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In the face of reducing reliance on in-feed antibiotics, a greater emphasis has been placed on the development of vaccines. Adjuvants play important role in vaccine refinement. Apart from conventional adjuvants, others, like cytokines and toll-like receptors (TLR), have been evaluated experimentally. For example, Pam3CSK4, Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid are used as immunostimulatory agents which upregulate the expression of type 1 IFNs against avian influenza. The use of TLR4 (lipopolysaccharide; LPS), TLR7 (Loxoribine) and TLR21 (CpG-ODN) agonists have shown good results when used as adjuvants with the avian influenza vaccine. The LPS (TLR4) was used as an adjuvant and liposome as intranasal antigen delivery system for Newcastle's disease (NDV) antigen, which induced significant increases in secretory IgA in tracheal lavage fluid and serum IgG levels. In a challenge study it provided 80% protection against virulent challenge. When resiquimod (TLR7) was used as an adjuvant with inactivated NDV, this potentiated the protective response to 100% against virulent NDV challenge, while protection was only 80% in the vaccine alone group. When 64CpG-plasmids (TLR21) were co-administered with inactivated AIV H5N2 vaccine in chickens, it led to a higher HI titre at two and four weeks of age, and provided 100% protection against virulent challenge of avian influenza. The TLR 3 agonist (poly I:C) showed good results against NDV and avian reovirus. Other TLR agonists and cytokines used against NDV include LPS, loxoribine, CpG-ODN and ChIFN-α, IFN- γ (with an in ovo vaccine). Immunostimulatory adjuvants like LPS, chicken TLR21, have been tried with Marek's disease vaccine, and TLR 5 agonist was used against Salmonella enteritidis and Eimeria tenella. Although the study of cytokines and TLRs in avian species is still in its infancy when compared to that of mammals, huge strides have been made in recent years. In this article, recent studies involving the assessment of immunostimulatory adjuvants in poultry are reviewed.
Biochar has received attention due to its potential for mitigating climate change through carbon sequestration in soil and improving soil quality and crop productivity. This study evaluated the effects of rice straw biochar (RSB) and rice husk ash (RHA) each applied at 5 Mg ha−1 and four N levels (0, 40, 80, and 120 kg ha−1) on soil fertility, growth, and yield of rice and wheat for three consecutive rice–wheat rotations. RSB significantly increased electrical conductivity, dehydrogenase activity, and P and K contents when compared to control (no amendment) up to 7.5 cm soil depth. Both RSB and RHA did not influence shoot N concentration in wheat plant but significantly increased P and K concentrations at 60 days after sowing. Grain yields of both rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB as compared to control (no amendment) and RHA treatments. While the highest grain yields of rice and wheat were observed at 120 kg N ha−1 in RHA and no biochar-treated plots, a significant increase in grain yields was observed at 80 kg N ha−1 in RSB treatment, thereby saving 40 kg N ha−1 in each crop. Both agronomic and recovery N efficiencies in rice and wheat were significantly higher in RSB-amended soil compared to control. Significant positive correlations were observed between soil N, P, and K concentrations and total N, P, and K concentrations in aboveground biomass of wheat at 60 days after sowing. This study showed the potential benefits of applying RSB for improving soil fertility and yields of rice and wheat in a rice–wheat system.
