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Design and development of 2 kW, 3 dB tandem hybrid coupler for the frequency range of 155–225 MHz has been presented in this paper. The developed 3 dB coupler is to be used in a prototype of Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) system of Tokamak, which has been developed to test the resilience of ICRF network during continuously variable RF load excursions. The 3 dB coupler divides the RF power between two antennae of the prototype and protects the RF source by coupling of reflected power to the isolated port. The developed coupler shows excellent coupling flatness of −3 ± 0.3 dB over 38% of fractional bandwidth and also provides voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) <1.3, isolation better than 32 dB and return loss better than 25 dB in full band. The presented work establishes a technique which can be useful for the development of high-power hybrid coupler in the range of high frequency (HF), very high frequency (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF).
Macroscopic models based on moment equations are developed to describe the transport of mass and energy near the phase boundary between a liquid and its rarefied vapour due to evaporation and hence, in this study, condensation. For evaporation from a spherical droplet, analytic solutions are obtained to the linearised equations from the Navier–Stokes–Fourier, regularised 13-moment and regularised 26-moment frameworks. Results are shown to approach computational solutions to the Boltzmann equation as the number of moments are increased, with good agreement for Knudsen number
, whilst providing clear insight into non-equilibrium phenomena occurring adjacent to the interface.
Fundamental solutions (Green’s functions) are derived for the regularised 13-moment system (R13) of rarefied gas dynamics, for small departures from equilibrium; these solutions show the presence of Knudsen layers, associated with exponential decay terms, that do not feature in the solution of lower-order systems (e.g. the Navier–Stokes–Fourier equations). Incorporation of these new fundamental solutions into a numerical framework based on the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) allows for efficient computation of three-dimensional gas microflows at remarkably low computational cost. The R13-MFS approach accurately recovers analytic solutions for low-speed flow around a stationary sphere and heat transfer from a hot sphere (for which a new analytic solution has been derived), capturing non-equilibrium flow phenomena missing from lower-order solutions. To demonstrate the potential of the new approach, the influence of kinetic effects on the hydrodynamic interaction between approaching solid microparticles is calculated. Finally, a programme of future work based on the initial steps taken in this article is outlined.
Methiozolin is an isoxazoline herbicide that selectively controls annual bluegrass in cool-season turf and may control roughstalk bluegrass, another weedy Poa species that is problematic in many turfgrass systems. However, the majority of research to date is limited to evaluating methiozolin efficacy for annual bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Research was conducted comparing various application regimes of methiozolin and other herbicides for long-term roughstalk bluegrass control in creeping bentgrass golf fairways. Methiozolin-only treatments did not injure creeping bentgrass or reduce normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) at 2 golf course locations based on 20 evaluation dates over a 2.5-yr period. The 2.5-yr average turf quality generally declined as roughstalk bluegrass control increased due to transient turf cover loss. At 1 yr after last treatment, methiozolin at 1500 g ai ha-1 applied four times in fall reduced roughstalk bluegrass cover 85%. This was equivalent to methiozolin at 1000 g ha-1 applied four times in fall, but greater than low rates of methiozolin applied four times in spring or twice in fall and spring. Amicarbazone, primisulfuron, and bispyribac-sodium alone either did not effectively reduce roughstalk bluegrass cover, or did so at the expense of increased creeping bentgrass injury. Results of this study suggest that methiozolin alone or tank-mixed with amicarbazone or primisulfuron is an effective long-term approach for selectively controlling roughstalk bluegrass in creeping bentgrass.
