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Recent Anglophone scholarship has successfully shown that Nietzsche's thought makes important contributions to a wide range of contemporary philosophical debates. In so doing, however, scholarship has lost sight of another important feature of Nietzsche's project, namely his desire to challenge the very conception of philosophy that has been used to assess his merits as a philosopher. In other words, contemporary scholarship has overlooked Nietzsche's contributions to metaphilosophy, i.e. debates around the nature, methods, and aims of philosophy. This important new collection of essays brings together an international group of distinguished scholars to explore and discuss these contributions and debates. It will appeal to anyone interested in metaphilosophy, Nietzsche studies, German studies, or intellectual history.
The assessment of the completeness of milk-out in dairy cows is one of the indicators used to evaluate and optimise the milking process. A number of different methods and thresholds are available for this purpose, but procedures and validation of the methods are not always described in detail, and may vary between studies. The objective of this study was to introduce and evaluate a new, precisely defined hand-milking method (DEFINED) and to compare its outcome with two commonly applied methods to assess the completeness of milking: visual scoring of the degree of quarter filling (VISUAL) and quantitative assessment of the number of easy strips (EASYSTRIPS). Each of the three methods was applied in 131 Holstein cows of six dairy herds in northern Germany. The assessment of milk-out was carried out by three experienced but non-regular milkers (evaluators). Each evaluator visited the six herds once during afternoon milking. To avoid any transitions, the interval between visits of two evaluators was at least 2 days. Maximum hand-milking time per cow was set to 60 s. The total strip yield collected in 60 s (SY60) by the application of a strip frequency of 1 Hz was used as a reference for the amount of milk left in the investigated quarter after machine-milking. The three methods were evaluated by analysing their statistical relationship with SY60, and by ranking their suitability for quantitative or qualitative assessment of milk-out. VISUAL and SY60 were not related, indicating that VISUAL was unsuitable for estimating the amount of milk left actually in the udder quarters. The strip yield in 15 s (DEFINED) and SY60 was significantly related, but results varied among evaluators. With regard to EASYSTRIPS, a significant relationship with SY60 was found, but the results were influenced by evaluator and herd. The findings of this study imply that DEFINED allows a rapid and farm-independent quantitative estimate of the post-milking strip yield. Likewise, EASYSTRIPS was meaningful in assessing milk-out of quarters in a given herd, whereas VISUAL allowed neither a quantitative nor a qualitative assessment of post-milking strip yield or milk-out. Thresholds for complete or incomplete milk-out by DEFINED must be lower than those commonly applied in 15 s of post-milking.
Polarimetric studies of pulsars at low radio frequencies provide important observational insights into the pulsar emission mechanism and beam models, and probe the properties of the magneto-ionic interstellar medium (ISM). Aperture arrays are the main form of next-generation low-frequency telescopes, including the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). These require a distinctly different approach to data processing (e.g. calibration and beamforming) compared to traditional dish antennas. As the second paper of this series, we present a verification of the MWA’s pulsar polarimetry capability, using two bright southern pulsars, PSRs J0742–2822 and J1752–2806. Our observations simultaneously cover multiple frequencies (76–313 MHz) and were taken at multiple zenith angles (ZA) during a single night for each pulsar. We show that the MWA can be reliably calibrated for ZA ≲45° and frequencies ≲270 MHz. We present the polarimetric profiles for PSRs J0742–2822 and J1752–2806 at frequencies lower than 300 MHz for the first time, along with an analysis of the linear polarisation degree and pulse profile evolution with frequency. For PSR J0742–2822, the measured degree of linear polarisation shows a rapid decrease at low frequencies, in contrast with the generally expected trend, which can be attributed to depolarisation effects from small-scale, turbulent, magneto-ionic ISM components. This effect has not been widely explored for pulsars in general and will be further investigated in future work.
