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Muons produced by the Bethe–Heitler process from laser wakefield accelerated electrons interacting with high
materials have velocities close to the laser wakefield. It is possible to accelerate those muons with laser wakefield directly. Therefore for the first time we propose an all-optical ‘Generator and Booster’ scheme to accelerate the produced muons by another laser wakefield to supply a prompt, compact, low cost and controllable muon source in laser laboratories. The trapping and acceleration of muons are analyzed by one-dimensional analytic model and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is shown that muons can be trapped in a broad energy range and accelerated to higher energy than that of electrons for longer dephasing length. We further extrapolate the dependence of the maximum acceleration energy of muons with the laser wakefield relativistic factor
and the relevant initial energy
. It is shown that a maximum energy up to 15.2 GeV is promising with
on the existing short pulse laser facilities.
Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation because DDGS contain about 10% crude fat, which is largely composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids. l-carnitine serves an important function in fatty acids β-oxidation, and also has antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of l-carnitine in the DDGS diet of gestating and lactating sows on reproductive performance, milk composition and antioxidant status of sows and their offspring. One hundred and twenty sows (Landrace×Large white, mean parity 4.2, initial BW 230 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (n=30 sows/treatment). Treatments were arranged as a 2×2 factorial with two levels of dietary DDGS (0 v. 250 g/kg in gestating diets and 400 g/kg in lactating diets) and two levels of dietary l-carnitine (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 200 mg/kg in lactating diets). Distillers dried grains with solubles had no significant effect on litter size but significantly reduced the birth weights and weaning weights of piglets (P<0.05). Distillers dried grains with solubles reduced the antioxidant enzyme activities (P<0.05) and increased the malondialdehyde level in the plasma of sows on day 60 of gestation (P=0.004) and day 14 of lactation (P=0.008). The compositions of colostrum and milk were not affected by inclusion of DDGS and dietary l-carnitine (P>0.05). Supplementing the diets with l-carnitine had no significant effect of total litter size (P>0.05) but increased the number of piglets born alive and piglets weaned, birth weight and weaning weight of piglets and litter weight at birth and weaning (P<0.05). l-carnitine supplementation also increased the concentration of l-carnitine in milk and l-carnitine status of piglets (P<0.05). The antioxidant enzyme activities of new born and weaning piglets were increased (P<0.05) by maternal dietary l-carnitine but this did not extend to finishing pigs. In conclusion, including DDGS in the sows diet could induce oxidative stress, which may be associated with the reduced individual birth and weaning weight of piglets. Dietary l-carnitine supplementation improved the antioxidant and l-carnitine status of sows, which may be associated with the improved reproduction and piglet performance and the antioxidant status of piglets at birth and weaning. There were no interactions between DDGS and l-carnitine.
Reliable distances to Galactic Supernova remnants (SNRs) are essential to constrain parameters that reveal the evolutional process of SNRs. We carry out a project to measure SNRs’ distances in the first quadrant of the Galaxy. In this project, red clump stars (RCS) are used as standard candle to build the optical extinction (AV)-(D) distance relation in each direction of extinction-known SNRs. Here, G5.7-0.01, G54.1+0.3 and G78.2+2.1 are taken as typical examples. We obtain the distance of 3−0.3+0.4 kpc for G5.7-0.01, the lower limit of 5.8 kpc for G54.1+0.3, the upper limit of 2 kpc for G5.7-0.01. The results are consistent with distances from kinematic measurements. Hence, we highlight the RCS method can independently trace the distance to the SNRs.
We present some Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations for supernova remnants (SNRs), which hints the thicknesses of SNRs’ shells are likely related to the density and density distribution of surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). The simulations show clear formation and evolution of reverse shocks. In addition, we find that stellar winds can blow a bubble around the progenitor stars then lead to weaker radio emission at the center of SNRs.