Objectives: Sleep quality affects memory and executive function in older adults, but little is known about its effects in midlife. If it affects cognition in midlife, it may be a modifiable factor for later-life functioning. Methods: We examined the association between sleep quality and cognition in 1220 middle-aged male twins (age 51–60 years) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. We interviewed participants with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and tested them for episodic memory as well as executive functions of inhibitory and interference control, updating in working memory, and set shifting. Interference control was assessed during episodic memory, inhibitory control during working memory, and non-memory conditions and set shifting during working memory and non-memory conditions. Results: After adjusting for covariates and correcting for multiple comparisons, sleep quality was positively associated with updating in working memory, set shifting in the context of working memory, and better visual-spatial (but not verbal) episodic memory, and at trend level, with interference control in the context of episodic memory. Conclusions: Sleep quality was associated with visual-spatial recall and possible resistance to proactive/retroactive interference. It was also associated with updating in working memory and with set shifting, but only when working memory demands were relatively high. Thus, effects of sleep quality on midlife cognition appear to be at the intersection of executive function and memory processes. Subtle deficits in these age-susceptible cognitive functions may indicate increased risk for decline in cognitive abilities later in life that might be reduced by improved midlife sleep quality. (JINS, 2018, 24, 67–76)
Methiozolin is a new isoxazoline herbicide that has scarcely been tested in Kentucky bluegrass turf. A field trial was conducted in Blacksburg, VA, to determine response of 110 Kentucky bluegrass varieties and winter annual weeds to sequential fall applications of methiozolin. At 1.5 and 6 mo after initial treatment (MAIT), Kentucky bluegrass injury I30 values (predicted methiozolin rate that causes 30% Kentucky bluegrass injury) ranged between 3.4 to more than 10 times the recommended methiozolin rate for annual bluegrass control. Methiozolin at all rates reduced cover of annual bluegrass, common chickweed, corn speedwell, hairy bittercress, mouseear chickweed, and Persian speedwell but increased cover of parsley-piert. For all varieties, methiozolin at 2 kg ai ha−1 increased Kentucky bluegrass cover, turf quality, and turf normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) relative to the nontreated check at 6 MAIT. Kentucky bluegrass relative cover change (RCC) was attributed primarily to weed control but was inversely correlated with methiozolin rates because of increased weed control and reduced Kentucky bluegrass growth. Despite the decline in RCC with increasing methiozolin rates, most Kentucky bluegrass varieties treated with the highest methiozolin rate (6 kg ha−1) still had greater Kentucky bluegrass cover than the nontreated check at 6 MAIT. Results from this study indicate that two fall applications of methiozolin at rates beyond that previously reported for annual bluegrass control can safely be applied to a broad range of Kentucky bluegrass varieties spanning most of the known genetic classifications.
The analysis of axial dispersion of solute is presented in a pulsatile flow of Casson fluid through a tube in the presence of interfacial mass transport due to irreversible first-order reaction catalysed by the tube wall. The theory of dispersion is studied by employing the generalized dispersion model proposed by Sankarasubramanian & Gill (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 333 (1592), 1973, pp. 115–132). This dispersion model describes the whole dispersion process in terms of three effective transport coefficients, i.e. exchange, convection and dispersion coefficients. In the present study, the effects of yield stress of Casson fluid
, wall absorption parameter
, amplitude of fluctuating pressure component
and Womersley frequency parameter
on the dispersion process are discussed under the influence of pulsatile pressure gradient. In a pulsatile flow, the plug flow radius changes during the period of oscillation and it has an effect on the dispersion process. Even with the Casson fluid model also, in an oscillatory flow, for small values of
, the dispersion coefficient
is positive, but when the value of
is as large as 3,
takes both positive and negative values due to the fluctuations in the velocity profiles. This nature becomes more predominant for
. It is observed that initially, for small time, the amplitude and magnitude of fluctuations of
becomes more rapid and increases with time but it decreases after certain time and reaches a non-transient state for large time. Like in the case of Newtonian model, double frequency period for
is observed at small time for large values of
with the Casson model for blood. It is seen that critical time for which
reaches a non-transient state is independent of
but is dependent on
. It is also observed that the axial distribution of mean concentration
of solute depends on
. But the effect of
is not very significant. This dispersion model in non-Newtonian pulsatile flow can be applied to study the dispersion process in the cardiovascular system and blood oxygenators.
A facile technique was adopted to synthesize beautiful lilac bush resembling TiO2-SnO2 microflowers aggregates for photodegradation of Congo Red (CR). The TiO2-SnO2 microflowers in the 2-3 μm range with high surface area (80 m2/g), under optimized conditions of catalyst dosage (0.3 g/L), dye concentration (100 ppm) and pH value is 10, exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity under visible light, whereby, 98.3% of the CR aqueous solution was degraded in 40 min of illumination time and also shows good recyclable photocatalytic activities. Further, the gas sensing properties of the as-synthesized material were evaluated towards detection of a variety of volatile organic compounds, such as acetone, methanol, benzene, ammonia, toluene, diethyl ether, and ethanol.