Infections due to Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Salmonella pose a significant health burden in Canada, resulting in major costs to the health care system and economic impacts due to lost productivity resulting from illness. Recent literature suggests that climate may play a role in the prevalence of these pathogens along the food chain. This study used integrated surveillance data to examine associations between weather variables, serving as a proxy for climate, in agricultural areas and Campylobacter, generic E. coli and Salmonella contamination on samples of beef, poultry and swine meat products in Canada. Various temperature metrics (average, maximum and variability) were correlated with Campylobacter prevalence along the food chain. The prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella was correlated with both precipitation and temperatures metrics; however, analysis for E. coli was limited to beef and swine meats at retail settings, because prevalence in other combinations approached 100%, which obviated further analysis. Campylobacter contamination in poultry and swine at abattoir and retail settings demonstrated a seasonal trend, with increased prevalence generally from June or July through November, compared to the baseline month of December. Based on these analyses, Campylobacter is the most likely foodborne bacteria studied whose occurrence in meat products is affected by climatic changes in Canada. An exploratory analysis of data at the provincial scale, using Ontario as an example, revealed similar directional relationships between climate and bacterial prevalence.
Introduction: Acute migraine headaches are common causes of presentation to the emergency department (ED). There is great variability in the efficacy of the available parenteral agents to manage pain, though triptans are among the recommended treatments. The objective of this systematic review was to update a previous review examining the effectiveness of parenteral agents for the treatment of acute migraine in the ED or equivalent acute care setting; our review examined pain management in emergency settings and assessed the effectiveness of triptan agents. Methods: A comprehensive search of 10 electronic databases and grey literature was conducted to supplement the previous systematic review. Two independent reviewers completed study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Any discrepancies were resolved by third party adjudication. Pain scale scores were analyzed using standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated using a random effects model; heterogeneity (I2) was reported. Results: Titles and abstracts of 5039 unique studies were reviewed, of which, 51 studies were included. Sixty-four studies from the original review were included, resulting in a total of 115 included studies. Pain was measured within the ED or equivalent acute care setting using a variety of pain scales, most commonly the 0-10 cm or 100 mm visual analog scale. Four studies compared pain scores between patients receiving sumatriptan vs. other agents, of which, patients receiving sumatriptan reported higher pain scale scores (SMD = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.04, 1.02; I2 = 80%). In particular, patients receiving sumatriptan reported higher pain scale scores than patients receiving metoclopramide (SMD = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.31, 1.04; n = 1) or ketorolac (SMD = 1.39; 95% CI: 0.56, 2.21; n = 1). Overall, studies comparing anti-inflammatory agents (i.e., ketorolac or dexketoprofen) to other agents reported improved pain scale scores among patients receiving anti-inflammatory agents (SMD = -0.38; 95% CI: -0.73, -0.03; I2 = 66%; n = 5). Conclusion: Limited evidence suggests that patients treated with metoclopramide or anti-inflammatory agents experience greater pain reduction compared to patients treated with sumatriptan. This review will conduct a network analysis of parenteral agents to examine the comparative effectiveness of parenteral agents to manage pain among patients with acute migraine. Further analysis will also consider the balance between efficacy and adverse events.
