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High pressures have a significant impact on the structure-related properties of glass and are encountered in scenarios ranging from fracture mechanics, where stresses in the gigapascal regime are easily generated by sharp-contact loading, to the manufacture of permanently densified materials with tuned physical characteristics. Here, we consider pressure-induced structural changes that occur in glass and show that, for oxide materials, the oxygen-packing fraction plays a key role in determining when these changes are likely to occur. Fivefold coordinated Si atoms appear as important intermediaries in the pressure-induced deformation of silica glass.
Developing countries are experiencing an increase in total demand for livestock commodities, as populations and per capita demands increase. Increased production is therefore required to meet this demand and maintain food security. Production increases will lead to proportionate increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unless offset by reductions in the emissions intensity (Ei) (i.e. the amount of GHG emitted per kg of commodity produced) of livestock production. It is therefore important to identify measures that can increase production whilst reducing Ei cost-effectively. This paper seeks to do this for smallholder agro-pastoral cattle systems in Senegal; ranging from low input to semi-intensified, they are representative of a large proportion of the national cattle production. Specifically, it identifies a shortlist of mitigation measures with potential for application to the various herd systems and estimates their GHG emissions abatement potential (using the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model) and cost-effectiveness. Limitations and future requirements are identified and discussed. This paper demonstrates that the Ei of meat and milk from livestock systems in a developing region can be reduced through measures that would also benefit food security, many of which are likely to be cost-beneficial. The ability to make such quantification can assist future sustainable development efforts.
This study investigated the incidence and risk to staff groups for sustaining needlestick injuries (NSIs) in the National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore. A retrospective cohort review of incident NSI cases was undertaken to determine the injury rate, causation, and epidemiological profile of such injuries. Analysis of the risk of sustaining recurrent NSI by occupation and location was done using the Cox proportional hazards model. There were 244 NSI cases in 5957 employees in NUH in 2014, giving an incidence rate of 4·1/100 healthcare workers (HCWs) per year. The incidence rate was highest for doctors at 21·3, and 2·7 for nurses; 40·6% of injuries occurred in wards, and 32·8% in operating theatres. There were 27 cases of repeated NSI cases. The estimated cost due to NSIs in NUH ranged from US$ 109 800 to US$ 563 152 in 2014. We conclude that creating a workplace environment where top priority is given to prevention of NSIs in HCWs, is essential to address the high incidence of reported NSIs. The data collected will be of value to inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce further the risk of NSIs in HCWs.
Although playing a key role in the understanding of the supernova phenomenon, the evolution of massive stars still suffers from uncertainties in their structure, even during their “quiet” main sequence phase and later on during their subgiant and helium burning phases. What is the extent of the mixed central region? In the local mixing length theory (LMLT) frame, are there structural differences using Schwarzschild or Ledoux convection criterion? Where are located the convective zone boundaries? Are there intermediate convection zones during MS and post-MS phase, and what is their extent and location? We discuss these points and show how asteroseismology could bring some light on these questions.
A recent photometric survey in the NGC 3766 cluster led to the detection of stars presenting an unexpected variability. They lie in a region of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram where no pulsation are theoretically expected, in between the δ Scuti and slowly pulsating B (SPB) star instability domains. Their variability periods, between ~0.1–0.7 d, are outside the expected domains of these well-known pulsators. The NCG 3766 cluster is known to host fast rotating stars. Rotation can significantly affect the pulsation properties of stars and alter their apparent luminosity through gravity darkening. Therefore we inspect if the new variable stars could correspond to fast rotating SPB stars. We carry out instability and visibility analysis of SPB pulsation modes within the frame of the traditional approximation. The effects of gravity darkening on typical SPB models are next studied. We find that at the red border of the SPB instability strip, prograde sectoral (PS) modes are preferentially excited, with periods shifted in the 0.2–0.5 d range due to the Coriolis effect. These modes are best seen when the star is seen equator-on. For such inclinations, low-mass SPB models can appear fainter due to gravity darkening and as if they were located between the δ Scuti and SPB instability strips.
To describe a delayed severe complication of temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy.
A case of amnesia occurring 24 years after surgery is described and five similar cases from the literature reviewed.
Mean age at surgery (5 right) was 40 years (19-62 years), 3 female. Four of five tested had impaired visual and verbal memory preoperatively but not sufficient to contraindicate surgery. Pathology was mesial temporal sclerosis in 3, 1 cavernoma, 1 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) and 1 normal. Postoperatively, four were seizure free 3-12 years off medication and two continued with seizures. There was no unexpected postoperative memory change until incapacitating anterograde amnesia developed 1-24 years after surgery. In five patients, including ours, this followed definite or possible status epilepticus with new mesial temporal sclerosis on the opposite side in the four that were investigated by MRI. One patient developed a glioblastoma in the opposite temporal lobe.
