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The aim of this investigation was to study castor, canola, and sesame vegetable oils in order to evaluate their potential use as lubricants in steel mechanical components. For this purpose, densities of each oil were evaluated using the pycnometer method, as well as their dynamic viscosities through a Brookfield DV-II rotational viscometer. Both properties were evaluated at temperatures of 25, 40 and 100 °C. Additionally, viscosity indexes were determined according to ASTM D 2270. These rheological properties were used to estimate the lubrication regime considering parameters of real contact conditions in mechanical components. Friction and wear analyses were carried out to investigate the behaviour of the vegetable oil as lubricants. Such tests were carried out at room temperature on a CSM tribometer with pin-on-disk configuration by using castor, canola and sesame oils as lubricants. AISI 4140 hardened steel against AISI 100Cr6 steel pin was used as a mechanical component. From the rheological study, it was observed that canola and sesame oils behave as dilatant fluids at the evaluated temperatures, while castor oil behaves like a Newtonian fluid at 25 and 40 °C. Castor oil showed the highest density value among oils studied, but it also exhibited the lowest value of viscosity index (271). Contrarily, sesame oil was the least dense, but it exhibited the highest viscosity index (545). On the other hand, the lubrication regime study showed that by using castor oil as a lubricant in the mechanical component (4140/100Cr6), the system worked in a mixed lubrication regime while by using canola and sesame oils the system operated in boundary lubrication conditions. Finally, the kinetic friction coefficients were different for each lubricant obtaining the lowest value with castor oil while the highest value of friction coefficient was exhibited by the sesame oil lubricant.
While there have been growing calls for historians to listen to the past, there are also significant barriers to integrating music in particular into broader historical practice. This article reflects on both the gains and difficulties of this integration, moving from an interrogation of the category of music to three case studies. These concern musical terms, compositional practices and cultures from the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries, revisiting some key debates in musicology: first, the highly charged language of sweetness deployed in the fifteenth century; second, connections discerned in nineteenth-century music history between medieval polyphony and contemporary attitudes towards time and authority; and, third, debate over the anti-Jewish implications of Handel's music, which we approach through his Dixit Dominus and a history of psalm interpretation stretching back to late antiquity. Through these case studies, we suggest the contribution of music to necessarily interdisciplinary fields including the study of temporality and emotions, but also explore how a historical hermeneutic with a long pedigree – ‘diversity of times’ (diversitas temporum) – might help to reframe arguments about musical interpretation. The article concludes by arguing that the very difficulty and slipperiness of music as a source can encourage properly reflective historical practice.
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among infectious diseases worldwide. Among the estimated cases of drug-resistant TB, approximately 60% occur in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). Among Brazilian states, primary and acquired multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) rates were the highest in Rio Grande do Sul (RS). This study aimed to perform molecular characterisation of MDR-TB in the State of RS, a high-burden Brazilian state. We performed molecular characterisation of MDR-TB cases in RS, defined by drug susceptibility testing, using 131 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DNA samples from the Central Laboratory. We carried out MIRU-VNTR 24loci, spoligotyping, sequencing of the katG, inhA and rpoB genes and RDRio sublineage identification. The most frequent families found were LAM (65.6%) and Haarlem (22.1%). RDRio deletion was observed in 42 (32%) of the M.tb isolates. Among MDR-TB cases, eight (6.1%) did not present mutations in the studied genes. In 116 (88.5%) M.tb isolates, we found mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) resistance in rpoB gene, and in 112 isolates (85.5%), we observed mutations related to isoniazid resistance in katG and inhA genes. An insertion of 12 nucleotides (CCAGAACAACCC) at the 516 codon in the rpoB gene, possibly responsible for a decreased interaction of RIF and RNA polymerase, was found in 19/131 of the isolates, belonging mostly to LAM and Haarlem families. These results enable a better understanding of the dynamics of transmission and evolution of MDR-TB in the region.