The effectiveness of streak modes in controlling the oblique-type breakdown in a supersonic boundary-layer at Mach 2.0 is investigated using direct numerical simulations. Investigations in the literature have shown the effectiveness of streak modes in delaying the onset of transition dominated by two-dimensional waves, but in oblique breakdown, three-dimensional waves and a strong streak mode dominate the transition process. Paredes et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 831, 2017, pp. 524–553) discussed the possible stabilization of supersonic boundary layers by optimally growing streaks using parabolized stability equations. However, no study has as yet been reported regarding direct nonlinear control of oblique breakdown. This study deals with the effects of large-amplitude decaying streak modes generated by a blowing–suction strip at the wall to control full breakdown in a reference case. Modes with four to five times the fundamental wavenumber are found to be beneficial for controlling the transition. In the first region after the control-mode forcing, the beneficial mean-flow distortion (MFD), generated by inducing the control mode, is solely responsible for hampering the growth of the fundamental-mode. On the whole, the MFD and the three-dimensional part of the control contribute equally towards controlling the oblique breakdown. The results show significant suppression of transition, and substantial improvements have been observed in the levels of the skin-friction coefficient and wall-temperature in comparison to the uncontrolled case. Moreover, refreshing the control using an additional downstream control strip increases the gain. However, the forcing amplitude must be carefully chosen in order not to introduce a generalized inflection point in the spanwise averaged mean flow invoking enhanced disturbance growth.
To compare round window niche visibility as seen endoscopically during cochlear implant surgery with pre-operative high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone.
Nineteen patients scheduled for cochlear implantation, aged 2–20 years, were referred for computed tomography from October 2016 to March 2018. Angles were measured between the lines passing through the mid-sagittal plane and cochlear basal turn on the scans. Endoscopic round window niche visibility during posterior tympanotomy was categorised as: type I = 100 per cent, type IIa = more than 50 per cent, type IIb = less than 50 per cent or type III = 0 per cent. Pre-operative computed tomography measurements were used to predict round window niche visibility before surgery and correlated with intra-operative findings.
The mean (range) of pre-operative angles on computed tomography for endoscopic visibility types I, IIa and IIb, were 64.06° (61.16–69.37°), 63.81° (58.61–71.35°) and 56.48° (50.37–59.05°), respectively, a statistically significant finding (one-way analysis of variance test, p = 0.016).
Pre-operative high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography measurements are useful in predicting round window niche visualisation as viewed endoscopically during posterior tympanotomy. The angle was more acute in type IIb compared to type I.
Background: Biallelic variants in POLR1C are associated with POLR3-related leukodystrophy (POLR3-HLD), or 4H leukodystrophy (Hypomyelination, Hypodontia, Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism), and Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). The clinical spectrum of POLR3-HLD caused by variants in this gene has not been described. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study involving 25 centers worldwide was conducted between 2016 and 2018. The clinical, radiologic and molecular features of 23 unreported and previously reported cases of POLR3-HLD caused by POLR1C variants were reviewed. Results: Most participants presented between birth and age 6 years with motor difficulties. Neurological deterioration was seen during childhood, suggesting a more severe phenotype than previously described. The dental, ocular and endocrine features often seen in POLR3-HLD were not invariably present. Five patients (22%) had a combination of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy and abnormal craniofacial development, including one individual with clear TCS features. Several cases did not exhibit all the typical radiologic characteristics of POLR3-HLD. A total of 29 different pathogenic variants in POLR1C were identified, including 13 new disease-causing variants. Conclusions: Based on the largest cohort of patients to date, these results suggest novel characteristics of POLR1C-related disorder, with a spectrum of clinical involvement characterized by hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with or without abnormal craniofacial development reminiscent of TCS.
Background: Continuous electroencephalographic (cEEG) monitoring is essential to diagnosing non-convulsive seizures (NCS), reported to occur in 7-46% of at-risk critically ill patients. However, cEEG is labour-intensive, and given scarcity of resources at most centres cEEG is feasible in only selected patients. We aim to evaluate the clinical utility of cEEG at our centre in order to optimize further cEEG allocation among critically ill patients. Methods: Using a clinical database, we identified critically ill children who underwent cEEG monitoring in 2016, 2017 and 2018. We abstracted underlying diagnoses, indication for cEEG monitoring, cEEG findings, and associated changes in management. Results: Over this three year period, 928 cEEGs were performed. Among the 100 studies analyzed to date, primary indications for monitoring were characterization of events of unclear etiology (32%), diagnosis of NCS (30%), and monitoring of therapy for seizures (17%). Seizures were captured in 31% of patients (22% subclinical only, 5% electroclinical only, 4% both), which resulted in a treatment change in 90% of cases. Non-epileptic events were captured in 26% of patients. Conclusions: cEEG yielded clinically meaningful information in 57% of cases, frequently resulting in management changes. Subgroup analyses by cEEG indication and ICU location will be presented.