Continuing or late recurrence of seizures from the remaining temporal lobe after temporal lobectomy can result in incapacitating amnesia if status epilepticus occurs. Other new lesions on the opposite side to surgery can have the same effect.
Most individuals with dementia live in the community, receiving care from family or lay carers. Carers’ wellbeing, and the quality of the care they provide, depends on their resilience in the face of the challenges associated with caring for someone with dementia. However, factors associated with carers’ resilience are not yet fully understood. The aim of this review is to present a narrative synthesis of factors, materials and resources associated with carers’ resilience. Electronic and hand searches identified relevant published literature, which was narratively synthesized. A framework consisting of three inter-related domains of factors influencing carers’ resilience emerged, encompassing: social and cultural factors; properties of the care relationship; and carers’ psychological factors. Holistic assessment based on this framework can help practitioners to identify vulnerable carers and to target help on factors that help to make them vulnerable but that are amenable to change.
Asymptomatic carriage of gastrointestinal zoonoses is more common in people whose profession involves them working directly with domesticated animals. Subclinical infections (defined as an infection in which symptoms are either asymptomatic or sufficiently mild to escape diagnosis) are important within a community as unknowing (asymptomatic) carriers of pathogens do not change their behaviour to prevent the spread of disease; therefore the public health significance of asymptomatic human excretion of zoonoses should not be underestimated. However, optimal strategies for managing diseases where asymptomatic carriage instigates further infection remain unresolved, and the impact on disease management is unclear. In this review we consider the environmental pathways associated with prolonged antigenic exposure and critically assess the significance of asymptomatic carriage in disease outbreaks Although screening high-risk groups for occupationally acquired diseases would be logistically problematical, there may be an economic case for identifying and treating asymptomatic carriage if the costs of screening and treatment are less than the costs of identifying and treating those individuals infected by asymptomatic hosts.
Falls represent 40 per cent of hospital accidents, and consequences range from none to serious injuries. The purpose of this study was to estimate the average hospital cost and length of stay (LOS) associated with serious injurious falls in an acute care hospital. We used data from risk management and case costing databases to identify cost associated with a serious injury after an in-hospital fall. Thirty-seven injured patients were matched with 2,113 controls by the most responsible medical diagnosis, age, and gender. Cost and LOS were compared using t-tests and multivariate regression. Average costs for seriously injured fallers and non-faller controls were CAD$44,203 and CAD$13,507, while LOS was 45 and 11 days respectively. Hospital cost for a seriously injured faller was $30,696 (95% CI: $25,158 – $36,781) greater than the cost for a non-faller. Hospital managers have a leading role in creating system-wide falls prevention programs and reducing hospital costs.
The transformation of benzoin to tetraphenylfuran catalyzed with a superacid sulfonic clay under different reaction conditions was investigated. Three products with different yields were produced under a nitrogen stream and four products were obtained under an air atmosphere.
We investigated an international outbreak of Salmonella Agona with a distinct PFGE pattern associated with an Irish Food company (company X) producing pre-cooked meat products sold in various food outlet chains in Europe. The outbreak was first detected in Ireland. We undertook national and international case-finding, food traceback and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. We undertook a matched case-control study on Irish cases. In total, 163 cases in seven European countries were laboratory-confirmed. Consumption of food from food outlet chains supplied by company X was significantly associated with being a confirmed case (mOR 18·3, 95% CI 2·2–149·2) in the case-control study. The outbreak strain was isolated from the company's pre-cooked meat products and production premises. Sufficient evidence was gathered to infer the vehicles of infection and sources of the outbreak and to justify the control measures taken, which were plant closure and food recall.
Depression and anxiety are common after diagnosis of breast cancer. We examined to what extent these are recurrences of previous disorder and, controlling for this, whether shame, self-blame and low social support after diagnosis predicted onset of depression and anxiety subsequently.
Women with primary breast cancer who had been treated surgically self-reported shame, self-blame, social support and emotional distress post-operatively. Psychiatric interview 12 months later identified those with adult lifetime episodes of major depression (MD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) before diagnosis and onset over the subsequent year. Statistical analysis examined predictors of each disorder in that year.
Of the patients, two-thirds with episodes of MD and 40% with episodes of GAD during the year after diagnosis were experiencing recurrence of previous disorder. Although low social support, self-blame and shame were each associated with both MD and GAD after diagnosis, they did not mediate the relationship of disorder after diagnosis with previous disorder. Low social support, but not shame or self-blame, predicted recurrence after controlling for previous disorder.
