poultry industries face different agro-ecological and socio-economic circumstances, as well as a variety of public policies on sustainability in poultry production. Based on literature, 26 sustainability issues were identified and categorised into the five dimensions of sustainability, including environmental, economic, social, political and animal welfare aspects. Through a two-round Delphi methodology with an expert panel, additional concerning issues were proposed and all the sustainability issues were weighted by level of concern, from level 1 (not at all concerned) to level 5 (very concerned). Results showed that social, animal welfare and economic issues dominate the current discussion of sustainable poultry production. The use of antibiotics in poultry production, killing of male layer chicks and the role of food retailers were rated ‘very concerning’ by the German experts, whereas the Thai experts considered the outbreak of avian influenza and other highly infectious diseases, disease control in neighbouring countries, use of antibiotics in poultry production, contamination of meat and eggs with zoonotic microorganisms, and standards for poultry products required by importing countries as the most concerning issues.