Background: Pediatric craniocerebral gunshot wounds occur in the context of both accidental and intentional trauma. Unique physiologic factors merited research into prognostic factors and treatment priorities in the pediatric population. Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, LILACS, Cochrane Registered Trials and Systematic Reviews, ISRCTN, and ClinicalTrials.gov was conducted. Selection criteria included all studies published in any language since 2000 which described intracranial isolated gunshot wounds in a civilian individual or population of pediatric age. Post-mortem and epidemiological studies were excluded. Screening was conducted through Covidence. Results: Initial database search revealed 349 unique studies for abstract and title screening. Fifty studies were selected for full text screening. Nine studies were included in the final review. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Case series noted bullet migration, pituitary deficiency, neurovascular and neuropsychological concerns. Three single-center retrospective studies of 71, 30, and 48 pediatric patients suggested multiple negative prognostic signs on initial presentation. Early aggressive surgical treatment was recommended by some authors. Conclusions: This systematic review analyzed the best current understanding of evidence for prognostic factors and treatment considerations of intracranial gunshot wounds in the pediatric neurotrauma context. Areas for future research with larger multi-center studies were highlighted.
To propose a new classification of inner-ear anomalies that is more clinically oriented and surgically relevant: the SMS (Sawai Man Singh) classification of cochleovestibular malformations.
A retrospective multicentric study was conducted of 436 cochlear implantations carried out in 3 Indian tertiary care institutes. Patients with anomalous anatomy were included and classified, as per the new SMS classification, into cochleovestibular malformation types I, II, III and IV, based on cochlear morphology, modiolus and lamina cribrosa.
There were 19, 23, 8 and 4 patients with cochleovestibular malformation types I, II, III and IV, respectively. Two-year post-operative Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores were statistically analysed.
This new classification for inner-ear anomalies is a simpler, more practical, outcome-oriented classification that can be used to better plan the surgery. These merits make it a more uniform classification for recording results.
Manipur, an international border region has the highest incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in India. Nevertheless, there have been no analytical reviews of research article published within this region. In this review, the authors aim to draw the attention of policy makers, medical practitioners and researchers in adopting new strategies to limit the expansion of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) not only in Manipur but also in other international border areas. A systematic search for published literature in last decade was performed based on the keywords ‘Manipur’ and ‘HIV’ using the PubMed. Twenty-six articles were selected and reviewed. There were high incidence of drug resistance (53%), emergence of recombinant virus (32%) and increased incidence of co-infection with hepatitis C virus. The prime cause of the HIV is due to the uses of ‘heroin’ smuggled from the ‘South Asia Golden Triangle’ and complex patterns of cross-border movement for trade and commerce. The drug abuse, social stigma, geographical location and resource limitation and socio-political problem of the region have contributed strongly on spreading and failure of preventively programme of HIV/AIDS. This review will provide vital knowledge for the policy makers and clinicians for sentinel surveillance of AIDS pandemic in Manipur and other international border regions.
We report Electrically reduced graphene oxide (GO) and n-type Si heterostructure junction-based photovoltaic cell. The transition of the insulating properties of GO to that of semi-conducting was achieved by applying electric voltages using 5, 10, and 15 V biasing. The photovoltaic device I–V characteristics corresponding to the increasing (5–15 V) reduction voltages, obtained on exposure of 25 mW/cm2 visible light, showed approximately same fill factor with increased efficiency. The maximum efficiency of 1.12% was observed under ultraviolet light exposure for photovoltaic cell consisting GO reduced using 15 V reduction voltage. GO was synthesized using the modified Hummers’ technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The GO characteristic XRD peak corresponding to plane (001) was observed at 9.16°. The UV-Vis spectrum for GO displayed an absorption peak at 228.5 nm, and the corresponding Tauc plot analysis provided a band gap of 4.74 eV. The FTIR analysis showed presence of C=O (1713 cm−1), C=C (1627 cm−1), C–OH (1418 cm−1), C–O–C (1252 cm−1), C–O (1030 cm−1), and C–H (827 cm−1) functional groups in GO.