Poly (methyl methacrylate)/hydroxyapatite (PMMA/HAp) nanocomposites with HAp nanoparticles content of 12 wt.% were obtained by free-radical polymerization synthesis. Three different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide (PBO) of 3, 6, and 12 wt.% were studied. The results showed that the concentration of PBO has an effect on the performance of composites. In particular, the nanocomposite with the highest concentration of PBO presented the best mechanical and tribological behavior, as well as the lowest values of water absorption and porosity percent.
The protein nutrition of dairy cows is of great importance because of its direct influence on milk production, reproductive efficiency, and feeding cost. Eight first-lactation Holstein cows were randomly assigned to two contemporary 4 × 4 Latin squares in a 2 × 2 factorial design to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) as a protein source (0% or 1.5% of dry matter (DM)) and its combination with slow-release urea (SRU; 0% or 0.75% of DM) on DM intake and milk production and composition, as well as blood parameters and nitrogen balance. Each experimental period lasted 28 days, with 21 days of adaptation and 7 days of data collection. The diets were formulated to attend the nutritional recommendations of the National Research Council and consisted of 49% forage (47% corn silage and 2% Tifton hay) and 51% concentrate, with 16.8% CP and 1.6 Mcal net energy for lactation/kg DM. For diets without YMP, the inclusion of SRU decreased DM intake, milk production as well as N intake and balance, but did not affect efficiency of production, milk composition or most of blood parameters. On the contrary, for diets with YMP, DM intake and milk production were increased by inclusion of SRU, while minor effects were observed for milk efficiency and composition, blood parameters as well as N intake, excretion and balance. When diets with SRU were compared, the inclusion of YMP increased DM intake, 4% fat-corrected milk, and N intake and balance (P<0.05), with no differences in milk production (kg/day), milk energy, efficiency of milk production or most of the blood parameters. For diets without SRU, YMP inclusion decreased DM intake, milk production, milk energy, N intake, fecal N and N balance (P<0.05), with no effects on milk efficiency and composition, or most of blood parameters. In conclusion, the use of YMP, SRU or both as partial substitutes of soybean meal in the diet of lactating cows has no negative effects on productivity parameters.
Excitable temperament disrupts physiological events required for reproductive development in cattle, but no research has investigated the impacts of temperament on growth and puberty attainment in Bos indicus females. Hence, this experiment evaluated the effects of temperament on growth, plasma cortisol concentrations and puberty attainment in B. indicus heifers. A total of 170 Nelore heifers, weaned 4 months before the beginning of this experiment (days 0 to 91), were managed in two groups of 82 and 88 heifers each (mean ± SE; initial BW=238±2 kg, initial age=369±1 days across groups). Heifer temperament was evaluated via exit velocity on day 0. Individual exit score was calculated within each group by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning heifers with a score from 1 to 5 (1=slowest; 5=fastest heifer). Heifers were classified according to exit score as adequate (ADQ, n=96; exit score⩽3) or excitable temperament (EXC, n=74; exit score>3). Heifer BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were obtained on days 0, 31, 60 and 91. Heifer exit velocity and score were recorded again on days 31, 60 and 91. Ovarian transrectal ultrasonography was performed on days 0 and 10, 31 and 41, 60 and 70, 81 and 91 for puberty evaluation. Heifer was declared pubertal at the first 10-day interval in which a corpus luteum was detected. Exit velocity and exit score obtained on day 0 were correlated (r⩾0.64, P<0.01) with evaluations on days 31, 60 and 91. During the experiment, ADQ had greater (P<0.01) mean BCS and BW gain, and less (P<0.01) mean plasma cortisol concentration compared with EXC heifers. Temperament × time interactions were detected (P<0.01) for exit velocity and exit score, which were always greater (P<0.01) in EXC v. ADQ heifers. A temperament × time interaction was also detected (P=0.03) for puberty attainment, which was delayed in EXC v. ADQ heifers. At the end of the experiment, a greater (P<0.01) proportion of ADQ were pubertal compared with EXC heifers. In summary, B. indicus heifers classified as EXC had reduced growth, increased plasma cortisol concentrations and hindered puberty attainment compared to ADQ heifers. Moreover, exit velocity may serve as temperament selection criteria to optimize development of B. indicus replacement heifers.
