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An outbreak of psittacosis related to a bird park occurred in Matsue City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan, during winter 2001. Seventeen cases of psittacosis (12 visitors, three staff, and two student interns) were confirmed. A cohort study was conducted among the park staff and students to determine the risk factors for the development of acute serologically confirmed psittacosis (SCP) infection. Being ‘bird staff’ had an increased risk of SCP infection (RR 3·96, 95% CI 1·48–10·58). Entering the staff building, where ill birds were maintained without proper isolation, was also associated with an increased risk of SCP infection (RR 3·61, 95% CI 1·03–12·6). Isolation of ill birds and quarantine measures were found to be insufficient. Dehumidifiers and a high-pressure water spray under a closed ventilation environment may have raised the concentration of Chlamydophila psittaci in the hothouses. Bird park staff and visitors should be educated about psittacosis.
An isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose and a glucose clamp approach were applied to
determine the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) and heat exposure on blood glucose metabolism
and tissue responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin in sheep. The sheep consumed diets with either 0
or 1 mg of Cr/kg (Control and +Cr diet, respectively) from high-Cr-yeast, and were exposed from
a thermoneutral environment (20 °C) to a hot environment (30 °C) for 5 days. Blood glucose turnover
rate did not differ between the diets, and was lower (P < 0·05) during heat exposure than in the
thermoneutral environment. The maximal glucose infusion rate (tissue responsiveness to insulin)
tended to be lower (P = 0·06) for the +Cr diet than for the Control diet, but did not change with heat
exposure. The plasma insulin concentration at half maximal glucose infusion rate (tissue sensitivity
to insulin) did not differ between the diets, and was greater (P < 0·05) during heat exposure than in
the thermoneutral environment. No significant diet × environment interactions were observed. There
was no significant evidence that Cr supplementation moderated heat stress in sheep from the
measures of blood glucose metabolism and insulin action.
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