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The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
The study area belongs to the Singhbhum metamorphic belt of Jharkhand, situated in the eastern part of India. The spatial distribution of the index minerals in the pelitic schists of the area shows Barrovian type of metamorphism. Three isograds, viz. garnet, staurolite and sillimanite, have been delineated and the textural study of the schists has revealed a time relation between crystallization and deformation. Series of folds with shifting values of plunges in the supracrustal rocks having axial-planar schistosity to the folds have been widely cited. Development of these folds could be attributed to the second phase of deformation. In total, two phases of deformation, D1 and D2, in association with two phases of metamorphism, M1 and M2, have been lined up in the study area. Chemographic plots of reactant and product assemblages corresponding to various metamorphic reactions suggest that the pattern of metamorphic zones mapped in space is in coherence with the temporal-sequential change during prograde metamorphism. The prograde P–T evolution of the study area has been obtained using conventional geothermobarometry, internally consistent winTWQ program and Perple_X software in the MnNCKFMASHTO model system. Our observations suggest that the progressive metamorphism in the area is not related to granitic intrusion or migmatization but that it was possibly the ascending plume that resulted in the M1 phase of metamorphism followed by D1 deformation. The second and prime metamorphic phase, M2, with its possible heat source generated by crustal overloading, was preceded by D1 and it lasted until late- to post-D2 deformation.
Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous, suppurative and progressive inflammatory disease that usually involves the subcutaneous tissue and bones after traumatic inoculation of the causative organism. In India, actinomycotic mycetoma is prevalent in south India, south-east Rajasthan and Chandigarh, while eumycetoma, which constitutes one third of the total cases, is mainly reported from north India and central Rajasthan. The objective was to determine the epidemiological profile and spectrum of eumycetoma from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, North India. Thirty cases of eumycetoma were diagnosed by conventional methods of direct microscopy, culture and species-specific sequencing as per standard protocol. The spectrum of fungal pathogens included Exophiala jeanselmei, Madurella mycetomatis, Fusarium solani, Sarocladium kiliense, Acremonium blochii, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium incarnatum, Scedosporium apiospermum complex, Curvularia lunata and Medicopsis romeroi. Eumycetoma can be treated with antifungal therapy and needs to be combined with surgery. It has good prognosis if it is timely diagnosed and the correct species identified by culture for targeted therapy of these patients. Black moulds required prolonged therapy. Its low reporting and lack of familiarity may predispose patients to misdiagnosis and consequently delayed treatment. Hence health education and awareness campaign on the national and international level in the mycetoma belt is crucial.
Sheath blight caused by soil borne necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani [teleomorph-Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk.] is a major disease of rice. The disease is increasing over the year in India and cause up to 69% yield loss under favourable conditions. A total of 67 accessions of Oryza nivara were screened to identify resistance against sheath blight during 2015. Out of these, 16 accessions were found moderately resistant (MR) which were further evaluated during the year 2016 and 2017. After three years of screening, 12 of them were found to have a consistent moderate resistant reaction whereas four of the O. nivara accessions namely, IRGC81941, IRGC102463C, CR100097 and CR100110A have shown moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction against sheath blight. A correlation study revealed that different disease variables measured were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated. All the genotypes and genotype × environment interaction had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on all the disease variables. Cluster analysis showed that all the accessions were clustered into four groups which showed resistant, MR, moderately susceptible and susceptible reactions. Among all the O. nivara accessions IRGC81941A showed the maximum potential against sheath blight due to a least relative lesion height of 22.80%. None of the accession had complete resistance to the disease. The identified promising accessions such as IRGC81835, IRGC81941A, CR100008 and CR100111B can be utilized in a sheath blight resistance breeding program.
In this paper, longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characterisation of the Cropped Delta Reflex Wing (CDRW) configuration–based unmanned aerial vehicle is carried out by means of full-scale static wind-tunnel tests followed by full-scale flight testing. A predecided set of longitudinal and lateral/directional manoeuvres is performed to acquire the respective flight data, using a dedicated onboard flight data acquisition system. The compatibility of the acquired dynamics is quantified, in terms of scale factors and biases of the measured variables, using Kinematic consistency check. Maximum likelihood (ML), least squares and newly emerging neural Gauss–Newton (NGN) methods were implemented for a wing-alone delta configuration, mainly to capture the dynamic derivatives for both longitudinal and lateral directional cases. Estimated damping and weak dynamic derivatives, which are in general challenging to capture for a wing alone configuration, are consistent using ML and NGN methods. Validation of the estimated parameters with aerodynamic model is performed by proof-of-match exercise and are presented therein.