This paper examines the social policy consequences of systemic banking crises or financial crises in 13 Latin American and Caribbean countries between 1990 and 2010. It takes a rationalist approach to political economy to analyse the effect of these crises on aggregate social policy spending and on four distinct social welfare policy programmes – education, health, housing, and social security – benefits of which vary across social groups. The results indicate that banking crises have a statistically strong negative effect on aggregate social expenditure, but the impact is not uniform across the four programmes. While social security spending increases during the course of crises, health and education expenditures decrease in the same period. The results reinforce the view that distributional conflicts overshadow governments’ response and the burden of crises is unevenly shared in a heterogeneous society. These findings are robust to alternative specifications.
Imazosulfuron is a sulfonylurea herbicide recently labeled in U.S. rice at a maximum rate of 336 g ai ha−1. Soybean is prone to drift of herbicides from rice fields in the southern United States because these crops are often grown in close proximity. Field trials were conducted to determine the effect of low rates of imazosulfuron applied to nonsulfonylurea-resistant soybean at different growth stages. Soybean was treated at the vegetative cotyledonary (VC); vegetative second trifoliate (V2); vegetative sixth trifoliate (V6); and reproductive full bloom (R2) growth stages with 1/256 (1.3 g ha−1) to 1/4 (84.1 g ha−1) times (X) the maximum labeled rate of imazosulfuron. Soybean was injured regardless of application rate or timing. At 2 wk after treatment (WAT), imazosulfuron injured soybean 23 to 79, 44 to 76, 32 to 68, and 14 to 50% when applied at the VC, V2, V6, and R2 growth stages, respectively, where the highest injury was caused by the highest imazosulfuron rate (1/4X). However, by 20 wk after planting (WAP), soybean treated with imazosulfuron at the VC and V2 growth stages had only 0 to 17% and 8 to 53% injury, respectively. At higher rates [1/8 (42 g ha−1) and 1/4X] of imazosulfuron, soybean treated at the VC growth stage recovered more from injury than did soybean treated at the V2 growth stage. Soybean treated with imazosulfuron at the V6 and R2 growth stages had better recovery from the injury at the lower two rates [1/256 and 1/128X (2.6 g ha−1)] than at the higher rates [1/64 (5.3 g ha−1) to 1/4X]. Imazosulfuron, at all rates tested, delayed soybean maturity by 1 to 4, 2 to 6, 1 to 12, and 3 to 16 d for the VC, V2, V6, and R2 growth stages, respectively. Yield loss was greater when imazosulfuron was applied at V6 and R2 compared to applications at VC and V2. Results from this research indicate that imazosulfuron can severely injure soybean regardless of the growth stage at which drift occurs; however, soybean injured by imazosulfuron at early growth stages (VC and V2) has a better chance of recovery over time compared to drift at later growth stages (V6 and R2).
The predictive value of early functional improvement for treatment success at week 8 was assessed in a pooled analysis in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Data were pooled from 7 double-blind studies in adult patients with MDD randomly assigned to desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d or placebo. Four levels of treatment success were determined at week 8 for patients with baseline Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) score > 12 (N = 2156): functional response (SDS ≤12 and ≥50% improvement in SDS), functional/depression response (SDS ≤12 and ≥50% improvement in both SDS and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D17] score), functional remission (SDS < 7), and functional/depression remission (SDS < 7 and HAM-D17 ≤7). Week 2 improvement in SDS was evaluated as a predictor of later functional response/remission using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) of the predictability of improvement thresholds were computed from a logistic regression model.
The proportion of patients achieving each level of treatment success was significantly greater for patients treated with desvenlafaxine (40%, 32%, 23%, 15%, respectively) vs placebo (31%, 22%, 17%, 10%; all P ≤ 0.002). Early change in SDS was a highly significant predictor of functional response/remission (ORs, 0.958–0.970; all P < 0.0001).
Patients’ early functional response to desvenlafaxine 50 mg/d is predictive of treatment success.
Major adverse climatic events (MACEs) in heavily-populated areas can inflict severe damage to infrastructure, disrupting essential municipal and commercial services. Compromised health care delivery systems and limited utilities such as electricity, heating, potable water, sanitation, and housing, place populations in disaster areas at risk of toxic exposures. Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012 and caused severe infrastructure damage in heavily-populated areas. The prolonged electrical outage and damage to oil refineries caused a gasoline shortage and rationing unseen in the USA since the 1970s. This study explored gasoline exposures and clinical outcomes in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy.