Anxiety and depression during the first year after diagnosis of breast cancer are often the recurrence of previous disorder. In predicting disorder following diagnosis, self-blame and shame are merely markers of previous disorder. Low social support is an independent predictor and therefore may have a causal role.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and spectroscopy have been evolved to a stage such that they can be routinely used to probe the structure and composition of the materials with the resolution of a single atomic column. However, a direct in situ TEM observation of structural evolution of the materials in a lithium ion battery during dynamic operation of the battery has never been reported. In this paper, we report the results of exploring the in situ TEM techniques for observation of interfaces in the lithium ion battery during the operation of the battery. A miniature battery was fabricated using a single nanowire and an ionic liquid electrolyte. The structure and composition of the interface across the anode and the electrolyte was studied using TEM imaging, electron diffraction, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. In addition, we also explored the possibilities of carrying out in situ TEM studies of lithium ion batteries with a solid state electrolyte.
In summer 2008, we investigated an outbreak of diarrhoeal illness in participants of a mountain-bike event in Wales (UK) which had been affected by heavy rain. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate the cause using an internet-based questionnaire. Fifty-three percent of those contacted responded, and 161 (46·5%) out of the 347 responders, reported gastrointestinal symptoms. Median day of onset was 3 days following the event. Ten riders reported receiving a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of Campylobacter. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the inadvertent ingestion of mud (OR 2·5, 95% CI 1·5–4·2, P<0·001) and eating ‘other’ food during the event (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·2–3·6, P=0·01) as significant risk factors for illness. We concluded that the outbreak was caused by Campylobacter, spread to the riders by the inadvertent ingestion of mud which had been contaminated with sheep faeces from the rural course. Mountain-bike race organizers should consider microbiological hazards when risk-assessing potential race courses. The internet is an efficient tool for the investigation of outbreaks in computer-literate populations.
To identify neuropsychological and psychosocial factors predictive of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) among a group of 94 nondemented older adults, we employed a novel nonlinear multivariate classification statistical method called Optimal Data Analysis (ODA) in a dataset collected annually for 3 years. Performance on measures of memory and visuomotor processing speed or symptoms of depression in year 1 predicted aMCI status by year 2. Performance on a measure of learning at year 1 predicted aMCI status at year 3. No other measures significantly predicted incidence of aMCI at years 2 and 3. Results support the utility of multiple neuropsychological and psychosocial measures in the diagnosis of aMCI, and the present model may serve as a testable hypothesis for prospective investigations of the development of aMCI. (JINS, 2010, 16, 721–729.)
We investigated the consequences of bilingualism for verbal fluency by comparing bilinguals to monolinguals, and dominant versus non-dominant-language fluency. In Experiment 1, bilinguals produced fewer correct responses, slower first response times and proportionally delayed retrieval, relative to monolinguals. In Experiment 2, similar results were obtained comparing the dominant to the non-dominant languages within bilinguals. Additionally, bilinguals produced significantly lower-frequency words and a greater proportion of cognate responses than monolinguals, and bilinguals produced more cross-language intrusion errors when speaking the non-dominant language, but almost no such intrusions when speaking the dominant language. These results support an analogy between bilingualism and dual-task effects (Rohrer et al., 1995), implying a role for between-language interference in explaining the bilingual fluency disadvantage, and suggest that bilingual fluency will be maximized under testing conditions that minimize such interference. More generally, the findings suggest a role for selection by competition in language production, and that such competition is more influential in relatively unconstrained production tasks.
In reattribution, general practitioners (GPs) request psychosocial information directly and explain medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) using psychosocial information in the consultation. We explored whether reattribution training (RT) increased the communication of psychosocial information and decreased communication about somatic intervention between GPs and their MUS patients.
A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of RT versus usual treatment in GPs from 16 practices and 141 patients with MUS on audio-recorded and transcribed doctor–patient communication in an index consultation. In a secondary data analysis, the Liverpool Clinical Interaction Analysis Scheme (LCIAS) was applied by an experienced rater to each turn of speech in the transcript from the index consultation blind to treatment allocation.
After RT, patients were more likely to disclose and discuss psychosocial problems, and propose psychosocial explanations for symptoms; around 25% of patients discussed psychosocial information extensively. In the RT group, GPs did not seek new psychosocial disclosure but they reduced advocacy for somatic intervention. After RT, GPs suggested, on average, two utterances of psychosocial explanation and six utterances of somatic intervention.
After RT, some patients discussed psychosocial issues extensively but GPs did not probe underlying psychosocial issues. They gave mixed psychosocial and somatic messages about MUS, which may have increased patients' concerns about their health. GPs should actively seek the disclosure of underlying psychosocial problems and give clear, unambiguous messages to MUS patients when they are willing to discuss psychosocial issues.