The plasma membranes of cells are thin viscous sheets in which some transmembrane proteins have two-dimensional mobility and some are immobilized. Previous studies have shown that immobile proteins retard the short-time diffusivity of mobile particles through hydrodynamic interactions and that steric effects of immobile proteins reduce the long-time diffusivity in a model that neglects hydrodynamic interactions. We present a rigorous derivation of the long-time diffusivity of a single mobile protein interacting hydrodynamically and thermodynamically with an array of immobile proteins subject to periodic boundary conditions. This method is based on a finite element method (FEM) solution of the probability density of the mobile protein diffusing with a position-dependent mobility determined through a multipole solution of Stokes equations. The simulated long-time diffusivity in square arrays decreases as the spacing in the array approaches the particle size in a manner consistent with a lubrication analysis. In random arrays, steric effects lead to a percolation threshold volume fraction above which long-time diffusion is arrested. The FEM/multipole approach is used to compute the long-time diffusivity far away from this threshold. An approximate analysis of mobile protein diffusion through a network of pores connected by bonds with resistances determined by the FEM/multipole calculations is then used to explore higher immobile area fractions and to evaluate the finite simulation cell size scaling behaviour of diffusion near the percolation threshold. Surprisingly, the ratio of the long-time diffusivity to the spatially averaged short-time diffusivity in these two-dimensional fixed arrays is higher in the presence of hydrodynamic interactions than in their absence. Finally, the implications of this work are discussed, including the possibility of using the methods developed here to investigate more complex diffusive phenomena observed in cell membranes.
This paper describes and analyzes a new technique used in Q-slot antenna to generate circular polarization (CP). The CP characteristics were investigated carefully by studying the surface current distribution, the phase difference between the left hand circular polarization (LHCP) and right hand circular polarization (RHCP) at some resonant frequencies, and the measured values of the axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW). Normal arms (E1 and E2) were cut in the upper elliptical feeding strip line to form an open-mouth structure. The arms E1 and E2 were made equal in length and set perpendicular to each other to have normal electric fields, leading to the generation of CP radiation. A formula was modified for the dual resonant frequencies f1, f2 of the modes TM010 and TM001. The measured values of the ARBW indicated that the antenna has a wide ARBW of 4.8–5.93 GHz, which is approximately 52% of the 3rd operating band of 4.7–6.8 GHz. The wide ARBW in a small size indicated that the design of the Q-slot antenna overcame the limits of designing antennas with wide ARBW in small size and low profile. A formula for normalized field was driven according to the complementary of the Q-slot antenna.
A novel flexible radio frequency (RF) sensor is designed to facilitate the accurate testing of various samples used in the biomedical industry at the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency band. The proposed RF biosensor comprises a liquid channel-loaded interdigitated capacitor, which is integrated on a coplanar waveguide structure. The prototype of the sensor is fabricated on a 0.13 mm thin biodegradable polyethylene terephthalate polyester film to perform the testing of various bio-graded samples by recording the corresponding resonant frequency. It is observed that there is a noticeable change between the measured resonant frequencies of these samples, which primarily occurs due to the difference in their dielectric properties. The designed sensor was used to monitor and investigate the quality of glycerol, which is the most commonly used raw ingredient in the biomedical and food industry. The determination of glucose concentration in base fluids is considered to ease the challenges faced by doctors and biochemists regarding the monitoring of glucose concentration. It is found that the proposed sensor can quantify the glycerol purity up to the minimum specified adulteration level of 2 and 1% corresponding to toxic contaminants diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol, respectively, and the glucose concentration of 0.5 mg/ml.
Biochar has received attention due to its potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration in soil and improving soil quality and crop productivity. This study evaluated the effects of rice straw biochar (RSB) and rice husk ash (RHA) each applied at 5 Mg ha−1 and four N levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha−1) on soil fertility, growth, and yield of rice and wheat for three consecutive rice–wheat rotations. RSB significantly increased electrical conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, and P and K contents when compared to control (no amendment) up to 7.5 cm soil depth. Both RSB and RHA did not influence shoot N concentration in wheat plant but significantly increased P and K concentrations at 60 days after sowing. Grain yields of both rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB as compared to control (no amendment) and RHA treatments. While the highest grain yields of rice and wheat were observed at 120 kg N ha−1 in RHA and no biochar-treated plots, a significant increase in grain yields was observed at 80 kg N ha−1 in RSB treatment, thereby saving 40 kg N ha−1 in each crop. Both agronomic and recovery N efficiencies in rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB-amended soil compared to control. Significant positive correlations were observed between soil N, P, and K concentrations and total N, P, and K concentrations in aboveground biomass of wheat at 60 days after sowing. This study showed the potential benefits of applying RSB for improving soil fertility and yields of rice and wheat in a rice–wheat system.