Prospectively collected, regional poison control center (PCC) data regarding gasoline exposure cases from October 29, 2012 (hurricane landfall) through November 28, 2012 were reviewed and compared to the previous four years. The trends of gasoline exposures, exposure type, severity of clinical outcome, and hospital referral rates were assessed.
Two-hundred and eighty-three gasoline exposures were identified, representing an 18 to 283-fold increase over the previous four years. The leading exposure route was siphoning (53.4%). Men comprised 83.0% of exposures; 91.9% were older than 20 years of age. Of 273 home-based calls, 88.7% were managed on site. Asymptomatic exposures occurred in 61.5% of the cases. However, minor and moderate toxic effects occurred in 12.4% and 3.5% of cases, respectively. Gastrointestinal (24.4%) and pulmonary (8.4%) symptoms predominated. No major outcomes or deaths were reported.
Hurricane Sandy significantly increased gasoline exposures. While the majority of exposures were managed at home with minimum clinical toxicity, some patients experienced more severe symptoms. Disaster plans should incorporate public health messaging and regional PCCs for public health promotion and toxicological surveillance.
A new tillodont, Anthraconyx hypsomylus, n. gen. n. sp., is described from the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India. Anthraconyx hypsomylus is the smallest Eocene tillodont and is distinguished by having the most buccally hypsodont cheek teeth of any known esthonychine. The closest dental resemblances are to North American Esthonyx and Azygonyx and European Plesiesthonyx, providing further evidence of affinities between the Vastan local fauna and Euroamerican vertebrate faunas.
Molybdenum trioxide nanostructures were synthesized, to make highly friction resistant molybdenum disulfide, by low temperature hydrothermal reaction without using any template or catalyst. The as-synthesized materials were sulfided with H2S at 400 and 800 °C. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis were used for the physical characterization of the materials. The oxide material is highly crystalline with unique morphology. The factors affecting the size and shape of the synthesized materials were studied in detail. The crystalline nature of the materials decreased after the sulfidation process at 800 °C without any change in morphology. The wear resistance and lubricity of the material were studied under harsh conditions. The comparative study of these materials with MoS2 prepared by the hard templating method (using mesoporous silica template) reveals that the new material synthesized by direct hydrothermal route is pure phase and has better wear resistance and antifriction properties. Ultra high stability of the material is the most distinguished property of the material synthesized.
In a field experiment initiated in 1991 kharif season (April–October) on an acidic soil in the Western Himalayas of India, 25% and 50% of the recommended doses of nitrogen were substituted through different organics, viz. farmyard manure (FYM), wheat cut straw and Sesbania aculeata (as green manure) in rice, followed by use of chemical fertilizers in wheat each year. The aim of this work was to study the long-term integrated effect of organics and chemical fertilizers on grain yield of rice–wheat system and soil quality. Based on five years’ moving average values, continuous cropping without fertilization or manuring (control) gave the lowest grain yields of both rice and wheat. Application of 50% N through FYM plus 50% NPK through chemical fertilizers to rice followed by 100% NPK through chemical fertilizers to wheat (T3) maintained the highest productivity of rice and wheat at about 3.4 Mg ha−1 and 3.3 Mg ha−1, respectively, as found from the pooled grain yield over the years. The highest values of organic carbon, cation exchange capacity and available N, P, K were also recorded under this treatment (T3). Soil pH was marginally affected by different treatments, while Diphenyl Triamine Penta Acetic acid extractable micronutrient cations increased over control when chemical fertilizers were applied in conjunction with different organics.
Heat stress is associated with compromised performance and productivity in poultry due to declines in feed intake, nutrient utilisation, growth rate, egg production and quality, feed efficiency and immunity. Additionally, heat stress is characterised by reduced antioxidant status in birds, resulting in increased oxidative stress. Heat stress is also linked with increased economic losses due to mortality of birds. Vitamin E is a major chain-breaking antioxidant in biological systems. An optimum response with supplementation of vitamin E in feed has been found to improve feed intake, body weight gain, feed efficiency, egg production and quality, nutrient digestibility, immune response and antioxidant status in poultry birds. This work compiles past and present information about the role of vitamin E in heat-stressed poultry.