Obstructive sleep apnoea is a common chronic sleep disorder characterised by collapse of the upper airway during sleep. The nasal airway forms a significant part of the upper airway and any obstruction is thought to have an impact on obstructive sleep apnoea. A systematic review was performed to determine the role of rhinological surgical interventions in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea.
A systematic review of current literature was undertaken; studies were included if they involved comparison of a non-surgical and/or non-rhinological surgical intervention with a rhinological surgical intervention for treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea.
Sixteen studies met the selection criteria. The pooled data suggest that there are reductions in the apnoea/hypopnea index and respiratory disturbance index following nasal surgery. However, the current body of studies is too heterogeneous for statistically significant meta-analysis to be conducted.
Nasal surgery may have limited benefit for a subset of patients based on current evidence.
The behavior of electron and hole transport in semiconductor materials is influenced by lattice-mismatch at the interface. It is well known that carrier scattering in a confined region is dramatically reduced. In this work, we studied the effects of coupling both the strain and confinement simultaneously. We report on the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale planar, wall-like, and wire-like Si/SiO2 structures. As the Si nanostructure dimensions were scaled down to the quantum regime by thermal oxidation of the Si, changes to the band structure and carrier effective mass were observed by both optical and electrical techniques. Transient-time response measurements were performed to examine the carrier generation and recombination behavior as a function of scaling. Signal rise times decreased for both carrier types by an order of magnitude as Si dimensions were reduced from 200 to 10 nm, meaning that the carrier velocity is increasing with smaller scale structures. This result is indicative of decreased Si bandgap energy and carrier effective mass. Photoluminescence measurements taken at 50K showed changes in the PL response peak energies, which illustrates changes in the band structure, as the Si/SiO2 dimensions are scaled.
It is known that given a set X of m (⩾n) distinct real numbers and a real-valued function f denned on X, there exists a unique polynomial pn-1,f,x of degree n — 1 or less which approximates best to f(x) on X, that is, which minimizes the deviation δ = δ(f, p) defined by the αth-power metric (α < 1) with positive weights, or by the positively weighted maximum of |f — p| on X; these deviations shall be denoted by δα and δβ. The polynomial pn-1,f,x has the property that f — pn-1,f,x has at least n strong sign changes; in other words, there are at least n + 1 points in X where the difference takes alternatingly positive and negative values.
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is widely used for the treatment of stage-I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patient-specific motion correlated with 4DCT could be essential for hypofractionated SBRT. All patients undergoing SBRT do not require motion management during the dose delivery. The objective of this study was to evaluate which patient may benefit from Gated SBRT.
Materials and methods
Treatment planning of 20 patients of stage-I NSCLC was analysed. Conventional and 4DCT scans were taken. Internal target volume as well as planning target volume (ITV and PTV) were determined in the CT data sets. PTVall phases created using 4DCT data sets and PTV15mm created using conventional CT data were compared. Also, ITVall phases were compared with ITV created from maximum intensity projections (ITVMIP). Suitability of patients for motion management-based treatment delivery was also evaluated.
The average ITVMIP to ITVall phases ratio is 1·06 indicating good agreement between them. Based on the ratio of intensity projections, 9 out of 17 patients were found suitable for our existing gated treatment.
4D CT is the main requirement in SBRT to identify the patients who can benefit from motion management during the dose delivery.