This paper presents the design and analysis of a miniaturized, coplanar waveguide-fed ultra-wideband monopole on-chip antenna with band-notch characteristics. By incorporating a “U”-shaped slot in the feedline, a band-notch is realized in the frequency range of 7.9–8.4 GHz to avoid interference from the X-band uplink satellite communication system. The proposed antenna achieved good voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) characteristics with VSWR value <2 for the frequency range of 2.5–20.1 GHz excluding the band-notched frequencies. The fractional bandwidth and bandwidth ratio are obtained as 156% and 8.04:1, respectively. Dominant factors that affect the center frequency and bandwidth of the notched band are thoroughly investigated. This paper addresses both frequency as well as time domain behavior of the proposed structure. Standard 675 µm thick, high resistive silicon substrate (ρ≥8 kΩ-cm, εr = 11.8, and tan δ = 0.01) is used to design the proposed compact antenna structure with a layout area of 8.5 × 11.5 mm2. Fabrication process steps along with simulated and measured data are presented here. A close analogy between simulated and measured data is observed.
A single-centre, single-blinded prospective experimental study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of autologous platelet-rich plasma applied to the tonsillar bed post-operatively in reducing post-operative pain and haemorrhage.
Platelet-rich plasma, prepared prior to surgery, was applied with calcium gluconate to one randomly chosen tonsillar fossa. Pain and haemorrhage were analysed, using a visual analogue scale and a pre-defined grading scale respectively, four times on the day of surgery at 2-hourly intervals, and thrice on the following day.
The pain score and haemorrhage grade on the test side were lower than on the control side. These findings were statistically significant.
This pilot study, conducted in India, revealed valid positive results for a promising new technology. The manual preparation of platelet-rich plasma could be automated in the future to allow a larger sample size.
Describe the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing organisms and the novel use of a cohorting unit for its control.
A 566-room academic teaching facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Solid-organ transplant recipients.
Infection control bundles were used throughout the time of observation. All KPC cases were intermittently housed in a cohorting unit with dedicated nurses and nursing aids. The rooms used in the cohorting unit had anterooms where clean supplies and linens were placed. Spread of KPC-producing organisms was determined using rectal surveillance cultures on admission and weekly thereafter among all consecutive patients admitted to the involved units. KPC-positive strains underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing.
A total of 8 KPC cases (5 identified by surveillance) were identified from April 2016 to April 2017. After the index patient, 3 patients acquired KPC-producing organisms despite implementation of an infection control bundle. This prompted the use of a cohorting unit, which immediately halted transmission, and the single remaining KPC case was transferred out of the cohorting unit. However, additional KPC cases were identified within 2 months. Once the cohorting unit was reopened, no additional KPC cases occurred. The KPC-positive species identified during this outbreak included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae complex, and Escherichia coli. blaKPC was identified on at least 2 plasmid backbones.
A complex KPC outbreak involving both clonal and plasmid-mediated dissemination was controlled using weekly surveillances and a cohorting unit.
Aberrant face emotion processing has been demonstrated in youth with and at a familial risk for bipolar and major depressive disorders. However, the neurobiological factors related to emotion processing that underlie resilience from youth-onset mood disorders are not well understood. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data during an implicit emotion processing task were collected at baseline from a sample of 50 youth, ages 8–17, who were healthy but also familially at high risk for either bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder, and 24 healthy controls with no family history of psychopathology (HCL). Participants were reevaluated 3 years later and classified into three groups for analysis: high-risk youth who converted to a psychiatric diagnosis (CVT; N = 23), high-risk youth who were resilient from developing any psychopathology (RES; N = 27), and HCL youth (N = 24) who remained healthy at follow-up. For happy > calm faces, the CVT and RES groups had significantly lower activation in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL), while the RES group had lower activation in the right supramarginal gyrus. For fear > calm faces, the RES group had lower activation in the right precuneus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) compared to the CVT group. Connectivity analyses revealed the RES group exhibited higher left IPL connectivity with visual cortical regions for happy > calm faces, and higher IFG connectivity with frontal, temporal, and limbic regions for fear > calm faces. These connectivities were correlated with improvements in prosocial behaviors and global functioning. Our findings suggest that differential activation and connectivity in the IPL, IFG, and precuneus in response to emotional stimuli may represent distinct resilience and risk markers for youth-onset mood disorders.