This paper describes an application of the recently developed sparse scheme of the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) for the simulation of three-dimensional modified Helmholtz problems. The solution to the given problems is approximated by a two-step strategy which consists of evaluating the particular solution and the homogeneous solution. The homogeneous solution is approximated by the traditional MFS. The original dense system of the MFS formulation is condensed into a sparse system based on the exponential decay of the fundamental solutions. Hence, the homogeneous solution can be efficiently obtained. The method of particular solutions with polyharmonic spline radial basis functions and the localized method of approximate particular solutions in combination with the Gaussian radial basis function are employed to approximate the particular solution. Three numerical examples including a near singular problem are presented to show the simplicity and effectiveness of this approach.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or betaine on the growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid composition in backfat and belly fat of pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Thirty-two (60±2 kg) crossbred barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshine) were assigned to one of four diets randomly: (1) the control diet containing no corn DDGS (control group); (2) the diet containing 30% corn DDGS (DDGS-fed group); (3) the diet containing 30% corn DDGS and 10 g/kg CLA (CLA-fed group); (4) the diet containing 30% corn DDGS and 1 g/kg BET (BET-fed group). The pigs fed DDGS showed that the percentages of C18:2, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and iodine value (IV) increased, while C18:1, saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) decreased. Pigs fed the DDGS+CLA or DDGS+betaine diets showed the increased percentage of SFA, and the decreased percentage of C18:2, PUFA and IV. In conclusion, results confirmed that the diets containing 30% DDGS had no detrimental effects on growth performance, but increased the percentage of PUFA and IV and decreased the percentage of SFA and MUFA in the backfat and belly fat. However, supplementation with CLA or BET can part reverse these effects on carcass fat in finishing pigs.
Package-induced failures for BEOL interconnects in sub-45nm technology nodes have drawn attention to the great silicon and packaging integration challenges introduced by the weak mechanical properties of ULK-containing metallization elements. Empirical data and modeling studies for a range of silicon and packaging factors at 20nm node reveal fundamental insights into susceptibility to damage and approaches for recovery. Analysis of increase in degradation as BEOL layouts evolve to finer dimensions points to understanding of changes that will enable continued device scaling.
We have investigated TiN/TiSi2 films as diffusion barriers between copper and silicon. The TiN/TiSi2 films were formed by annealing Ti/Si via rapid thermal process at a temperature of 850'C for 30 seconds in N2 ambient. The contact resistance and leakage current of the Cu/TiN/TiSi 2/n+-p Si contact system were measured after sintering at 350-600°C for 30 minutes in an N2 ambient. We found an abrupt increase of contact resistance occurred at a sintering temperature of 600°C. From the leakage current of n+-p diode, we observed that the thermally stable temperature was about 475ycC. Meanwhile, XTEM photographs showed small Cu3Si crystallites with size of about 0.25 μm precipitated in the n+Si substrate at a sintering temperature 500°C. The formation of Cu3Si increases the occupied volume, generates the gap between TiSi2 and n+Si, and gradually increases the specific contact resistance. SIMS profiles also showed that a certain amount of Cu atoms diffused into the n+-p Si junction and that Si atoms existed in the Cu film. The Cu3Si formation across the n+-p junction can explain the abrupt increase in the leakage current measurement at 500°C. So the failure mechanisms for contact resistance and leakage current are different.
Dielectric polymers with high energy density with low loss at high electric fields are highly desired for many energy storage and regulation applications. A polar-fluoropolymer blend consisting of a high energy density polar-fluoropolymer of poly(vinylidene fluoride-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-CTFE)) with a low dielectric loss polymer of poly(ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) (ECTFE) was developed and investigated. We show that the two polymers are partially miscible which leads to blends with high energy density and low loss. Moreover, by introducing crosslinking to further tailor the nano-structures of the blends a markedly reduction of losses in the blend films at high field can be achieved. The crosslinked blend films show a dielectric constant of 7 with a dielectric loss of 1% at low field. Furthermore, the blends maintain a high energy density and low loss (∼3%) at high electric fields (> 250 MV/m).