Introduction: Although a variety of parenteral agents exist for the treatment of acute migraine, relapse after an emergency department (ED) visit is still a common occurrence. The objective of this systematic review was to update a previous review examining the effectiveness of parenteral agents for the treatment of acute migraine in the ED or equivalent acute care setting; our review focused on those studies aiming a reduction in relapse after an ED visit. Methods: A comprehensive search of 10 electronic databases and grey literature was conducted to identify comparative studies to supplement the previous systematic review. Two independent reviewers completed study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Any discrepancies were resolved by third party adjudication. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model and heterogeneity (I2) was reported. Results: Titles and abstracts of 5039 unique studies were reviewed, of which, 51 studies were included. Sixty-four studies from the original review were included, resulting in a total of 115 included studies. Relapse was reported in 44 (38%) included studies and occurred commonly in patients receiving placebo or no interventions (median = 39%; IQR: 14%, 47%). Overall, no differences in headache relapse were found between patients receiving sumatriptan or placebo (RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.17; I2 = 93%; n = 8). Conversely, patients receiving neuroleptic agents experienced fewer relapses compared to placebo (RR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.58; I2 = 0%; n = 3); however, patients receiving neuroleptics reported an increase in adverse events (RR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.00; I2 = 0%; n = 3). Compared to placebo, patients receiving dexamethasone were less likely to experience a headache recurrence (RR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.95; I2 = 60%, n = 9); however, no differences were found in reported adverse events (RR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.47; I2 = 0%; n = 3). Conclusion: Relapse is a common occurrence for patients with migraine headaches. This review found patients receiving neuroleptics or dexamethasone experienced fewer headache recurrences. Conversely, triptan agents appear to have minimal effect on reducing the risk for headache recurrence following discharge from an acute care setting. Limited available data on adverse events is an important limitation to inform decision-making. Guidelines should be revised to reflect these results.
The aim of our study was to describe and to investigate the factors associated with glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) acquisition during a single-strain outbreak which occurred in several wards of hospital from September 2013 to January 2014. We designed a case–control study. Analyses were performed using Bayesian methods. Univariate logistic regressions with informative priors from published studies were conducted. A multivariate model was build including variables with a probability of odd-ratio exceeding one (Pr) >85% or <15%. Thirteen cases and 52 controls were recruited. The description of this outbreak highlighted the importance to quickly detect patients at risk of GRE carriage in order to implement the isolation measures and to transfer to dedicated department if they are effectively carriers. Following multivariate analysis, antibiotics during hospitalisation (Pr = 0.968), number of hospitalisation days in the year (Pr = 0.964), antacids intake (Pr = 0.878) (with a risk increase), immunosuppression (Pr = 0.026) and isolation measures (Pr = 0.003) (both with protective effect) were associated with GRE acquisition. The use of Bayesian statistics was useful because of our study's small population size and prior information availability.
In 2014, the Southeastern Archaeological Conference (SEAC) conducted a sexual harassment survey of its membership. The survey's goal was to investigate whether sexual harassment had occurred among its members, and if so, to document the rate and demographics of harassment. Our findings include a high (66%) level of harassment, primarily among women, with an additional 13% of respondents reporting sexual assault. This article provides an overview of the survey and responses. Additionally, we analyze survey data aimed at capturing change over time in harassment and assault, correlation between field and non-field tasks and harassment and assault, and correlation between gender of supervisor and harassment and assault. We also discuss the effects of harassment and assault on careers. We conclude with suggestions for decreasing the rate of harassment and assault and urge professional archaeological organizations to document sexual harassment and assault to mitigate the effects on their members and on the discipline as a whole.
Niche theory predicts that when two species exhibit major niche overlap, one will eventually be eliminated through competitive exclusion. Thus, some degree of niche specialization is required to facilitate coexistence. We examined whether two important seed bank pathogens on the invasive winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass, downy brome) exhibit niche specialization. These pathogens utilize seed resources in complementary ways. Pyrenophora semeniperda is specialized to attack dormant seeds. It penetrates directly through the seed coverings. Hyphae ramify first through the endosperm and then throughout the seed. Seed death results as the embryo is consumed. In contrast, the Fusarium seed rot pathogen (Fusarium sp.) is specialized to attack non-dormant seeds in the early stages of germination. It cannot penetrate seed coverings directly. Instead, it responds to a cue emanating from the radicle end with directional hyphal growth and subsequent penetration at the point of radicle emergence, causing seed death. Non-dormant seeds usually escape P. semeniperda through germination even if infected because it develops more slowly than Fusarium. When water stress slows non-dormant seed germination, both P. semeniperda and Fusarium can attack and cause seed mortality more effectively. The Fusarium seed rot pathogen can sometimes reach epidemic levels and may result in B. tectorum stand failure (‘die-off’). Stands usually re-establish from the persistent seed bank, but if P. semeniperda has also reached high levels and eliminated the seed bank, a die-off can persist indefinitely.