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing has been used to measure functional capacity in children who have undergone a heart transplant. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing results have not been compared between children transplanted for a primary diagnosis of CHD and those with a primary diagnosis of cardiomyopathy despite differences in outcomes. This study is aimed to compare cardiopulmonary exercise testing performance between these two groups.
Patients who underwent heart transplant with subsequent cardiopulmonary exercise testing at least 6 months after transplant at our institution were identified. They were then divided into two groups based on primary cardiac diagnosis: CHD or cardiomyopathy. Patient characteristics, echocardiograms, cardiac catheterisations, outcomes, and cardiopulmonary exercise test results were compared between the two groups.
From the total of 35 patients, 15 (43%) had CHD and 20 (57%) had cardiomyopathy. Age at transplant, kidney disease, lung disease, previous rejection, coronary vasculopathy, catheterisation, and echocardiographic data were similar between the groups. Mean time from transplant to cardiopulmonary exercise testing, exercise duration, and maximum oxygen consumption were similar in both groups. There was a difference in heart rate response with CHD heart rate response of 63 beats per minute compared to cardiomyopathy group of 78 (p = 0.028). Patients with CHD had more chronotropic incompetence than those with cardiomyopathy (p = 0.036).
Primary diagnosis of CHD is associated with abnormal heart rate response and more chronotropic incompetence compared to those transplanted for cardiomyopathy.
To propose a new classification of inner-ear anomalies that is more clinically oriented and surgically relevant: the SMS (Sawai Man Singh) classification of cochleovestibular malformations.
A retrospective multicentric study was conducted of 436 cochlear implantations carried out in 3 Indian tertiary care institutes. Patients with anomalous anatomy were included and classified, as per the new SMS classification, into cochleovestibular malformation types I, II, III and IV, based on cochlear morphology, modiolus and lamina cribrosa.
There were 19, 23, 8 and 4 patients with cochleovestibular malformation types I, II, III and IV, respectively. Two-year post-operative Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores were statistically analysed.
This new classification for inner-ear anomalies is a simpler, more practical, outcome-oriented classification that can be used to better plan the surgery. These merits make it a more uniform classification for recording results.
A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2014 to 2017 in 13 organised pig farms located in eight states of India (Northern, North-Eastern and Southern regions) to identify the risk factors, pathotype and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli associated with pre- and post-weaning piglet diarrhoea. The data collected through questionnaire survey were used to identify the risk factors by univariable analysis, in which weaning status, season, altitude, ventilation in the shed, use of heater/cooler for temperature control in the sheds, feed type, water source, and use of disinfectant, were the potential risk factors. In logistic regression model, weaning and source of water were the significant risk factors. The piglet diarrhoea prevalence was almost similar across the regions. Of the 909 faecal samples collected (North – 310, North-East – 194 and South – 405) for isolation of E. coli, pathotyping and antibiotic screening, 531 E. coli were isolated in MacConkey agar added with cefotaxime, where 345 isolates were extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers and were positive for blaCTX-M-1 (n = 147), bla TEM (n = 151), qnrA (n = 98), qnrB (n = 116), qnrS (n = 53), tetA (n = 46), tetB (n = 48) and sul1 (n = 54) genes. Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index revealed that 14 (2.64%) isolates had MAR index of 1. On the virulence screening of E. coli, 174 isolates harboured alone or combination of Stx1, Stx2, eaeA, hlyA genes. The isolates from diarrhoeic and post-weaning samples harboured higher number of virulence genes than non-diarrhoeic and pre-weaning. Alleviating the risk factors might reduce the piglet diarrhoea cases. The presence of multidrug-resistant and ESBL-producing pathogenic E. coli in piglets appears a public health concern.
A field experiment was conducted to study the long-term effects of nutrient management practices on micronutrient concentrations in soil and their uptake by crops under a long-term rice–wheat cropping system. The treatments comprised different combinations of N, P, K, Zn and farm yard manure (FYM), used as nutrient management practices. After 25 years of continuous cropping, the higher grain yields and uptake of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were obtained when FYM was applied along with mineral sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) when compared to mineral sources of NPK alone. The residual effect of FYM, applied to rice, on the yield of subsequent wheat was significant. The application of mineral NPK with FYM recorded higher diethylene triamine penta acetic acid extracted (DTPA)-Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations in the soil compared to any other treatment. The plots with Zn application showed higher DTPA-Zn concentration in the soil compared to any other treatments. The available Fe, Mn and Cu in the soil were higher than their critical limits and the soil was low in Zn where inorganic fertilizers were applied alone (without Zn). Integrated application of mineral NPK and FYM to the rice crop and mineral NPK to wheat was found to be the best nutrient management practice in producing higher yields of rice and wheat and improve long-term soil micronutrient concentrations.