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Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
A high time- and spatial-resolution radio interferometer for solar observations has been constructed at Nobeyama (Figure I.; Nakajima et al. 1994). The Nobeyama Radioheliograph consists of 84 antennas, 0.8m in diameter, arranged on a T-shape lines of 500m in the EW and 220m in the NS directions. The time resolution is 50 ms and the spatial resolution is 10”. The field of view is 40’ at the observing frequency 17GHz, which enables us to watch the whole sun. The radioheliograph has observed hundreds of flares during the few months since the beginning of regular observations in July ‘92, and such powerful performance has never before been demonstrated in the history of solar radio observations.
We have investigated InAs deep quantum well structures (InAs DQWs) made from InAs/A1GaAsSb materials on GaAs substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In the InAs DQWs, AlGaAsSb layers are lattice-matched to InAs. Using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) linescan image analysis, we show that AlGaAsSb on GaAs surfaces quickly relaxes within 3 to 7 monolayers (MLs). The initial stages of AlxGa1-xAsSb (0≤x≤0.5) growth on GaAs (100) substrates and InAs growth on AlGaAsSb layers have been investigated by atomic force microscopy. The ridgeline shapes of AlGaAsSb are observed at the initial stage on GaAs surfaces. In the interface of the InAs/AIGaAsSb, two-dimensional (2D) growth of InAs has been observed. With a thin buffer layer of 600 nm AlGaAsSb, we have achieved very high electron mobilities of more than 32000 cm2/V-s at room temperature.
In this work we present the first results of study and comparison of the parameters of quasi-periodic long-term oscillations of microwave emission of large (>0.7 arcmin) sunspots as a result of simultaneous observations with two radioheliographs – NoRH (17 GHz) and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT) (5.7 GHz) with 1 minute cadence. Radioheliographs have been working with quite large time overlap (about 5 hours) and have the high spatial resolution: 10 arcsec (NoRH) and 20 arcsec (SSRT). We have found that quasi-periodic long-term oscillations are surely observed at both frequencies with the periods in the range of 20–150 min. We detected common periods for common time of observations with two radioheliographs and interpret this as the consequence of the vertical-radial quasi-periodic displacements of sunspot as a whole structure.
To investigate two clusters of diarrhoea cases observed in our geriatric hospital wards, the faecal specimens were analysed. Reversed passive latex agglutination assay revealed that 63·2% and 41·7% of the faecal specimens from each cluster were positive for Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin. PCR assay revealed that 71·4% and 68·8% of C. perfringens isolates from each cluster were positive for the enterotoxin gene (cpe). These observations suggested that both the clusters were outbreaks caused by enterotoxigenic C. perfringens. Subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the two outbreaks were caused by different C. perfringens isolates. However, these outbreak isolates as well as other sporadic diarrhoea isolates shared a 75-kb plasmid on which the cpe gene and the tcp locus were located. The 75-kb plasmid had horizontally spread to various C. perfringens isolates and had caused outbreaks and sporadic infections. However, the site and time of the plasmid transfer are unclear.
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