The Pioche Formation of SE Nevada preserves a diverse soft-bodied fauna from the early and middle Cambrian (Series 2–3: Stage 4–5). While the fauna is dominated by arthropods, animals belonging to other taxa can be found. Here we document the first occurrence of Herpetogaster collinsi outside the Burgess Shale. Further, the specimens are from the Nephrolenellus multinodus biozone and thus represent the oldest occurrence of the species, as well as possibly the earliest soft-bodied deuterostomes in Laurentia.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
Characterisation of genetic diversity in a large number of European pig populations has been undertaken with EC support. The populations sampled included local (rare) breeds, national varieties of the major international breeds, commercial lines and the Chinese Meishan breed. A second phase of the project will sample a further 50 Chinese breeds. Neutral genetic markers (AFLP and microsatellites), with individual or bulk typing, were used and compared.
DNA from 59 European pig populations was extracted on samples of about 50 individuals per population. Individuals were typed for 50 microsatellites and for 148 AFLP bands. A subset of 25 populations was typed for 20 microsatellites on pools of DNA. Allele frequencies were estimated by direct allele counting for the co-dominant markers. Frequencies of AFLP negative alleles (absent bands) were obtained by taking the square root of absent band frequencies. Within-breed variability was summarised using standard statistics: expected and observed heterozygosity, mean observed and effective numbers of alleles, and F statistics. Between-breed diversity analysis was based on a bootstrapped Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree derived from Reynolds distances (DR). The standard distance of Nei (DS) was also calculated.
Characterization of three vendor’s bulk semi-insulating GaN:Fe wafers, grown by either hydride vapor phase epitaxy or the ammonothermal method, was performed using: scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, high resolution X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, and high voltage testing. Although the Fe doping level is significantly different for each growth method, both are promising for the fabrication of PCSS devices operating in the lock-on mode.
We have explored the thermodynamics of compressed magnetized plasmas in laboratory experiments and we call these studies ‘magnetothermodynamics’. The experiments are carried out in the Swarthmore Spheromak eXperiment device. In this device, a magnetized plasma source is located at one end and at the other end, a closed conducting can is installed. We generate parcels of magnetized plasma and observe their compression against the end wall of the conducting cylinder. The plasma parameters such as plasma density, temperature and magnetic field are measured during compression using HeNe laser interferometry, ion Doppler spectroscopy and a linear
probe array, respectively. To identify the instances of ion heating during compression, a PV diagram is constructed using measured density, temperature and a proxy for the volume of the magnetized plasma. Different equations of state are analysed to evaluate the adiabatic nature of the compressed plasma. A three-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic code (NIMROD) is employed to simulate the twisted Taylor states and shows stagnation against the end wall of the closed conducting can. The simulation results are consistent to what we observe in our experiments.
The approval of valbenazine (INGREZZA; VBZ) for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD) in adults was based on results from double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled trials. These studies demonstrated the efficacy of once-daily VBZ based on intent-to-treat analyses. However, because many different types ofpatients can develop TD, subgroup analyses describing treatment outcomes by various patient factors were also conducted.
Data were pooled from three 6-week trials: KINECT (NCT01688037), KINECT 2 (NCT01733121), KINECT 3 (NCT02274558), with outcomes analyzed by VBZ dose (80 mg, 40 mg) and PBO. Descriptive analyses conducted using the Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) total score included: mean change from baseline to Week 6; and AIMS response, defined as 50% improvement from baseline to Week 6. Subgroups were defined as follows: age (<55 years, ≥55 years), sex (male, female), psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder, mood disorder), CYP2D6 genotype (poor metabolizer [PM], non-PM), body mass index (BMI) (<18.5, 18.5 to <25, 25 to <30, ≥30 kg/m2), concomitant antipsychotic (yes, no); type of antipsychotic (atypical, typical/both); lifetime history of suicidality (yes, no); concomitant anticholinergic (yes, no); TD duration (<7 years, ≥7 years).