The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of substrate roughness on the adhesion and tribological performance of thin TiN coatings obtained by physical vapor deposition. For that purpose, substrates of AISI H13 steel with surface finishes of 0.06, 0.28 and 0.90 μm in Ra were coated with TiN under the same coating conditions. The chemical composition of the steel, as well as that of the TiN coating, were obtained using EDS analysis. Adhesion tests were carried out following the procedure of BSi 1071-8 standard while hardness was evaluated by ASTM C 1327-03. On the other hand, dry sliding friction tests were conducted with a pin-on-disk tribometer, according to the ASTM G 99-05 standard. This study showed that the roughness of the coating increases as the substrate roughness increases. Regarding adhesion and hardness, all the samples showed an adhesion class 1 according to the standard and a hardness value of 14.51 GPa. Nevertheless, the highest substrate roughness produced the best adhesion. On the other hand, the lowest values for the friction coefficient and wear behavior were obtained by the sample with the lowest substrate roughness of 0.06 µm. In addition, it was found that friction and wear increase when the substrate roughness increases.
The energy supplied by the high-forage diets used in organic farming may be insufficient to meet the requirements of dairy cattle. However, few studies have considered this problem. The present study aimed to analyze the composition of the diets and the nutritional status (focusing on the energy–protein balance of the diets) of dairy cattle reared on organic farms in northern Spain, which are similar to other organic farming systems in temperate regions. Exhaustive information about diets was obtained from organic (ORG) and representative conventional grazing (GRZ) and conventional no-grazing (CNG) farms. Samples of feed from the respective farms were analyzed to determine the composition. Overall, the diets used on the ORG farms were very different from those used on the CNG farms, although the difference was not as evident for GRZ. The CNG farms were characterized by a higher total dry matter intake with a high proportion of concentrate feed, maize silage and forage silage. By contrast, on ORG and GRZ farms, the forage, pasture and fibre intake were the most important variables. The ration used on ORG farms contained a significantly higher percentage of ADF and lower organic matter (OM) content than the rations used in both of the conventional farming systems, indicating that the diets in the former were less digestible. Although the protein concentration in the diets used on the grazing farms (ORG and GRZ) was higher than those used on CNG farms, the protein intake was similar. The results indicated an imbalance between energy and protein due to the low level of energy provided by the ORG diets, suggesting that more microbial protein could be synthesized from the available rumen-degraded dietary nitrogen if rumen-fermentable OM was not limiting. The imbalance between energy and protein led to a reduced amount of total digestible protein reaching the intestine and a lower milk yield per kilogram of CP intake on the ORG farms. In order to improve the protein use efficiency and consequently to reduce the loss of nitrogen to the environment, organic farming should aim to increase the energy content of cattle diets by improving forage quality and formulating rations with more balanced combinations of forage and grain.
There is a growing concern about the mental health of children and young people (CYP) in the UK, with increasing demand for counselling services, admissions for self-harm and referrals to mental health services. We investigated whether there have been similar recent trends in selected mental health outcomes among CYP in national health surveys from England, Scotland and Wales.
Data were analysed from 140 830 participants (4–24 years, stratified into 4–12, 13–15, 16–24 years) in 36 national surveys in England, Scotland and Wales, 1995–2014. Regression models were used to examine time trends in seven parent/self-reported variables: general health, any long-standing health condition, long-standing mental health condition; Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Score (WEMWBS), above-threshold Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Total (SDQT) score, SDQ Emotion (SDQE) score, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) score.
Across all participants aged 4–24, long-standing mental health conditions increased in England (0.8–4.8% over 19 years), Scotland (2.3–6.0%, 11 years) and Wales (2.6–4.1%, 7 years) (all p < 0.001). Among young children (4–12 years), the proportion reporting high SDQT and SDQE scores decreased significantly among both boys and girls in England [SDQE: odds ratio (OR) 0.97 (0.96–0.98), p < 0.001] and girls in Scotland [SDQE: OR 0.96 (0.93–0.99), p = 0.005]. The proportion with high SDQE scores (13–15 years) decreased in England [OR 0.98 (0.96–0.99), p = 0.006] but increased in Wales [OR 1.07 (1.03–1.10), p < 0.001]. The proportion with high GHQ scores decreased among English women (16–24 years) [OR 0.98 (0.98–0.99), p = 0.002].