Selective emitter structure has long been regarded as a good and relatively simple approach to improve the energy conversion efficiency of Si wafer-based single-junction photovoltaic (PV) cells. Recently emerged double printing method, on the other hand, potentially has the capability of improving the efficiency with no requirement for device structure modification. The manufacturability of these two approaches has been studied on a mass-production platform at JA Solar recently with large scale sampling. The experimental results collected from over two hundred thousand cells demonstrated that both approaches are capable of achieving significant conversion-efficiency gain in a cost-effective way with high yield rate on the PV industry commonly used mass production platform currently adopted by the vast majority of cell manufacturers
Besides energy density, the electric loss at high electric fields is another major concern for many capacitor applications. This paper presents recent works in developing high energy density low loss polymer capacitors. In order to reduce the dielectric loss while maintaining high energy density in poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) P(VDF-HFP) and P(VDF-CTFE) (CTFE: Chlorotrifluoroethylene) based polymers, a polymer blend approach was investigated. We show that by blending P(VDF-CTFE) with a proper low loss polymer such as poly(ethylene- chlorotrifluoroethylene) (ECTFE) can lead to marked improvement in the loss of dielectric films. In this study, P(VDF-CTFE) blends films with different wt% of ECTFE have been examined to find a balance between dielectric constant and the loss. In addition, crosslink in the blends has been employed to further improve the dielectric performance of the blends. The results indicate that these blends exhibit an excellent performance: relatively high dielectric constant (~ 6~7) and low loss (~ 0.01) at 1 kHz. For the crosslink blend films, the high field loss is reduced to below 5% with a discharged energy density 4.3 J/cm3 under a field of 300 MV/m.
This paper reports on the effect of colloidal abrasive particle size in the polishing of thermally grown silicon dioxide on 100mm diameter, P-type, (100), single crystal silicon wafers. The abrasive particle sizes were varied in six (6) slurries with pH values of 10.97 ± 0.08. The abrasive sizes were 10, 20, 50, 80, 110 and 140nm in diameter, and the slurry contained 30 weight percent abrasives. The experimental results indicate that the material removal rate (MRR) varies with the volume of the particle size. Results also confirm that there exists an optimum abrasive particle size with respect to material removal rate and surface finish. For a pad surface roughness of 5.2μm (Ra), the slurry containing 80nm particles resulted in the highest material removal rate and best surface finish. A nano-film model based on the pad roughness is used to explain the results.
Transparent polymeric material with enhanced thermal, mechanical and barrier properties are of special interest for advanced structural, optical and photonic applications. The present paper reports a novel solution processing scheme for fabricating optically transparent polymer nanocomposites involving organophilic layered silicates. It is shown that the nanocomposite material prepared with PMMA and an organically modified montmorrilonite maintains the excellent optical transparency of PMMA. Small-angle x-ray scattering of the polymer nanocomposite material does not show any Bragg's reflection of the organophilic layered silicate. The optical transparency of the nanocomposite material is attributed to a high degree of exfoliation of the montmorrilonite in the polymer matrix.
In this paper, the experimental results of interfacial fluid pressure and friction measurements during polishing are presented, as well as their dependence on some major process variables. Under simulated conditions, a sub-ambient fluid pressure was observed, and its magnitude was of the same order of magnitude as the applied polishing load. Since this fluid pressure is non-uniformly distributed, the contact stress, obtained by combining the effects of both applied load and the fluid pressure, is not uniform across the wafer and will result in non-uniform material removal. The mechanism of the presence of the fluid pressure was investigated, and an analytical model was developed to predict the magnitude and distribution of this fluid pressure. The effects of the sub-ambient fluid pressure on material removal rate and profile were tested with thermally grown silicon dioxide on 100mm diameter, P-type (100), single crystal silicon wafers. The polishing experiments show the effect of sub-ambient fluid pressure on polishing rate and profile.
We report the comprehensive investigation and characterization of the band structure and interband transitions for the strained InxGa1−xAs/GaAs heterostructures and QW by use of a combination of- different spectroscopic techniques, that is photocurrent, photoreflectance and photoabsorption spectroscopies under low temperatures and high pressures.