The pooled population included 373 participants (VBZ 80 mg, n=101; VBZ 40 mg, n=114; PBO, n=158). Mean improvements from baseline to Week 6 in AIMS total score were greater overall with VBZ compared to PBO. Within subgroup categories, AIMS score improvement with VBZ 80 mg (recommended dose) was greater in CYP2D6 PMs (n=17; 80 mg, -6.8; 40 mg, 2.4; PBO, 0.5), participants taking no concomitant antipsychotics (n=64; 80 mg, -4.9; 40 mg, -3.0; PBO, 0.0), and overweight participants (BMI 25 to <30 kg/m2, n=115; 80 mg, -4.2; 40 mg, 2.7; PBO, -0.7). Overweight participants also had the highest AIMS response rates at Week 6 (80 mg, 57.7%; 40 mg, 31.6%; PBO, 11.8%), followed by participants taking typical/both antipsychotics (n=67; 80 mg, 57.1%; 40 mg, 20.0%; PBO, 25.0%), and those taking anticholinergics (n=126; 80 mg, 52.9%; 40 mg, 22.7%; PBO, 6.3%).
These preliminary analyses indicate that TD improvements were generally greater with VBZ than PBO across most subgroups. However, the small sizes of some subgroups may need to be considered when interpreting results. Additional analyses within subgroup categories are ongoing and will be presented at the meeting.
This study was funded by Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc.
The Murchison Widefield Array, and its recently developed Voltage Capture System, facilitates extending the low-frequency range of pulsar observations at high-time and -frequency resolution in the Southern Hemisphere, providing further information about pulsars and the ISM. We present the results of an initial time-resolved census of known pulsars using the Murchison Widefield Array. To significantly reduce the processing load, we incoherently sum the detected powers from the 128 Murchison Widefield Array tiles, which yields ~10% of the attainable sensitivity of the coherent sum. This preserves the large field-of-view (~450 deg2 at 185 MHz), allowing multiple pulsars to be observed simultaneously. We developed a WIde-field Pulsar Pipeline that processes the data from each observation and automatically folds every known pulsar located within the beam. We have detected 50 pulsars to date, 6 of which are millisecond pulsars. This is consistent with our expectation, given the telescope sensitivity and the sky coverage of the processed data (~17 000 deg2). For 10 pulsars, we present the lowest frequency detections published. For a subset of the pulsars, we present multi-frequency pulse profiles by combining our data with published profiles from other telescopes. Since the Murchison Widefield Array is a low-frequency precursor to the Square Kilometre Array, we use our census results to forecast that a survey using the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array Phase 1 can potentially detect around 9 400 pulsars.
The molecular, neurobiological, and physical health impacts of child maltreatment are well established, yet mechanistic pathways remain inadequately defined. Telomere length (TL) decline is an emerging molecular indicator of stress exposure with definitive links to negative health outcomes in maltreated individuals. The multiple confounders endemic to human maltreatment research impede the identification of causal pathways. This study leverages a unique randomized, cross-foster, study design in a naturalistic translational nonhuman primate model of infant maltreatment. At birth, newborn macaques were randomly assigned to either a maltreating or a competent control mother, balancing for sex, biological mother parenting history, and social rank. Offspring TL was measured longitudinally across the first 6 months of life (infancy) from peripheral blood. Hair cortisol accumulation was also determined at 6, 12, and 18 months of age. TL decline was greater in animals randomized to maltreatment, but also interacted with biological mother group. Shorter TL at 6 months was associated with higher mean cortisol levels through 18 months (juvenile period) when controlling for relevant covariates. These results suggest that even under the equivalent social, nutritional, and environmental conditions feasible in naturalistic translational nonhuman primate models, early adverse caregiving results in lasting molecular scars that foreshadow elevated health risk and physiologic dysregulation.