Despite a striking increase in the reported prevalence of long-standing mental health conditions among UK CYP, there was relatively little change in questionnaire scores reflecting psychological distress and emotional well-being.
An experimental Taenia crassiceps mouse model was used to assess the role of Taenia solium metacestode factor (Fac) in human neurocysticercosis. Intraperitoneal infection with T. crassiceps metacestodes or subcutaneous inoculation with a T. crassiceps metacestode factor (Fac) produced significant impairment of performance (learning) in the Barnes maze and induced bilateral hippocampal sclerosis in mice. Several staining techniques revealed important cell dispersion, extensive apoptosis and cell loss in the dentate gyrus, hilus and CA1-CA3 regions of both hippocampi, as well as intense deterioration of the adjacent cortex. An outstanding disruption of its histoarchitecture in the surrounding tissue of all these regions and apoptosis of the endothelial cells were also observed.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of incubating semen for different periods (90, 270 or 450 min) with or without Trolox® (100 or 150 µM) on the quality of sperm from Saimiri collinsi. Sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) were evaluated in both fresh semen and semen incubated for different time periods, i.e. 90, 270 or 450 min of incubation. Supplementation of semen extender with Trolox® 100 µM improved sperm motility, vigour and PMI for up to 270 min of incubation.
The goal of this study was to analyse the spatial pattern of tuberculosis (TB) mortality using different approaches, namely: mortality rates (MR), spatial relative risks (RR) and Bayesian rates (Global and Local) and their association with human development index (HDI), Global and its three dimensions: education, longevity and income. An ecological study was developed in Curitiba, Brazil based on data from Mortality Information System (2008–2014). Spatial scan statistics were used to compute RR and identify high-risk clusters. Bivariate Local Indicator of Spatial Associations was used to assess associations. MR ranged between 0 and 25.24/100.000 with a mean (standard deviation) of 1.07 (2.66). Corresponding values for spatial RR were 0–27.46, 1.2 (2.99) and for Bayesian rates (Global and Local) were 0.49–1.66, 0.90 (0.19) and 0–6.59, 0.98 (0.80). High-risk clusters were identified for all variables, except for HDI-income and Global Bayesian rate. Significant negative spatial relations were found between MR and income; between RR and HDI global, longevity and income; and Bayesian rates with all variables. Some areas presented different patterns: low social development/low risk and high risk/high development. These results demonstrate that social development variables should be considered, in mortality due TB.
Isotopic composition of leaf carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) is determined by biotic and abiotic factors. In order to determine the influence of leaf habit and site on leaf δ13C and δ15N in the understorey of two Atlantic forests in Brazil that differ in annual precipitation (1200 and 1900 mm), we measured these isotopes in the shaded understorey of 38 tropical tree species (20 in the 1200-mm site and 18 in the 1900-mm site). Mean site values for δ15N were significantly lower at the 1200-mm site (−1.4‰) compared with the 1900-mm site (+3.0‰), and δ13C was significantly greater in the 1200-mm site (−30.4‰) than in the 1900-mm site (−31.6‰). Leaf C concentration was greater and leaf N concentration was lower at 1200-mm than at 1900-mm. Leaf δ15N was negatively correlated with δ13C across the two sites. Leaf δ13C and δ15N of evergreen and deciduous species were not significantly different within a site. No significant phylogenetic signal for any traits among the study species was found. Overall, site differences were the main factor distinguishing traits among species, suggesting strong functional convergence to local climate and soils within each site for individuals in the shaded understorey.
We show that on-off intermittency in solar and stellar cycles is a result of amplitude-phase synchronization in multiscale interactions in solar/stellar dynamos or magnetorotational instability which leads to the formation of kinematic and magnetic coherent structures, and the novel techniques of Lagrangian coherent structures can detect transport barriers and vortices such as magnetic flux tubes/ropes in solar and stellar turbulence with high accuracy.