We report the synthesis and optical properties of pure ZnS and Ag doped ZnS nanostructures. ZnS(Ag) was synthesized by using the hydrothermal technique and later annealed at different temperatures under vacuum conditions. It was observed that the photoluminescence (PL) emission from the ZnS(Ag) nanostructures can be easily tuned from the blue (445 nm) to green (530 nm) region of visible light by varying the annealing temperature. This tunability has been attributed to the introduction of excess sulfur vacancy states, which is evident from the PL excitation spectra. This observed change in the PL emission wavelength can be highly beneficial in the imaging screens where ZnS is regularly used and can be easily interfaced with the silicon photodiodes showing maximum sensitivity at 550 nm.
Mental health and wellbeing, including addressing impacts of historical trauma and substance use among young people, has been identified as a key priority by Indigenous communities and leaders across Canada and globally. Yet, research to understand mental health among young Indigenous people who have used drugs is limited.
To examine longitudinal risk and strengths-based factors associated with psychological distress among young Indigenous people who use drugs.
The Cedar Project is an ongoing cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in Vancouver, Prince George, and Chase, British Columbia, Canada. This study included participants who completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, returned for follow-up between 2010 and 2012, and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Adjusted linear mixed-effects models estimated effects of study variables on changes in area T-scores of psychological distress.
Of 202 eligible participants, 53% were women and the mean age was 28 years. Among men, childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect), any drug use, blackouts from drinking, and sex work were associated with increased distress. Among women, childhood maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical abuse, physical neglect), blackouts from drinking, and sexual assault were associated with increased distress, while having attempted to quit using drugs was associated with reduced distress. Marginal associations were observed between speaking their traditional language and living by traditional culture with lower distress among men.
Culturally safe mental wellness interventions are urgently needed to address childhood trauma and harmful coping strategies that exacerbate distress among young Indigenous people who use drugs.
Background: The role of extent of surgical resection (EOR) on clinical outcomes in patients with low-grade glioma requires further examination. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published between January 1, 1990 and January 5, 2018 on predefined patient outcomes regarding different EOR of low-grade glioma. Results: Our literature search yielded 60 studies including 13,289 patients. Pooled estimates of overall survival showed an increase from 3.79 years (95% CI, 2.37–5.22) in the biopsy group to 6.68 years (95% CI, 4.19–9.16) in STR to 10.65 years (95% CI, 6.78–14.52) in GTR. When compared to STR, GTR prolonged progression-free survival by 2.08 years (95% CI, 0.26–3.89; P=0.025). Pooled estimates of seizure control showed an improvement from 47.8% (95% CI, 26.7–69.6) with biopsy to 54.2% (95% CI, 48.7–59.6) with STR to 81.0% (95% CI, 74.6–86.2) with GTR. Compared to STR, GTR delayed malignant transformation (RR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20–0.93; P=0.032), without increasing postoperative mortality (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.07–1.97; P=0.250) or morbidity (RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.65–2.28; P=0.540). Conclusions: Among patients with low grade gliomas, higher degrees of safe EOR, were associated with longer overall and progression-free survival, better seizure control, and delayed malignant transformation, without increased mortality or morbidity.
The study primarily aimed to calculate the orientation of the cochlea pre-operatively, using high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone, and predict the ease of electrode insertion.
Pre-operatively, high-resolution computed tomography scans were conducted on children scheduled for cochlear implantation, and two angles, α and β, were calculated. The values of α and β were then correlated with intra-operative difficulty in insertion of the electrode array.
Ninety-six children were included in the study. Of the seven patients who had an α angle of less than 50 degrees, the surgeon experienced difficulties in electrode insertion. However, there were four patients with an α angle of more than 50 degrees for whom the surgeon also experienced difficulties in electrode insertion. In all these patients, the β angle was more than 20 degrees.
Calculation of cochlear orientation and its angle with the surgical axis (α and β) can aid the planning of surgery, particularly with regard to the cochleostomy site and preservation of residual hearing.