Leishmaniases is a tropical disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania for which the current treatment is expensive, besides increasing reports of parasite resistance. This study investigated the anti-Leishmania amazonensis activity of the essential oil from Aloysia gratissima (AgEO) and guaiol, the major sesquiterpene constituent in the oil. Our results showed that AgEO killed promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes at an IC50 of 25 and 0·16 µg mL−1, respectively, while guaiol killed amastigotes at an IC50 of 0·01 µg mL−1. Both AgEO and guaiol were safe for macrophages up to 100 µg mL−1, as evaluated by the dehydrogenase activity, membrane integrity and phagocytic capacity. AgEO and guaiol did not induce nitrite oxide (NO) in resting macrophages and inhibited the production of NO in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. The ultrastructural analysis suggested that AgEO and guaiol act directly on parasites, affecting promastigotes kinetoplast, mitochondrial matrix and plasma membrane. Together, these results pointed out that AgEO and guaiol could be promising candidates to develop anti-Leishmania drugs.
New remote sensing technologies have provided unprecedented results in vineyard monitoring. The aim of this work was to evaluate different sources of images and processing methodologies to describe spatial variability of spectral-based and canopy-based vegetation indices within a vineyard, and their relationship with productive and qualitative vine parameters. Comparison between image-derived indices from Sentinel 2 NDVI, unfiltered and filtered UAV NDVI and with agronomic features have been performed. UAV images allow calculating new non-spectral indices based on canopy architecture that provide additional and useful information to the growers with regards to within-vineyard management zone delineation.
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals’ species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil. Out of 322 bat samples collected, while 17 (5·28%) were positive to quantitative PCR for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene, 45 samples (13·97%) were positive to cPCR assays for hemoplasmas based on 16S rRNA gene. While seven sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG) (n = 3), gltA (n = 2), rpoB (n = 1), ftsZ (n = 1), five 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for hemoplasmas. In the phylogenetic analysis, the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats sampled in Latin America countries. All five hemoplasmas sequences clustered together as a monophyletic group by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses. The present work showed the first evidence of circulation of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas among bats in Brazil.
We aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of ACP-118® extender with the antioxidant catalase (10 and 50 µg/ml) on Sapajus apella sperm motility, vigour, and plasma membrane integrity during the processes of seminal liquefaction, cooling, and freezing. Catalase did not affect any of the evaluated parameters after semen dilution or cooling. Cryopreserved sperm in the presence of 50 µg/ml catalase presented a plasma membrane integrity similar to that fresh sperm, however.
With emergence of nanotechnology, it is possible to control interfaces and flow at nanoscale. This is of particular interest in the Oil and Gas industry (O&G), where nanoscience can be applied on processes such as Enhance Oil Recovery (EOR) and oil mitigation. On this direction, one of potential strategies is the so called Nano-EOR based on surface drive flow, where mobilization of hydrocarbons trapped at the pore scale can be favored by controlling by the chemical environment through “wettability modifiers”, such as functionalized nanoparticles (NP) and surfactants. The challenge consists then to search for optimal functionalized NP for oil recovery and mitigation at the harsh conditions found in oil reservoirs. Here, we introduce a hierarchical computational protocol based on the role of NP interfacial and wetting properties within oil/brine/rock interfaces to the fluid displacement in pore network models (PNMs). This integrated multiscale computational protocol ranges from first principles calculations, to determine and benchmark interatomic potentials, which are coupled with molecular dynamics (MD) to characterize the descriptors (interfacial properties and viscosity). The MD results are then mapped into Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) simulation parameters to model the oil displacement process in PNMs at the microscale. Here, we show that this multiscale protocol coupled with Machine Learning techniques can be a resourceful tool to explore the potentialities of chemical additives, such as NP and surfactants, for the oil recovery process and investigate the effects of interfacial tension and wetting properties on the fluid behavior at both nano and microscales.